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A Treatise on Ferriery.

133

HORSE

mean

A TREATISÉ on FARRIERY, with THẾ EXTERNAL PARTS OF A

ANATOMICAL, PLATES.
GREEABLE to the intima.

Of these, the first that offers A

itself to tion given in their last

our notice is the coal, Wumber, the EDITORS of the

which is called the hair, and SPORTING MAGAZINE now beg has different denominations in leave to present their Subscribers several parts of the body. The with a part of their intended foretop, is the topping, or tuke; Treatise on the Art of Farriery, il.

the hairs on the under lip are lustrated with Anatomical Plates, the beard ; those which grow which they pledge themselves along the upper part of the neck mall be continued in regular

are called the mane ; , the part monthly fucceffion, until the that is most arched, the cell; whole is completed.

and when that finks, a horse is In this Treatise the Editors said to b. crest-fallen; the tuft not to shew their deep

of hair which grows on the lower reading, by a pompous display of part of the leg behind, above the high-sounding words, with which heel,, is termed the feetlocks or the scientific publications of the fetlock ; the hair that grows round present day fo'commonly abound;

over the top of the hoof, is nabut will content themselves with

med the crown, or cronut, or cowadopting a plain, and, they trust, net; the hair on the eye-lids is

the brills. comprehensive ftile, which they think much better adapted to

The usual term by which the those into whose hands the fub body of a horse is diftinguished, ject they are about to treat on,

is the careafe : tbus, a horse with may happen to fall: nor do they a large body is said to have a large think it necessary to detain the carcase; when the body is com. reader's attention from the grand pact and well made, he is said to

have object he is in pursuit of, by ex

a good carcase. The fore plaining what their ideas are of head is often called the browo. the utility of the pian; it being which are most remarkable in

The two hollows above the eyes, obvious to every one, that to pie-old horses, are termed the eyeserve ths noble animal which nature has constructed for the ufe pits. The mark which fre. and benefit of mankind, ought to quently, rups down the face is be the primay object of his pof- in the forehead, the star. The

the rache ; and the white spot fesor's attention. All, therefore, back part of the head, where it that is necessary to be faid by way joins to the neck, is the poll ; of introducing the following pages to the notice of the public and the juncture of the head and is, that the writers have found neck, the onset, or setting on of them to be useful, and they have the head. The lips, with the tip ho dount but they will meet the

of the nose, form the muzzle. approbation of every practical as

The place on the inside of the

mouth, where the tongue lies, is well as theoretic observer.

the charnet. ** The annexed beautiful Engra- that run across the upper part of

The tieshy rows ving, describing the external parts the mouth, and are very remark. of the Horse, the ProprieTORS able in young horses, are called hope will be acceptable to their the bars. The top of the shoulreaders.

der-blades, and the highest part of Vol. IV. No. XXI.

S

the

134

A Treatise on Farriery. the spine, at the setting on of the coffin, because it encloses the bone neck, is the wither's ; and from of the foot. The tender part of the top of this a horse is mea the hoof next the heel has the sured to know his size. From the naine of the frush ; and the ball withers to the hind part of the of the fõot, the frog. Though back, are the reins. Next the fome give the same denomination reins are the loins ; though some to both; and the frush or frog call the whole extent, from the cises from the middle of the foot, withers to the croup, the reins. and reaches to the heel. The The extremity of the reins, soal is that horny part which coabove the hips to the tail, is cal vers the rest of the bortoin of the ped the croup. The part weere foot, and adheres to the verge of the crupper lies, is the channel; the hoof, where nails are driven and the tail is the dock or runt. when a horse is thod." The fides The Ginking of the back, if any, meeting on the heel are called the is named the fway.

quarters. The hinder part of the belly The haunches begin at the two next the genitals, is called the bones of the back part of a horse, flank, which 'reaches from the which inclose the loins, and der. Imall ribs to the haunches. The cend to the ham or, hock, or loose skin which covers the yard, hough. The Rifle is the knee-pan is the sheath. . The belly reaches of a horse, seated in the middle from the brisket to the sheath. I joint of the thigh, and is out. The point from the withers to wardly that part which fets the top joint of the thigh, inclo out from the thigh towards the fing the wbole breast on both belly. The thigh or gascoin begios fides, is called the shoulder. The at the ftifie, and reaches to the fore legs or arms begin from the bending of the bam or hock. The shoulder ; and the hind part ham or hock is the bending of the pointing towards the brisket, is hind leg, and the round knob bethe elbow. The middle joint is hind is called the heel of thc hock, the knee, to which the fore leg in which the great master finew is

reaches, The extent inserted. The small of the hind leg from the knee to the pastern is has the name of the instep. The called the bank; and the strong pasterns and feet are distinguished tendon behind the bank, which in the same manner as in the fore is inserted into the heel, is termed legs, and need no other descrip the back finew. The place where tion. That Gide of a horse which the shank joins the paftern, is we approach in order to mount distinguished by the pastern or fet him, is called the near-fide, and lock joint. The pallern reaches the other the off-side. Hence from the lower part of this joint come the terins of near-foot and to the foot, and has a joint in the off.foot, the near eye and the off middle to facilitate the motion of eye, and so of the rest. the foot, which diftinguithes it The next matter which in a into two parts, the great paftern progreffive state mould engage next the trank, and the leffer, our attention, is the Method of de next the foot. The joining of termining the Age of a Horse; but This last with the foot called as that has been already explained the cofin joint.

in our first Volume, page 356, The hoof is by some called the we shall only, by way of illuftrahorn, but woit commonly the ting the subject still further, in a

future

arm

HORSE.

A Treatise on Farriery.

135 future Number, give a plate from wince at the least touch of the a drawing which we have in our pincers. But as this is generally poffeflion, descriptive of the teeth not permitted, you may conclude of that animal, and by which his the same when the shoe-nails are age is generally known.

driven high to take fufficient. OF THE PROPERTIES OF A GOOD hold. The heel and frog like

wife are often very tender to the There is no man, though ever touch, and sometimes one point so well versed in the knowledge of the heell will stand higher than of a horse, that is able to diftin. the other. guish all their fauirs at the first The strong foot has the fibres view. Some things stand in need of the hoof very diftinét, running of examination more than once, in a straight line from the corootherwise there

niay

be
very

el. net to the toe, like the grain of fentiai mistakes committed. wood. Some such feet will last

The thighs and legs Mhould be very well, if care be taken to clean, and free from every kind keep them moist and pliable; yet of blemish. The knees thould if they are neglected when the be straight, not bending ; the horfe travels much, especially on skin and thank thin ; the back ftony grounds, or when he ftands finews strong, and well 'braced. long in a hot dry stable, they will The finews and 'the bone mould be apt to go tender and lame, be evidently diftinct, in such a when there is no apparent defect manner as to make the legs ap in the foot. pear thin and lathy, not full and This happens from the foot, round. The pastern joints should being bruited by the hardness of be free from disorders of all the hoof. kinds, never large and round, for The greatest inconvenience at: then they may justly be fufpected, tending a hard strong foot, is its Nor muit there be any swelling being subject to refts and fiffures, near the coronet, The hocks which cleave the hoof quite should be lean and dry, not puf. through, sometimes from the fed up with wind; which you coronet down to the bottom. may know by laying your finger These clefts being for the most upon it, for the iwelling will part in the quarter,, feidom ali. readily chaoge its place.

init of any other remedy, thala With regard to the hoof, the extirpating the whole piece that coronet should be equally thick,

lines 11extihe heel. the born shining and greyish.

A narroi: heel is likewise a de. When the born is wbite, it is a feci ;. though the feet of fome fign of a bad fooi, that will wear. horses are tolerably good when out in a short time. A thin their heels are narrow, uplets the weak foot, that is, when the bora foon is not. When the heel is is thin, is liable to be spoiled in lor above two fingers in breadtii, Phoeing, and by travelling hard the foot is bad. Both the feed on liony ground, by droughts in thould be of an equal fize, and hot sealons, and by too much not that or without depth. But moisture in winter, The thin if such a foot bappens to be nels of the born will best appear itrong, the hoof smooth, the soal when the shoe is taken off ; for firin, and the frog noi decayed, the verge all round the foai will-rotten), or Aethy, the horse will appear thin, and the horse will then endure the roads tolerably

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legs.

136

A Treatise on Farriery. well. But when it is like an | thev he will be more easily gow oyster, with many rings or wrin- verned by the bridle.

It is a kles, at the same time that the foal good sign when a horse has his is soft, and the frog Aethy and mouth tvil of white froth; for it spongy, it is a very great fault. niews that he will not easily be

The heel nould neither be too overheated. high nor loo low. A high heel The neck should be arched tocauses a horse to trip and stumble wards the middle, rising by a often, and to go unsteadily. And beautiful gradation out of his low-heeled horses, with very breast and shoulders, dimivifying long, yielding pafterns, are very as it approaches towards the apt to have their heels worn quite head; the muscles should be dif. away 'on a journey,

tinet, and not too full of Aelhi, When the foot is too large in But this is no fault in mares, bez proportion to the rest of the cause their necks are commonly body, though good in other re ivo fine and fender, The hair spects, such a horse, at best, will of the mane Mould be long, thin, be weak and heavy, as well as and fine ; if it be a little frizzled, unapt for brisk vigorous actions, so much the better.

The hind legs should be free His shoulders should be thin from the same defects as the fore from the withers, and pretty long

and well raifed, with a gradual The head of a horse Mould he | enlargement froin thence downsmall, at least not too long, nor ward, so as to render his 'bofom too large, rather lean than fethy. or breast neither too narrow nor The ears fiould be small, erect, too grofs. A thick fhouldered thin, sprightly, and pointed. His horfe is not only disagreeable to forehead or brow mould be nei. the rider, but foon tires, and ther too broad nor too flat, with trips or stumbles every minute ; a star or snip. His nose should especially if he has a thick large rise a little, and be well turned ; neck at the same time. his nostrils 'wide, and then he When the breasts of horses are will breathe more freely. His so narrow, that their fore highs muzzle should be imall, and his almost touch, they are worth litmouth should neither be too deep tle; for they have a weak forenor too shallow. His jaws Mould hand, and by croffing their legs be thin and fufficiently wide, not are apt to cut; likewise in galapproaching too near together at topping chey are subject to fall, the throat, nor too high upwards A horse of a middle size should towards the onset, that he may have the distance of five or fix have fufficient room to carry his inches between his fore-thighs. head in an easy graceful posture. And when he stands ftraight upon The eyes should be of a middle his limbs, there Bould be less fize, bright, lively, and full of distance between his feet than fire. The eyes are the index of between his thighs near the Moul: thie mind, and discover, in a

ders. great measure, his inclination, The body or carcase Mould be passions, and indipositions. of a middling fize, ' in proportion

The tongue should be small, to his bulk ; for when it is too that it may not be pressed too small,

small, the horse is generally much by the bit. The bars should weak. His back should sink a be sharp ridged, and lean, and little below the withers; but the

other

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