« ПредишнаНапред »
Cardinals, Princes, Dukes, Lords, Empresses, Queens, Princesses, Dutchesses, Countesses, and persons of all ranks, than ever were cured by all the Boerhaaves, Sloans, St. Ives', Petits, Cheseldens, Sharps, and all other eye-doctors that ever lived. But this is not the whole. Our Hero is likewise the greatest beau, the gayest gallant, the brightest wit, the most accomplished gentleman : in brief, no words but his own can express his merits, recount his successes, or enumerate the honours and rich rewards * he received in every nation, at every court, and every university in Europe. To his own pen, therefore, we leave the pleasing task; to him, at least, a most delightful one: and shall conclude with honestly cautioning our readers, notwithstanding the exalted ideas they may by this time have conceived of the doctor, not to depend too much on the ample professions in his title-page and advertisements, setting forth, that 'this ' work contains all most worthy the attention of a traveller.' For, in truth, we have been able to discover nothing in it peculiarly worthy a traveller's notice; the whole being only a string of puffs to recommend himself to the public; interspersed with a number of ill-told anecdotes of what happened to his highness -, to his excellency certain great persons at the court of ;
all within the circle of our Doctor's personal acquaintance; and every word as true as the gospel. And at the beginning or end of every tale, we are solemnly assured that it is a most excellent story; although it appears to us, that had not the doctor been a much better oculist than he is a story-teller, he would never have collected money enough to pay the tolls, during his scampering progress through every turnpike in Europe. With respect to the forty-five different treatises, mentioned by this wonderful writer, as written by himself, in almost every European language, the Author will no doubt join with us in lamenting, that we live in an age of scepticism and infidelity, wherein facts delivered to us upon authorities superior even to the doctor's, have been called in question: and therefore he will not be surprized if, when he is boasting of his skill in the Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, High-Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Rullian languages, his unbelieving readers or auditors thould only express their admiration with a Credat Judæus Afella ! - Non ego.
• It is, however, the Chevalier's misfortune not to be able to pro. duce all these valuable testimonials, having (as he assures us, and who can deny it) been robbed by a Benatti, in his paffage from Naples to Rome, of all his riches, exceeding in value thirty thua fand Roman crowns. Rev. Feb. 1762.
The Scripture Doctrine of Remiffion. Which sheweth that the
Death of Christ is no proper Sacrifice nor Satisfaction for Sin, but that Pardon is dispensed folely on account of Repentance, or a personal Reformation of the Sinner. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Griffiths, Henderson, &c.
HE Author of this ingenious piece makes a bold attack upon
the Doctrine of Atonement, which is looked upon, by many, to be the fundamental principle, the
life and soul of Christianity. How far he has succeeded in his attack, we shall not take upon us to determine, but shall lay before our Readers the substance of what he has advanced.
The Old Testament, we are told, almost in every chapter, represents the Pardon of Sin as dispensed solely on account of men's personal Virtue, a penitent, upright heart, and a reformed, exemplary life, without the least regard to the sufferings or merit of any Being whatever. The language of the Old Testament Worthies, upon all occafions, even when they address themselves to the Deity, Thews, that they expected pardon and favour solely on account of their integrity, either maintained through life, or recovered by sincere repentance. Our Author urges a variety of texts of Scripture in support of this doctrine, and observes, that when the legal sacrifices are declared by the prophets, to be insufficient to procure the favour of God, there is never any other more perfect facrifice mentioned in oppofition to them; as we might reafonably expect, if they really had referred to any such more perfect facrifice, and such an one had been necessary. On the contrary, personal holiness only is all that is ever opposed to them, as of more value with God.
The wiseft of the Jews in our Saviour's time, it is likewise faid, talk exactly in the same strain, and in the presence of our Lord himself; who is so far from disapproving it, or attempting to set them right in the matter, that he gives his. own fanction to the sentiment.-As often as he speaks of the neceflity of his death, it is never as a facrifice or propitiation for Sin, but only that the Scriptures should be fulfilled, which foretold that he should fuffer. - In the discourse to his difciples before his death, recorded by St. John, he takes great pains to reconcile them to his departure from them, and to convince them of the expediency of it for themselves ; but all the reason he gives for it, is, that otherwise the Comforter would not come to them. He drops not a hint of the nee cessity of his death for the Expiation of Sin, though that
would have fuggested to them a very satisfactory and intelligible reason for his death.
If he had not chosen, for reasons that we cannot comprehend, to deliver himself in plain terms concerning the great doctrine of Atonement, he might have done it as obscurely as he had pleased by way of parable, as he did in many other cases; and yet, in those parables in which he gives a representation of his death and sufferings, we find no such view of it.
If it be urged, that the apprehension of fome farther fatif. faction being made to divine justice than Repentance and Reformation is necessary to allay the fears of sincere penitents, our Author answers, that all men naturally apprehend the Deity to be propitious, and that none of the human race, if left to their own natural, unperverted apprehensions of things, will ever fall into fuch doubts and uncertainties, as all mankind are fometimes represented to be so deplorably and helplesly in volved in.
If it be urged, in favour of the doctrine of Atonement, that the scheme is absolutely necessary in the moral Government of God, because, upon different principles, no satisfacţion is made to his offended Justice, he answers, that Justice in the Deity can be no other than a modification of goodnefs, the object and end of which is, the supreme Happiness of his creatures and subjects. This happiness, being of a. moral nature, must be chiefly promoted by such a constitution of moral government, as fhall afford the most effectual motives to induce men to regulate their lives well. Every degree of severity, therefore, that is so circumstanced as not to have this tendency, viz. to promote Repentance and the practice of Virtue, must be rejected by the benevolent principle of the Moral Government of God, as difagreeable even to Divine Justice, if it has the same end as the Divine Goodness.
The influence, which the doctrine of Atonement is maintained to have upon Practice, has been strongly urged in its**. favour. Now all the advantages of this opinion, our Author fays, are acknowleged, by its advocates, to be derived from this, viz. that it raises men's apprehensions of the Divine Juf, tice, and of the evil and demerit of Sin; sentiments of powerful efficacy in promoting Repentance and Reformation. Admitting this, it is obvious to remark, we are told, that, in proporțion as any opinion raises our idea of the justice or fe
verity of God, it must sink our ideas of the Divine Mercy : and since a due sense of the Mercy and Compassion of God, is, to say the least, as powerful an inducement to Repentance, and as efficacious a motive to a Holy Life, (especially with ingenuous minds) as the apprehension of his Justice; what the doctrine of Atonement gains on the one hand, it loses on the other : and so all this boasted advantage entirely vanishes.
Beside, the severity, which is supposed necessary to be shewn, on God's part, in order to the forgiveness of Sin, is so circumstanced as entirely to lose its effect. For if it be intended to work upon men, the men themselves should feel it. It will be the same to the bulk of mankind, whether the Divine Being animadverts upon the vices that are repented of or not, if the offenders themselves'know that they shall never feel the effects of such animadversion.
But if we give up the doctrine of Atonement, what must be our notions of Christianity? If Christ did not die to make Satisfaction for Sin, for what end did he die! Instead of making a direct reply to these and such like queries, our Author, by way of conclusion, gives a concise view of the scheme of Salvation by Jesus Christ, without the Doctrine of Atonement for Sin. -All that even Infinite Wisdom, Goodness, and Power could contrive and execute, in order to recover man to a sense of Religion and Virtue, due regard being had to his nature, may be reduced, we are told, to the following particulars ; first, to instruct us in the whole extent of our duty ; fecondly, to engage us to the Performance of it, by the promise of suitable and sufficient Rewards, and to deter us from disobedience by the fear of punishment; thirdly, to set before us proper Examples of Virtue ; and, lastly, to give us the most satisfactory assurance of the pardon of our past Sins upon our Repentance and Reformation, and of the certain acceptance of our fincere, though imperfect, endeavours to do our duty.--Now all this has been done for us, we are told, in the amplest manner.
If it be asked, what necesity there was for the death of Chrift upon this scheme, our Author replies, That by his death he proyed his Divine Mission in the most illuftrious manner that can be conceived; evidenced the benevolence of his heart, the greatness of his soul, the vast importance of the work he undertook, and how much his heart was in it: and encouraged all who should afterwards embrace his religion, to lay down their lives with courage and chearfulness, in the cause of truth and integrity.
A New System of Geography : In which is given a general Account
of the Situation and Limits, the Manners, Hislory, and Conjlitution, of the several Kingdoms and States in the knotun World; and a very particular Description of their Subdivisions and Dependancies; their Cities and Towns, Forts, Sea-Ports, Produce, Manufactures and Commerce. By A. F. Busching, D. D. Profesor of Philosophy in the University of Gettingen, and Member of the Learned Society at Duissburg. Carefully translated from the last Edition of the German Original. ll. lustrated with thirty-six Maps; accurately projected on a new Plan. Quarto. Six Volumes. 51. gs. bound Millar.
S the utility of Geography is universally acknowleged,
we shall not detain our readers with pointing out the various advantages that arise from the study of it, but proceed, directly to lay before them a general view of the plan and design of the truly valuable work now before us : and this we shall do in the Author's own words,
My design,' says he, is to give an accurate and useful description of the earth as far as it is known, from the best
helps that could be procured on the subject. For this end, • I was under the indispensable necesity of setting about the . work, as if no system of Geography had been extant be<fore.
I am very sensible that there are many treatises of that nature published : however, I could not implicitly depend upon, nor safely. copy after any of them; but was obliged carefully to examine every particular, and to have recourse to the first and best sources. My predecessors in
this science, indeed, generally copy from each other; and < such as have not copied from other systems of Geography, * have used fuch helps as are universally known, and open to
every one's perusal, if we except some few particulars, * And it is evident, they either had not, or could not have
recourse to the best sources; or, which has generally been " the case, did not use them with a proper degree of care
and impartiality. Hence a person who has the least skill in
Geography, or knowlege of the terraqueous globe, has " reason to complain, that the systems of Geography hitherto published are of very little service.
These were my ·motives for not blindly following my predecessors who have * written on this subject ; on the contrary, I had recourse to
the same originals from which they derived their materials, . and likewise to other sources which they could not have
access to; or if they had, which they made no use of