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parts, and the exercise of their profeffions, they attain, what books cannot communicate to them, nor they themselves convey to others; an intuitive dexterity of availing themselves of every experienced occurrence.

These observations are not intended to depreciate the worth of Mr. Combrune's labours now before us; far from it; on the contrary, he greatly deferves the thanks of the public for the attention he has beftowed on the improvement of so important an article: but feeing his calculations and rules fo philofophically, fo critically, nice, it is to be apprehended, that the current difcharge of bufinefs will not permit an equally minute attention to them; that the expert artist may conclude himself to have already attained a mechanically shorter method of regulating his proportions, perhaps as far as are reducible to practice; and, that the ignorant operator will not attain the knowlege nor application of them at all, bý reading a book beyond his comprehenfion.

Yet the fundamental propofitions in this curious work may prove a valuable acquifition to that brewer, whom the calculations of the proportions do not deter from a perusal of them, through a diftruft of their practicability.

The contents of the firft part of this treatise were enumerated in our former article, on its first appearance; therefore need not here be repeated: the general properties of the various fubjects confidered in it are feverally laid down, and the speculative brewer may derive from it both entertainment and profit.

Refpecting the fecond and practical part of this work, the objects of its confideration are thus epitomifed by the Author.

"Before I enter upon the practical, and indeed moft important, part of this work, it will, I think, not be improper to give a diftinct, though general, view of the different parts it is to confift of. Thus is a general map prefixed before any book of geography, to point out the countries defcribed in it, and their connexions one with another.

"To extract from malt a liquor, which, by the help of fermentation, may acquire the properties of wines, is the general object of the brewer, and the rules of that art are the fubject of these sheets.

"An art truly very fimple, if, according to vulgar opinion, it consisted in nothing else than applying warm-water


to malt, mashing thefe together, multiplying the taps at difcretion, boiling the extracts with a few hops, fuffering the liquor to cool, adding yeft to make it ferment, and trusting to time, cellars, and noftrums, for its taste, brightnefs and prefervation.

"This might be fufficient, were the place and conftitation of the air always the fame, the materials and veffels employed intirely fimilar, and laftly the malt drinks intended for the fame ufe and time; but, as every one of thefe particulars is liable to variations, the rules, by which the artift is to govern himfelf, would only ferve to deceive him, if he applied them indifcriminately, or trufted to indefinite signs, and infufficient maxims, in his deviation from them.

"A more certain foundation has been laid down in our first part, and the principles there established will, it is hoped, in all cafes, anfwer our ends, provided we make use of the proper means to settle their application. In order to effect this, nothing feems more proper than to follow, as much as poffible, that plan, which the rational brewer would, in every particular circumftance, sketch to himself, before he proceeded to bufinefs. His first attention ought to be directed not only to the actual heat of the weather, but also to that which may be expected in the feafon of the year he is in. The grinding of his malt must be his next object, and as the difference of the drinks greatly depends upon that of the extracts, he can but chuse to have distinct ideas of what may be expected from each of them. Hops, which are added as a prefervative to the extracts, become too important a part of them, to be employed without a sufficient knowlege of their power. The ftrength of our malt liquors depending principally on their quantity or lengths, it is neceffary to afcertain the heights in the copper, which answer to these lengths. The differences in the boiling, with regard to different drinks or seasons, the lofs of water by evaporation, the proper divifion of it according to the different degrees of heat to be given, the means to afcertain thefe degrees by determining what quantity of cold water is to be added to that, which is at the point of ebulition, as well as to a certain volume of grift, come afterwards under the confideration of the artist. He will next employ himself in afcertaining the manner and time of mashing, and as many unexpected incidents may have produced fome small variations between the actual and the calculated heat of his extracts, it will be incumbent upon him to make a proper eftimation and allowance for


them. To difpofe these worts in fuch forms and depths, as may render the influence of the ambient air the easiest and moft efficacious upon them, and then, by the addition or yeaft, to fupply the part of that internal and moft powerful agent, which was loft in boiling, are the next requifites. The fermentation which follows, and which the brewer retards or forwards according to his intentions, compleats the whole of his process, and it must be an additional fatisfaction to him, if, upon comparing his operations with those of the moft approved practitioners in his art, he finds himself able to account for thofe figns and established cuftoms, which before were loosely described, authoratively dictated, and never fufficiently determined or explained. An object of ftill greater importance to him, is to know the proper ftock of beer he ought to keep, in order to have at all times a fufficient quantity fit for ufe. As precipitation is requifite in certain cafes, the common methods for effecting it thould be known, and likewise the means practised among coopers to correct the real or imagined errors of the brewer, and to render his drinks agreeable to the palate of the confumers. This will naturally, and laftly, lead him to confider what true tafte is, and by employing the means, by which it may fafely be obtained and improved, he will have done all that was in his power, to answer his cuftomer's expectation, and to fecure his fuccefs."

In treating of thefe points, the Writer has manifeftly employed great application; though, not being critical brewers ourfelves, we can but credit him with that accuracy he apparently deferves. All the incidental circumftances of the operation of extraction are carefully noted, with calculations and tables adapted to them. Experience only can establish the propriety of them: and the importance of a manufacture hitherto conducted upon principles too vague for reliance, will furely dictate the expediency of fair trial to the most judicious of the profeffion. This, for the emolument of themselves, the public, and as an acknowlegement due to the laudable endeavours of Mr. Combrune for their fervice, we fincerely hope he will obtain.

As a fpecimen of our Author's critical exactnefs, we will give our readers his fummary view of a Brewery for Porter, or Brown Beer, viz,

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"A Brewing for Porter, or Brown Strong Beer, computed for 40 degrees of heat in the air.

II quarters of malt dried to 138 degrees; 132 pounds of hops 27 barrels to go out at 3 worts, 29 inches above brass

6,11 volumes of grist

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incidents ;



Degrees of heat
whole quantity
of water ufed, barrels
Quantity to be
cooled in; barrels

22,11]25662[11 degrees of heat gained in the first mash


by effervescence.

Coppers to be

charged with; barrels Allowances for

Deduction from the


11 effervefcing degrees 3 degrees for hard


3 4 152—— 156 —— 159 168. 12-9- -9

— 0

21--12-- 3

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degrees equal to 3 inches lefs cooling in for the first mash.

G. C. L. C. lefs 32. more 2.


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L. C. more 3. +

mafh for heat created by effervescence

and hard corns.

+ Additions to the next mafhes, on account of the refrigeration occafioned by mashing and standing.

G. C. fands for great copper, L. C. ftands for little copper."


L. C. L. C. more 2. more 2. + +

This curious, philofophical treatise on the brewery, is dedicated to the learned Doctor Peter Shaw; by whofe advice and < council it was undertaken and finished :' and the ingenious Author modeftly hints, that his work may be confidered as a diftant endeavour to imitate the laudable example fet by this excellent chemift, whose labours are so universally and deservedly esteemed.




Obfervations on the prefent State of the Widows and Orphans of the Proteftant Clergy, of all Denominations, in Great Britain and Ireland. With the Out-lines of a Scheme for the Relief of fuch of them as ftand in need of it. To which is added, a brief View of the Widow's Fund in the Church of Scotland. 8vo. Is. 6d. Griffiths, &c.


HE fubject of this piece is of a very interesting nature, and muft neceffarily engage the attention of every compaffionate Reader. It is obvious to the most superficial obferver, that the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy in general, are in a worfe condition, and stand more in need of Relief, all circumftances confidered, than those of any other fet of men in Great Britain. The only fuitable provifion that has hitherto been made for their fupport, is that of the Widow's Fund in the Church of Scotland. This scheme was originally formed by gentlemen of very confiderable abilities, and after being the fubject of long deliberation in the several judicatories of that Church, was at laft approved of by the wisdom, and confirmed by the authority of Parliament. After a trial of many years, it now appears, that the calculations on which it proceeded had been made with furprising exactness; accordingly it has, in all refpects, effectually anfwered the end propofed, and produced all the good expected from it. But there are ftill great numbers of the Widows and Orphans of the Proteftant Clergy, of all denominations, in Britain, who ftand greatly in need of fome provifion for their fupport, (as much as those of the Church of Scotland formerly did) and for whom no provifion has as yet been made. The Dignities of the Churches of England and Ireland, indeed, many Rectories, and fome of the larger Vicarages, have fuch revenues annexed to them, as may enable their poffeffors to live in a manner not unfuitable to their flations, and at the fame time make fome decent provifion for their families. But when this has been admitted, many more than one half, perhaps two thirds of the whole collective body of the Clergy of thefe Churches cannot do this; and their Widows and Orphans are commonly left in as diftrefsful circumstances, as those of any other Clergy.

Thefe circumstances are painted in very strong colours, by the judicious Author of the Obfervations now before us. He modeftly leaves the matter, however, as far as it relates to the inferior Clergy of the established Churches of England and Ireland, in the hands of their own reverend fuperiors, who

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