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In the year following, 1668, Casimir, weary of the fatigues of government, or more probably disgusted with the reinonstrances of Polis freedom, and that general dissatisfaction which his government gave, determined to abdicate the crown, and retire to an abbey in France. As his Speech to the Diet, before his abdication, and relative to it, is somewhat extraordinary, we shall give it our Readers : though poffibly it is no more the Speech of Casimir, than Livy's Speeches were those of the heroes to whoin he ascribes them,

People of Poland! "It is now two hundred and eighty years that you have • been governed by my family. The reign of

is past, and mine is just going to expire. Fatigued by the labours of war, the cares of the cabinet, and the weight of

age ; oppressed with the burdens and sollicitudes of a reign • of twenty-one years, I, your King and Father, return in

to your hands, what the world esteems above all things, a • Crown; and chuse for my throne fix feet of earth, where I • shall sleep in peace with my fathers. When you shew my • tomb to your children, tell them that I was the foremost in

batue, and the last in retreat ; that I renounced regal gran• deur for the good of my country, and restored my fceptre ( to those who gave it me. It was your affection for me that (exalted me to the highest rank, and it is my affection for

you that makes me quit it. Many of my predecessors have • transmitted the sceptre to their children or brothers; and I " deliver it to my country, whose child and father I have « been: and from this moment I descend from the pinnacle < of greatness to mix with the inferior throng; from a ruler, I become a subject; from your King, your fellow citizen,

and leave my throne to whoever you shall think worthy to <fill it. The Republic will make a good choice, and be blessed with prosperity, if Heaven listens to the prayers

I (Thall put up in the folitude to which I am retiring. No

thing remains but that I thank the Republic for all the fa

vours it has done me, for all the advice it has given me, (for all the loyalty it has thewn me; and if, contrary to my intention, I have had the unhappiness of displeafing any, I desire them to impute it to the misfortune of the times, or

to fate, and to forgive me, as I forgive all who may have < offended me. I bid you all adieu, and bear you all in my

affections. Distance of place may separate me from the
Republic, but my heart shall always be with that affectionate
parent'; and. I ordain that my ashes be deposited in her




Such was the abdicating speech of Casimir ; but when he , said his heart should always be with the Republic of Poland, he did not consider what future attachments it might have. For afterwards, when he retired into France, became prior of two abbies, and was privately married to a washer-woman, at his death he bequeathed his heart to France, and his body only to Poland.

Gafimir was succeeded in the Kingdom of Poland by the Atill weaker and more unfortunate Michael. The Poles finding this prince unfit to govern, formed a confederacy to depose him. In this confederacy were the principal nobility, and among the reft Sobieski. The King, however, preserved a party in his favour among the equestrian, or lower order of nobility, upon the strength of which he ventured to profcribe all those who were of the confederacy ; and a price was fet on the head of Sobieski. But our Hero being at the head of the veteran army, who regarded him much more than they did the King, was the less exposed to danger.

During these unhappy divisions in Poland, the Turks and Tartars invaded that country with two formidable armies. Upon this appearance of public danger, Sobieski, like a truly great man, forgot all civil animosity,

and turned his attention solely to the defence of his country, and of that King who had offered a price for his life. The Tartarian army, which confifted of 130,000 men, and was divided into three columns, he totally routed in three several battles. After this he would probably have served the Turks in the same manner, had not the mean-spirited Michael, who all this while had not once moved againft the enemy, basely purchased a peace by making himself and his country the flaves of the Porte. But notwithstanding the pufillanimity of their King, the hearts of the Poles were indignant of the disgrace, and particularly the foul of Sobieski could not bear it. Before the first payment of tribute was made, he marched at the head of the Poles against the Turkish army, which were encamped on the frontiers of Poland, at Choczin. The Turkish army confifteå of 80,000, and that of Sobieski of little more than half that number. He neverthelefs gave them a total overthrow, and bynalized himself as much by the personal courage of a private soldier, as by the skill and conduct of a commander.

Upon the death of Michael, which happened the day before the battle of Chorzin, the Republic of Poland turned its eyes on Sobieski, and rewarded his extraordinary merit :with the Kingdom. Our Historian gives us an Extract from a Dif


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course, which, on this occasion, was delivered by way of Coronation Sermon, by the Palatine of Culm. As a curiosity it may possibly entertain our Readers,

though it should give them no very favourable idea of Polish Oratory. *

As St. John antiently prepared the way before the Meffias, • fo the Republic, by delivering the diploma of Royalty to " John Sobieski, prepares the way before her Lord, whose

is John. The Virgin Mary blessed John in his mother's womb, and Queen Louisa Maria, wife of Casimir,

heaped blessings upon King John, by marrying him to Mary '. D’Arguien, that.ocean of angelical qualities. The Re

public was deceived in the former election, by chusing Mi"chael; but it now corrects that error by taking John. John s is a name of grace which will re-establish military disci

pline, and the fortune of Poland. The Moldavians and «Walacbians have paid homage to John, and taught us to 6.worship him ourselves as the saviour of all Christendom.

The sun generally appears when the clouds are gone, but

frequently produces others. The new fun which rises in 4 our horizon promises us bread, and not thunder. We have "waited for the holy spirit on the feast of Pentecost, and have "' received him in the person of John. On the same day that 6 the church celebrates the festival of God our Saviour, con

cealed under the form of bread, behold we chuse ourselves ( another Saviour under the figure of a man. It was on a

Saturday, the eve of the feast of the Trinity, that we all concurred in electing John, who is also Trinity himself,

being our Son, our Father, and our King. ' It is not merely .by chance that the election was delayed to the time of thefe

great festivals. That of the Trinity indicates that the

family of John will reign at least three hundred years : God * grant it may be three thousand! It is the seed of Jacob

which shall never be extinct, but be for ever a blessing to

the Republic, &c.' This Preacher, however, was not a true Prophet.

When John was elected to the thronc of Poland, he did not sit down to enjoy the delights of regal luxury and magnifcence; his thoughts seemed wholly bent on redeeming the honour and antient dominions of his country. Instead, thèrefore, of waiting for the pomp of a coronation, he marched

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* 'It appears, however, that when Religion is not concerned, the Poles make no contemptible figure in Oratory; particularly in their speeches in defence of their Liberties, which are animated with a noble spirit.

his army into the Ukraine, with a design to recoverit; which he would probably have effected, had he not been deserted by the Lithuanian troops.

The desperate fituation he was in at Zurawno, where he was blocked up by an army of 200,000 Turks and Tartars, proved him in the event no less a politician than a hero. Our Historian has mentioned several reasons that might incline the Turkish General to peace; but as none of them seem to be sufficiently weighty, there might probably be some particular reasons, the effect of Fohn's policy, that are not known,

In the behaviour of the Palatine of Culm, who went as Ambassador to the Porte to ratify this peace, we have a curious instance of the vanity and oftentation of the Polish nobility. He ordered his horses to be fhod with filver, and the shoes to be slightly fastened with two nails, that in going to the Vizir's palace they might be lost and picked up by the gaping mob. One of these Thoes being brought to the Vizir, This infidel (faid he) has shoes of filver, but a head of lead'; since being sent bither by an indigent Republic, he does not make a better use of his money. The peace that was now confirmed continued for some years, and Jobn enjoyed the fruits of his military toils in quiet on the throne. Book V. page 276, the Abbé regates us with the ftory of a Ghoft. * In 1681, " while the Diet was fitting, there happened an event which would be unworthy of the gravity of history, if it were not connected with public affairs. In the province of Volhinia, a Ghoft that was said to appear in the house of a Polish nobleman, made such a noife as echoed over all the neighbouring provinces. The dead man said many things that affected the reputation of the living and the credit of the government. He even went so far as to or der, in the name of God, some things to be done which'dif! pleased the King. The Jesuit Grievojz, chaplain to the Grand General, attested the reality of the Apparition ; but thë King dispatched to the place an intelligent officer of the army, who had some difficulty to persuade himself, that the irres vocable laws of the other world were suspended merely to frighten the inhabitants of this. The affair turned out, as it always does, to be a meer comedy, which however ended tragically when the commillioner came to make his report. : The King was at that instant surrounded with courtiers, and his confessor, Pikarski, another Jefuit, who had already had the direction of the consciences of two Kings, standing next him, Every one listened attentively, to the history and contrivance


of the trick. At the unravelling of the plot, the King cafting an angry look at the manager of his conscience, addressed him in these words: Well, what does your rafral, Gnirvofz, fog to that? The director, who preached up patience and Christian resolution to every one else, was himfdf fo ftruck with this blow, that he survived it only eight days.”

In 1683 Mahomet IV. meditated the conquest of the western empire. Leopold, then Emperor, an unwarlike prince, thought it neceffary to strengthen his hands, by a treaty, offensive and defensive, with John. The Poles having enjoyed peace upwards of fix years, the wounds they had received from the Turks and Tartars were pretty well healed; but it was certainly imprudent for them to break that peace, and expose themselves again to the ravages of these barbarians. Leopold, however, prevailed with John, by a motive which it was difficult for human nature to withstand. He promised him an Archduchess for his fon Prince James, and through his influ. ence, to continue his family on the throne of Poland, by he+ reditary fucceffion. If yohn, as his Historian seems to think, was actually induced by these motives to break with the Portes he acted a faithless part with refpect to his Kingdom, and infringed his elective oath, which was, that he should not take even the most distant step towards the appointment of his successor. This charge his Historian takes no notice of, being, like other Encomiasts, industriouş only to display the fair side of his hero's character. But however this might be, John certainly deserved the highest acknowlegements both from the Emperor and the whole Christian world, when, before the gates of Vienna, he routed the whole Ottoman army, consisting of more than 200,000 men. Before this victory, Vienna had been redụced to the utmost distress; and Leopold, who, with his whole family, had Aed out of it, was every hour in uncertainty whether his reign were not at an end. The Reader will naturally anticipate the Emperor's gratitude to his preserver, and, will read with indignation the following account of it:

“ The question was, Whether an elective King had ever been prefent with an Emperor, and in what manner he had been received? The Duke of Lorrain, who liftened only to the voice of gratitude, answered, wib open arms, if he has preserved the empire. The Emperor was attentive only to his in)perial dignity, and gave John to underkand that he would not give him his hand, which was the reception the King of Poland expected in quality of a sovereign prince. After much


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