« ПредишнаНапред »
128 Obfervations on the prefent State of Widows and Orphans.
have the best opportunities of being acquainted with the real circumstances and exigencies of their Clergy; and who, if fuch a measure fhall appear to them, at any time, to be proper and defirable, are eminently qualified to contrive and accomplifh the best scheme for fo benevolent a purpose.
What our Author has in view, is to contrive a scheme for the fupport of the indigent Widows, and helpless Orphans, of fuch of the Proteftant Clergy in England, Scotland, and Ireland, as are without the pale of these establishments. And this is, undoubtedly, a very charitable defign; for though these gentlemen are tolerated and protected by the laws of their country, yet they labour under many, and grievous difadvantages. Their appointments, in general, are very small; and, from the nature of things, must be somewhat precarious.
The Proteftant Diffenting Ministers in England, our Author obferves, are too numerous a body of men, and too distant from one another 'in their fituation, ever to be brought to concur in one scheme, or contribute to one fund, for the Relief of their Widows and Orphans. But it does not appear to be very difficult, he thinks, for thirty, forty, or fifty of them, who are contiguous, to form themselves into a fociety for this purpose.
Minifters of the epifcopal perfuafion in Scotland, who are duly qualified for the public exercise of their office, not being very many, might without much difficulty be formed into one fociety for the fame end.-The Prefbyterian Ministers in Ireland, especially in the northern parts of that kingdom, might also form themselves into two or three bodies, as should to them appear moft convenient, for the like purpose.
For the benefit of these, and of any other focieties, who may think fit to make use of it, our Author has contrived and publifhed a scheme, the out-lines of which are as follow:
Each Congregation, who pay yearly to their Minifter 201. and upwards, but under 40 l. fhall pay 11. per annum to this fund. Each Congregation, who pay yearly to their Minister 40 7. and upwards, but under 601. thall pay 11. 10s. per annum to this fund, and fo on, in the fame proportion. Each Minister shall pay yearly to this fund, a fum equal to that paid by the Congregation of which he is Minifter. Each Minifter and his Congregation fhall be jointly and feverally liable for the whole fum paid by him and his Congregation to
Obfervations on the Provifion made for Clergymen's Widows,&c. 129 this fund.-Thofe yearly rates, both from Minifters and Con gregations, fhall be payable at the term of Candlemas each year, and fhall bear intereft from that term to the time of their actual payment, at the rate of four per cent. per ann.
If any Minister shall be removed from a Congregation paying a lower, to a Congregation paying a higher yearly rate to this fund, the faid Minifter fhall pay into this fund, within a year after his admiffion into the latter Congregation, a fum of money equal to the difference between the rate paid by him and his former Congregation and that paid by him and his prefent Congregation, for the whole time he had been Minifter in his former Congregation, with intereft thereon from the refpective terms that the annual rates fell due; in confideration of which his Widow and Children fhall receive out of this fund, according to the rate paid by him and his last Congregation.
If any Minister shall remove from a Congregation interested in this fund, to one not interested in it, or thall voluntarily demit, or by any means be divefted of the Charge of a Congregation interested in this fund, fuch Minifter fhall continue to pay yearly, during his life, to this fund, a fum of money equal to what he and his Congregation had been in ufe to pay into it; in confideration of which his Widow and Children fhall be intitled to the fame benefits and advantages from this fund, as if he had died in the actual poffeffion of his Charge in the faid Congregation.
Each Congregation, in the time of a vacancy, fhall pay the double of their own ufual rate.-No Congregation fhall be allowed to make any alteration in the yearly fum paid by them and their Minister to this fund, during the incumbency of any Minifter; but, in the time of a vacancy, a change may be made, in this particular, by any Congregation, according to the change of their circumstances, provided timely notice be given of the intended change to the Trustees for the management of this fund.
-Each Congregation fhall require from each Minister, at his admiffion to the Ministry in the faid Congregation, a written Obligation, that he will regularly and duly pay his part of the annual rate for the fupport of this fund; and at the fame time fhall deliver to the faid Minifter, a like Obligation, figned by the Trustees for the Congregation, that they will regularly and duly pay their part of the faid annual rates. Both which Obligations fhall be lodged in the hands of the Clerk to the REV. Feb. 1761. K Trustees
Truftees for the management of this fund-All the annual rates, payable by Minifters and Congregations to this fund, fhall be paid per advance for the year to come.
Our Author now proceeds to lay before his Readers the purposes for which this fund is to be raised, and the manner in which it is to be applied to thefe purposes, with regulations and directions for the management of it; but the bounds affigned to this Article will not allow us to enlarge any farther. The scheme, as far as appears to us, if purfued with zeal and unanimity, may be put into execution with little difficulty; and as the defign is certainly a benevolent one, we fincerely wifh it may meet with fuccefs.
Fingal. An ancient Epic Poem, &c. concluded.
Oward the conclufion of the former part of this Article, in our laft Month's Review, page 56, we introduced the first battle in Fingal, to our Reader's attention; and we now resume the confideration of that part of the work, in order to proceed regularly through the whole. The engagement is defcribed as very long and bloody; night coming on,' however, it appears to be indecifive, the heroes parting by confent. Cuchullin is indeed fo extremely gallant and polite, as to invite Swaran to fupper, being unwilling "the feaft fhould be fpread for himself alone, while the King of Lochlin was on Ullin's fhore, far from the deer of his hills and founding halls of his feafts." This might, it is true, be a very good reafon for Swaran to accept the invitation, were it not more natural for him to fufpect fome treachery under fuch appearance of civility, than for Cuchullin to be in reality fo obliging to the hoftile invader of his country. Had fuch an invitation been made out of infult or mockery, it would have been agreeable enough to the difpofitions and manners of fuch a people, who might be fuppofed to have done it with a view' to fhew their fuperior advantage over a foreign enemy, or to exprefs their contempt of the invading power: but, as it ftands here reprefented, it favours more of the affected ceremony, and unmeaning politenefs of modern times, than of that fimplicity, which ever prevailed in rude and uncivilized nations, always animated, as Tacitus obferves, with the fame fincerity and zeal both in their friendships and enmities.
But whether this be an error in the Poet, or that some such prepofterous formality was in ufe among the people, and at the
imes reprefented, we do not take upon us abfolutely to decide.
The Episode, immediately following, containing an account of Cairbar's killing Grudar, the lover of his fifter Braffolis, is introduced, as the Tranflator observes, with great propriety; but, as it naturally calls to the Reader's mind the celebrated ftory of the Horatii, it will be impoffible for him not to perceive how greatly the Poet might have improved on fo interefting an incident. "Take, Braffolis, Cairbar came and faid, take, Braffolis, this fhield of blood. Fix it on high within my hall, the armour of my foe. Her foft heart beat against her fide. Diftracted, pale, fhe flew. She found her youth in all his blood; fhe died on Cromla's heath." And this is all. How justly might not fhe have upbraided her brother for killing her lover! How pathetically lamented his end; and, mixing her lamentations with the keeneft reproaches on his murderer, have fallen more naturally by his refentment, than expired through mere affliction on the heath of Cromla.*
Some Critics may indeed object that the original caufe of quarrel, between the brother and lover, was not important enough to authorize the Poet to carry the matter fo far as to make the former kill his fifter; but, as the effect was to her the fame, and she is faid to have actually died, fhe might furely as well have had fome vifible way of dying, as to have gone off, no-body knows how, fighing and fobbing over the dead body of her lover: pure grief is feldom fo fatal. Perhaps, on mature confideration alfo, the caufe of quarrel will not be found altogether fo trifling. They fought indeed only for their property in a bull; but, as the Reader will fee hereafter the value they let in those times even on a grey-hound, this bull, being by the bye a fpotted one, might, for ought we know, be deemed an object as worthy contending for, as the honour of their country and patrician virtue among the antient Romans. It is befides clear, from
The claffical Reader will recollect how greatly the Hiftorian rifes above the Poet, by comparing this paflage in the work of Offian with the following one in Livy. "Princeps Horatius ibat, tergemina fpolia præ fe gerens: cui foror virgo, quæ defponfa uni ex Curatiis fuerat, obvia ante portam Capenam fuit: cognitoque fuper humeros fratris paludamento fponfi, quod ipfa confecerat, folvit crines, et flebiliter nomine fponfum mortuum appellat. Movet feroci juveni animum comploratio fororis in victoria fua, tantoque gaudio publico. Stricto itaque gladio, fimul verbis increpans, transfigit puellam. Abi hinc cum immaturo amore ad fponfum, inquit, oblita patrum mortuorum vivique." The poetical incident of the ghost of Crugal appearing to Connal, at the opening of the fecond book, is introduced with great beauty and propriety. It comes to perfuade him to avoid the battle and forfake the field; for that the fons of Erin fhall fall. To communicate this information, Connal haftens, in the dead of night, to Cuchullin; who, waking out of his fleep, thus naturally and heroically receives him, and replies to his tale :
"The foft-voiced Connal rofe in the midft of his founding arms. He ftruck his fhield above Cuchullin. The fon of battle waked.
"Why, faid the ruler of the car, comes Connal through my night? My fpear might turn against the found; and Cuchullin mourn the death of his friend. Speak, Connal, fon of Colgar, fpeak, thy counfel is like the fun of heaven.
"Son of Semo, replied the chief, the ghoft of Crugal came from the cave of his hill.The ftars dim-twinkled through his form; and his voice was like the found of a diftant ftream.
the great character given of the ner in which the Poet laments the that it could be no common bull, and Grudar, ftately youth. Long had they ftrove for the spotted bull, that lowed on Golbun's echoing heath. Each claimed him as their own, and death was often at the point of their steel-Whofe name was fairer on the hill than the name of Cairbar and Grudar!But ah! why ever lowed the bull on Golbun's echoing heath? They faw him leap like the fnow. The wrath of the chiefs returned. On Lubar's graffy banks they fought, and Grudar like a fun-beam fell," You fee, Reader, this bull was not only a fpotted one, but had a very peculiar way of leaping too: unless there be here fome error in the tranflation, or of the prefs. Perhaps leaping like the fnow, fhould have been through or over the fnow. At least we cannot find the fhadow of fimilitude in this fimile.
combatants, and the pathetic man existence of their cause of ftrife, "Cairbar, first of men was there,