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I, whom no bribe to servile flattery drew,
Alike informs the soul, and charms the ear,' &c
Mr. Leonard Welstead thus wrotel to the unknown author, on the first publication of the said Essay; 'I must own, after the reception which the vilest and most immoral ribaldry hath lately met with, I was surprised to see what I had long despaired, a performance deserving the name of a poet. Such, sir, is your work. It is, indeed above all commendation, and ought to have been published in an age and country more worthy of it. If my testimony be of weight any where, you are sure to have it in the amplest manner,' &c. &c. &c.
Thus we see every one of his works hath been extolled by one or other of his most inveterate enemies; and to the success of them all they do unanimously give testimony. But it is sufficient instar omnium, to behold the great critic, Mr. Dennis, sorely lamenting it, even from the Essay on Criticism to this day of the Dunciad! 'A most notorious instance (quoth he) of the depravity of genius and taste, the approbation this Essay meets with.2%I can safely affirm, that I never attacked any of these writings, unless they had success infinitely beyond their merit. This, though an empty, has been a popular scribbler.
The epidemic madness of the times has given him reputation.3— If, after the cruel treatment so many extraordinary men (Spenser, lord Bacon, Ben Jonson, Milton, Butler, Otway, and others) have received from this country, for these last hundred years, I should shift the scene, and show all that penury changed at once to riot
1 In a letter under his own hand, dated March 12, 1733
2 Dennis, Preface to his Reflections on the Essay on Criticism.
3 Preface to his Remarks on Homer.
and profuseness ; and more squandered away upon one object, than would have satisfied the greater part of those extraordinary men; the reader to whom this one creature should be unknown, would fancy him a prodigy of art and nature, would believe that all the great qualities of these persons were centered in him alone. But if I should venture to assure him, that the people of England had made such a choice--the reader would either believe me a malicious enemy, and slanderer, or that the reign of the last (Queen Anne's) ministry was designed by fate to encourage fools."
But it happens that this our poet never had any place, pension, or gratuity, in any shape, from the said glorious queen, or any of her ministers. All he owed, in the whole course of his life, to any court, was a subscription for his Homer, of £200, from King George I. and £100 from the prince and princess.
However, lest we imagine our author's success was constant and universal, they acquaint us of cer. tain works in a less degree of repute, whereof, although owned by others, yet do they assure us he is the writer. Of this sort Mr. Dennis? ascribes to him two farces, whose names he does not tell, but assures us that there is not one jest in them; and an imitation of Horace, whose title he does not mention, but assures us it is much more execrable than all his works.3 The Daily Journal, May 11, 1728, assures us, 'He is below Tom Durfey in the drama, because (as that writer thinks) the Marriage-Hater Matched, and the Boarding School, are better than the What-d'ye-callit;' which is not Mr. P.'s, but Mr. Gay's. Mr. Gil. don assures us, in his New Rehearsal, p. 48, "That he was writing a play of the Lady Jane Grey :' but it
1 Rem. on Homer, p. 8, 9.
2 Ib p. 8.
afterwards proved to be Mr. Rowe's. We are assur. ed by another, 'He wrote a pamphlet called Dr. An. drew Tripe;' which proved to be one Dr. Wagstaff's Mr. Theobald assures us, in Mist of the 27th of April “That the treatise of the Profound is very dull, and that Mr. Pope is the author of it.' The writer of Gulliveriana is of another opinion; and says, “The whole, or greatest part, of the merit of this treatise must and can only be ascribed to Gulliver.2 (Here, gentle reader! cannot I but smile at the strange blindness and positiveness of men ? knowing the said treatise to appertain to none other but to me, Martinus Scriblerus.)
We are assured, in Mist of June 8th, "That his own plays and farces would better have adorned the Dunciad, than those of Mr. Theobald ; for he had neither genius for tragedy nor comedy.' Which whether true or not, it is not easy to judge; in as much as he had attem
neither. Unless we will take it for granted, with Mr. Cibber, that his being once very angry at hearing a friend's play abused, was an infallible proof the play was his own; the said Mr. Cibber thinking it impossible for a man to be much concerned for any but himself: “ Now let any man judge (saith he) by his concern, who was the true mother of the child.'3
But from all that has been said, the discerning reader will collect, that it little availed our author to have any candour, since, when he declared he did not write for others, it was not credited; as little to have any modesty, since, when he declined writing in any way himself, the presumption of others was im puted to him. If he singly enterprised one great work, he was taxed of boldness and madness to a prodigy :4 if he took assistants in another, it was com
1 Ib. p. 6. 2 Gulliv. p. 336. 3 Cibber's Letters to Mr. P. p. 19. 4 Burnet's Homeridos, p. 1, of his „ranslation of the Iliad.
plained of, and represented as a great injury to the public. The loftiest heroics, the lowest ballads, treatises against the state or church, satires on lords and ladies, raillery on wits and authors, squabbles with booksellers, or even full and true accounts of nionsters, poisons, and murders ; of any hereof was there nothing so good, nothing so bad, which hath not at one or other season been to him ascribed. If it bore no author's name, then lay he concealed;
if it did, he fathered it upon that author to be yet better concealed : if it resembled any of his styles, then was it evident; if it did not, then disguised he it on set purpose. Yea, even direct oppositions in religion, principles, and politics, have equally been supposed in him inherent. Surely a mostrare and singular character: of which let the reader make what he can.
Doubtless most commentators would hence take occasion to turn all to their author's advantage, and from the testimony of his very enemies would affirm, that his capacity was boundless, as well as his imagination; that he was a perfect master of all styles, and all arguments ; and that there was in those times, no other writer, in any kind, of any degree of excellence, save he himself. But as this is not our own senti. ment, we shall determine on nothing ; but leave thee, gentle reader, to steer thy judgment equally between various opinions, and to choose whether thou wilt incline to the testimony of authors avowed, or of authors concealed; of those who knew him, or of those who knew him not.
1 The London and Mist's Journals, on his undertaking the Odyssey
OF THE POEM.
This poem, as it celebrateth the most grave ani ancient of things, Chaos, Night, and Dulness : so is j' of the most grave and ancient kind. Homer (saitt Aristotle) was the first who gave the form, and (saite Horace) who adapted the measure to heroic poesy But even before this, may be rationally presumed, from what the ancients have left written, was a piece by Homer, composed of like nature and matter with this of our poet. For of epic sort it appeareth to have been, yet of matter surely not unpleasant, witness what is reported of it by the learned archbishop Eustathius, in Odyss. X. And accordingly Aristotle, in his Poetics, chap. iv. doth further set forth, that as the Iliad and Odyssey gave example to tragedy, so did this poem to comedy its first idea.
From these authors also it should seem, that the hero, or chief personage of it was no less obscure, and his understanding and sentiments no less quaint and strange (if indeed no more so) than any of the actors of our poem. Margites was the name of this personage, whom antiquity recordeth to have been Dunce the first ; and surely from what we hear of him, not unworthy to be the root of so spreading a tree, and 80 numerous a posterity. The poem, therefore, cele brating him was properly and absolutely a Dunciad which, though now unhappily lost, yet is its nature sufficiently known by the infallible tokens aforesaid. And thus it doth appear, that the first Dunciad was the first epic poem, written by Homer himself, and anterior even to the Iliad or Odyssey.
Now, forasmuch as our poet hath translated those two famous works of Homer which are yet left, he did conceive it in some sort his duty to imitate that