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meet, with a long sword aţ his side. an antiquity and wildness in the wood. Duiguenan did not make his appear. lands here, infinitely surpassing what ance, but he wrote a poem criticising I have met with—whole tracts of coun. Grattan's figure with his long sword. try covered with nature, without the It was comical ; Day showed it to least interval of art. These are the Grattan, who was amused by the forests of which Pope has sung with humorous turn, and so the affair so much elegance, and which has been ended.
a sanctuary as well as a theme to the
a Perhaps," says the latter, « it was masters of poetry. owing to this trifling incident that In another letter to his friend the animosity was engendered, which Broome, he mentions his having been afterwards displayed itself throughout present at a memorable Parliamentary Duiguenan's character and conduct." debate, and gives a slight sketch of the
But this unsubstantial motive was principal speakers. The intent and wholly inconsistent with the charac- tendency of the motion was to obtain ters of both. They had a more suffi- from Parliament a promise of support cient reason ;
strong diversity of for Lord North. opinion, both political and religious- “ Lord North, the Chancellor of opposite views on the most important the Exchequer, a man versed in state subjects of life and government. mystery and little versed in finances,
Grattan had early formed his antie spoke in defence of the Court, in a pathy to the powers that be. In 1768, manner impetuous, not rapid ; full he thus exults over the Irish Parlia- of cant, not melody ; deserved the ment: “ I am glad that sink of prosti. eulogium of a fervent speaker, not a tution, the Irish Parliament, is to be great one. Grenville, on the part of drained octennially. This will con- the Opposition, was peevish and trol it, if it cannot amend, and may wrangling, and provoked those whom improve what is in the last stage of he could not defeat. Burke, the only putrefaction, and cannot change with orator I have yet heard in the House out being bettered.” He then turns of Commons (and the character arises his wrath upon both Ireland and Eng- from his matter, not his delivery,) was land with the same bitterness of re- impetuous, oratorical, and undaunted; buke, and the same pointed vigour he treated the Ministry with high conwhich constituted the language of his tempt, and displayed with most aniParliamentary life.
mated derision their schemes and pur• The old court party, that have been poses.” corrupt expediencers for so many Some of those letters give melan. ages, honour the cause they forsake, choly traits of his mind.
6. There and, like the black train of physic, are times,” he writes, (“ at least I feel inform the neighbourhood of their such,) when we lose every pleasing patient's health by their departure sensation; when our relish is suspendThe same bartering, the same venality ed, and self-dissatisfaction becomes which you mention as commencing in the state of the intellect. At times Ireland, reigns in England with like these, I dare not write to you (his avowed dominion." The instance friend Broome), and be sure, whenever which he gives of the Corporation of I am guilty of delay, not my regard Oxford, is curiously put. “ This but my mental economy is impaired, corporation," says Grattan, 6 had
I have moments (I dare say sold its representation. Being brought you have them also) of despondency, before the House of Commons, it made regret, apathy, and the restof that deadno defence, and, being committed to ly train that disturbs our peace and jail, it sent a declaration of penitence, defeats our purposes. They do not concluding, however, at the same continue long, burn without cause, time, the sale it was punished for without cause they vanish.” He then attempting. This is astonishing; that touches on his general reading, and no further penalty is inflicted on this gives sketches, striking but one-sided, bold prostituted body is more so. of the English historians. "I have
His fondness for the picturesque is lately dipped a little into English hisconspicuous in his early letters. Of tory. Lord Clarendon is amusing the country around Sunning Hill, he and instructive, but culpable in his says, in another letter-" The country language, his method, and his partiI am in is most beautiful. There is ality, Burnet is vain and unclaşsical;
his knowledge extensive, his under- seems to have felt more fondly for his standing contemptible." Those were family. His language on the death of young opinions. In his maturer age his father, who had used him with unhe might have pronounced Clarendon fatherly harshness, is far from any undeficient in method, but he must have filial retribution. His language on acknowledged the dignity of his that of his mother, who, by an indothoughts and the manliness of his prin- lence, or an oversight equally cruel in ciples. His History is the “
its consequences, had died without a ment" of English loyalty. The inele will, thus allowing a landed property, gance of Burnet's style is beyond dis- which she bad intended for her son, to pute, but his “ vanity” is a love of go out of the family, is ardently affecgiving his authorities for truth; his tionate. Thus actually disinherited unclassicality is a love of telling things by the peevishness of one parent, and as he heard them; and the fertileness virtually disinherited by the carelessof his understanding is to be discovered ness of another, he appears never to only in his having given us the best have revenged his undoubted wrongs history of his period" extant in li- on the memory of either.
Of his moterature.
ther he writes in some memoranda, But of Hume he says, “He is the which seem to have been composed to only author who, from his abilities give vent to the outpourings of his and compass, deserves the title of an mind. “ You were the only woman English historian. Lord Bolingbroke in the world who loved me; the love has a rapidity that gives him some- you bore me, the thousand kindnesses times a real, and always a seeming, I have received from you, your tensuperiority over those against whom derness, your anxiety, your liberality, he contends ; his language is strenu. your maternal concern for me, are a ous, his censure presumptuous, his most affecting and wounding considerspirit prodigious, his affectation of ation. To remember these obligalanguage great, his affectation of de- tions with the gratitude they deserve, spising still greater. Next to Moses, makes your death insupportable. Your Plato seems to be his great detesta- good sense, your meekness in misfortion.” But, captivated as Grattan was tune, your fortitude in suffering, the by the flow and fervour of this emi. judicious love you distributed among nent apostate's style, he had sagacity your children, your generous neglienough to see his hollowness. Pity gence of yourself, place you among he should so desert the doctrine which the first of women. A thousand amihe sets out to inculcate ; and that he able instances of your virtues, a thoushould fear to avow conclusions he sand mutual obligations that interwove seems so fairly to have deduced.” It our affections, crowd on me, and afflict is curious that, with all his admira- me. Your incomparable qualities tor, tion for the style of Bolingbroke, he ment me now, though I was formerly adopted one directly the reverse, and, proud to recollect them. Heaven for with all his scorn for his principles, he bid that you should only live in the made him his political master.
memory of those who knew your vir, In this year Grattan lost his mother. tues, and that such merit should have Her death overwhelmed him with sor- no reward but the tears and admira
We quote some of his expres- tion of those that survive you !" sions, for the benefit of those who think From the commencement of his life that genius is something too lofty to at the Temple, Grattan had evidently stoop to the domestic affections. Grat- intended to adopt the career of politics. tan was certainly not of the present He was dazzled by Lord Chatham's school of magnificent misanthropy, celebrity, and thought all beneath which makes elevation of mind consist Parliament contemptible. But he in contempt for all labours but those found either his original direction, or of shaking states or trampling on his principal excitement, in a speech public morals—an elevation not unlike made by a minister against the docthat of men who ascend mountains, trines which he so strenuously made and at once leave human nature be his own. George Grenville was the low, and place themselves in chillness, minister who first proposed American barrenness, and solitude. Possessing taxation; nothing could be more nathe most remarkable talents, and ta- tural than such a proposal. The Amelents especially for public life, no man rican establishments were paid out of
the English revenue. what could be summer has convinced me that books more just than that America should pay are the true things to abide by. My for them, if she could ?-yet it was full intention is to follow your example, against this demand that she rebelled. and to leave of business.” Grattan says,
" When I went to London Grattan's mind in early life, exhibits to the Temple, the first person I heard the most wayward sensibility. He speak was George Grenville. He talk, writes to his friend, in excuse for some ed of American taxation, and of the interruption of their correspondence: indisputable law of the realm, which "Forgive my tardiness, and pity the ingave that right, and he extended this disposition of my mind, instead of reto Ireland. It made a great impres- proving my delay. The breast, the sion on me, and I felt very much at slave of a thousand discordant pas. the time. I recollect taking great sions; now intoxicated with company, pains to answer him. I wrote a reply, now saddening in solitude; sometimes which I thought was very good, and disturbed with hope, sometimes dewith much care ; but it touched every pressed with despair, and equally rapoint except the question—it stood vaged with each ; disgusted often, and clear of that. Ilowever, this had a often precipitately enamoured-all great effect upon me, and was of much this makes me poor in my own esteem, service. It impressed upon my mind
and seem unkind in yours. a horror of this doctrine; and I believe I live in the Temple, and have taken it was owing to this speech of George convenient chambers, that promote Grenville's, that I became afterwards study. If ever we meet, we shall talk so very active in my opposition to the of these times with more happiness principles of British government in than we have passed through them. Ireland.” Through his uncle Colonel He at last arrived in Ireland, where Marlay, he was introduced to William he had determined to fix himself, and Gerard Hamilton, Secretary to Lord
to strike a bold stroke for that renown Halifax, and Lord-Lieutenant in 1761. which he conceived was to be found This was single-speech Hamilton, only in political life. In 1770, he whom Walpole thus described, in his writes to his friend Day: “ Ireland has amusing and graphic style, in 1755. been the scene of action the foregoing
“ Young Mr Hamilton," says Wal part of this winter. There has been pole, who was present, “ opened for no winter in which party has more the first time in behalf of the treaties, fluctuated. At one time the indepenand was at once perfection. His dent men, as they call themselves, inspeech was set, and full of antitheses, clining to Government, and threaten. but those antitheses were full of argu- ing to defeat the Speaker ; at another ment; and he broke through the re- time supporting the Speaker, and castgularity of his own composition, an- ing the balance against Government. swered other people, and fell into his Lord Townshend was rather despised own track again with the greatest ease.
than hated till this late measure. His figure is advantageous, his voice “ I shall soon be in England: I am strong and clear, his manner spirited, tired of Dublin, with all its hospitality, and the whole with the ease of an es- and all its claret. Upon our arrival, tablished speaker. You will ask what it seemed a town hung in mourning, could be beyond this ? Nothing, but swarming with poverty and idleness. what was beyond whatever was, and We feel relaxation growing upon us that was Pitt!" In December follow- as soon as we arrive, and we catch ing, Mr Hamilton was rewarded with the epidemic sloth of the luxurious a seat at the Board of Trade; in 1761, capital." he was appointed Secretary to the With all his passion for Ireland, he Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and for was still strongly attached to Engmany years held the office of Chancel. land. lor of the Exchequer of that kingdom. In another letter he says,-“ I am He died in 1796. In one of his letters impatient to return to England : the to Mr Calcraft, 1764, he writes : “ It splendid and the enrapturing scenes is thought that the move as to Ireland of London begin to wanton in my is still in agitation; this is all the news imagination. I have here reputable of the day. I need not tell
I friends, and am myself not totally not so situated as to have any other without credit; and yet, such is the information, nor do I wish it. Last perverseness of our nature, I am ima,
patient to become an obscure charac- ex-officio informations, that might not ter in another country.”
have been spoken by a person who Among the rest of his acquaintances had written Junius. I know that was Boyd, who was so frequently sus- Boyd heard Burke make that very pected of being Junius. In later years, speech that night, and Boyd told me an application was made to Grattan there was nothing he said then that to know his opinion on the subject. would make him believe he had not Being unable to write, Mrs Grattan, written Junius. On the contrary, I at his dictation, replied as follows: incline to think, from the manner he
“SIR,—Mr Grattan, not being able spoke, that he did write it. Gerard to write, desires me to answer the leto Hamilton also said to me-If I was to ter you did him the honour to send. die to-morrow unless I could tell who He does not recollect any fact which, wrote Junius, I would lay my head at the time or since, inclined him to quietly on the pillow to-night- it was think that Mr Boyd was the author of Burke.' • Junius,' or connected with that pub- Still those are but conjectures-no lication. Were Mr Boyd • Junius,' evidence was offered then, nor has it was wholly without Mr Grattan's been offered since. In those days, knowledge. His understanding was Burke's brilliancy dazzled every one, very considerable, his memory as- and his fine powers were supposed to tonishing, and his literary powers give him the mastery of every style ; very great; but whether he thought but we are probably now better capaproper to give them the style and cast ble of ascertaining those powers than of Junius's composition, is what Mr in his own day. We have all his Grattan cannot possibly undertake to works before us, affording a different say. He wishes every success to Mrs standard from that of a few fine C.'s work, as it is the account of a speeches heard in the House, or turned person (whether Junius or not) whose into occasional pamphlets. With the life and talents were an ornament to volumes of Burke and the letters of letters, and his death an irretrievable Junius placed side by side, the differloss."
ence of the styles is fundamental. The A subsequent application was made claims of Sir Philip Francis have been, to Grattan himself, in 1805, to know within these few years, strongly urged; whether he was not the author, which but he never urged them himself; he he thus answered :
never acknowledged the letters; and, “ Sirg-I can frankly assure you I at an interval of fifty years, we can know nothing of. Junius,' except that imagine no reason, of either fear or I am not the author. When Junius loyalty, which could have indisposed began, I was a boy, and knew nothing the temperament of Francis to decline of politics, or the persons concerned in so strong a title to political and literthem. I am, sir, not Junius, but your ary fame. Few other candidates have good wisher and obedient servant, appeared ; none of them made good
HENRY GRATTAN." their title. The secret was said to be Of the often-contested question of in an iron chest in Lord Grenville's the authorship of Junius, the writer custody ; his lordship has since died, of the present volumes says, that and we presume all his chests have Flood, who had been suspected, could been opened, but the secret has not not have been the author, if it were made its appearance. However little only for the simple circumstance, that it may be worth, it is certainly the a letter of Sir William Draper, dated best kept secret on record. the 17th of February 1769, was an. In the midst of political tumult, the swered by Junius on the 21st, Flood native propensity for enjoyment exhi. being at that time in Ireland, and it bited itself in Ireland. Private theanot being possible for him to have tricals were the fashion ; the principal written a reply, and published it in nobility opened their houses to these London within the space of four days. entertainments, and the chief ParliaGrattan's own opinion was, that the mentary personages were the perfor. letters were of the Burke school, and mers. The celebrated Flood, the first that Burke was the prime mover, if man in the Irish Parliament, was a not the writer. He said : “ There is capital tragedian. Grattan wrote pronothing in the passage of Burke, where logues; and the handsomest belles of he alludes to Junius, on the subject of the day performed queens and cham
bermaids. In one of his letters, Grat- he intrigued with them for power; tan mentions, with regret, his having scoffing at public delusion, he used it lost the sight of “ Tamerlane,” in to the last. Still this culprit, for his which one of the Irish “ graces,” the recklessness amounted to many a daughter of Sir William Montgomery, crime, failed in obtaining his original played. He speaks of it as “a most object however-he never rose above magnificent spectacle.” Those three the rabble. Disappointed in all his ladies were remarkable for wit and hopes of personal ambition, he was beauty. One of them was married to glad to creep, at the close of his days, the viceroy, the other two to men of into a city sinecure-to have his jest, rank in Ireland. But there were two his dinner, and his pay, among the still more celebrated beauties, who aldermen. He was compelled to see seem to have astonished England--the the Government which he had insultGunnings. One was married to the ed still exist in defiance; the King Earl of Coventry, the other to the whom he had vilified grow in national Duke of Hamilton, and afterwards to esteem as in years; and, while he himthe Duke of Argyle ; yet thus doubly self sunk into an obscure and degenea duchess, she died at the age of twen- rate old age, his name degenerated into ty-seven. Their beauty was astonish- a national scoff, and his history quoted ing, or at least its effects were so. only as a warning against popular ab. Walpole says, that on the marriage surdity. of the Duchess of Hamilton, crowds In one of Grattan's letters he menflocked to see her, and that seven tions his having seen some of those hundred persons sat up all night round signs of the time. “I shall only the inn in Yorkshire where she slept, tell you that on Tuesday night Mr that they might see her as she went Wilkes went privately from prison ; into her carriage in the morning. The and that on last night the whole town duke was so anxious to have the cere. was illuminated. Every thing was mony performed, that he would not apprehended; but I have heard of wait till day, but was married with a nothing that has been done by the ring of the bed curtain, at half-past populace. There were many houses twelve at night, in May Fair Chapel. not illuminated, and they did not sufThe Countess of Coventry made her- fer. The night was more tranquil than self memorable by the naïveté of her those of his election." remark to George the Second. His He then speaks of the man who Majesty asked her whether she liked eclipsed all others of his day, and of masquerades? Her answer was, “ That whom Grattan seems never to have she did not; that she was tired of thought without wonder. os Lord sights; and that the only one she Chatham's abilities are restored to wished to see was a coronation." their ancient reputation. His violence,
But this remark, which in any in- I hear, is surprising. The Ministry stance would have been the most ter- call him mad; Opposition call him rible of blunders, passed off with the supernatural; and languid men call beauty and the wit as the most pi- him rather outrageous." quant of all pleasantries.
When we recollect the extraordi. In the mean time, politics were in nary public activity which occupied full glow in England. Wilkes's af- Grattan's whole life from his entrance fairs had embroiled the King with the into Parliament, the eager interest Minister, the Minister with the Par with which he plunged into all the liament, and the Parliament with the political storms, and the intense toil with nation. The annals of popular go- which he must have conducted Oppovernment, fertile as they are in folly, sition in the House of Commons for never exhibited in a stronger light so many years of anxiety and even of the scandalous ease with which popu. personal hazard, we may be astonished larity may be obtained, common sense at the listlessness and despondency of defied, and the national interests ha- his mind in the most animated period zarded, where the appeal is made to of human life. the mob. Wilkes was a notorious pro- But it is not to be overlooked, that fligate in every condition of life--in such feelings seem to have belonged politics as well as in morals; despising to almost every man who has been the populace, he flattered them into destined to make a conspicuous figure insurrection ; hating the Opposition, in the larger movements of life. In