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YUPANQUI was the son of Pacha Cutec. He was a warlike prince, but revered for his kindness and clemency, was surnamed “The Charitable.”

Tupa YUPANQUI passed a year in the ceremonies observed on the death of his father, and then made a journey through his dominions to see that the laws were obeyed, which employed four years. He then raised a large army, and performed prodigies of valor in conquering the Cascayunca and Huancompa, the worst of cannibals. He built fortresses, temples and houses for the virgins. He governed his empire with wisdom and mildness. His people called him Tupac Yaya, or Resplendent Father. He also left maxims for his people.

Huayna CAPAC, son of the above, after the usual term of mourning had expired, commenced a tour through his dominions; and was every where received with triumphal arches and ways strewed with flowers. The emperor, wishing to signalize the day on which his first-born was to receive his name, invented the famous golden chain, seven hundred feet in length, and the links about eight inches in circumference. It was finished in two years, and used in the great fete given in honor of the occasion. All the great personages of his court held this chain instead of taking each other by the hand, as formerly on such festivals. This chain has never been found, having been secreted on the arrival of the Spaniards. Curiosity and avarice have made diligent search for it for ages. He embellished Quito with imperial munificence. At Tumbez he erected a fine fortress, a temple of the sun, and a house for the chosen virgins. The Peruvians had at this time, as the Athenians in the days of the apostle Paul, a temple to the Unknown God,"—and also oracles like those of Delphi. The adventures of the emperor with cacique Tumpulli—tyrant of the fertile Islands of Puna-is full of romantic history, of deception on one side, and vengeance on the other. The emperor became master of Puna. Atahualpa was the son of Huayna Capac, by the daughter of the king of Quito. He was remarkable for his fine person, his bravery, and his good sense, and was the idol of his father. He wished him to be sole emperor, but this could not be fairly effected, as Huasca Inca was the legitimate heir ; but the father managed matters with them to divide the empire, showing the greatest friendship for Atahualpa. In the latter part of Huayna Capac's days, the Spaniards made their appearance in Peru, in a vessel of uncommon size, and were making inquiries about the country. was alarmed; the ancient oracles had foretold the coming of these strangers; and three years before this event, during the celebration of the feast of the sun at Cuzo, a large eagle had been pursued and harassed by five or six small falcons and as many water-fowls, until they tore and disabled him to such a degree, that he fell as if for succor, in the great square in the midst of the Incas. They endeavored to nourish the eagle, but he died in a few days. The auguries declared unanimously, that was a presage of the ruin of the state, and the extinction

The emperor

of their religion. This prodigy was succeeded by earthquakes, which threw down high mountains; the sea left its ordinary bounds, and frightful comets appeared. A layco, or magician, one day ran to the emperor in tears, and so out of breath that he could hardly speak, to assure him that his mother, the moon, was surrounded by three circles, one of which was of the color of blood, the second of dark green, and the outward one appeared like smoke; and to explain to him, that Pachacamoc, by these signs, indicated the extirpation of the royal family, and the ruin of the whole empire. The emperor was not insensible to these omens, but was too wise and brave to show a want of fortitude on the occasion. He ordered the soothsayers in all the provinces to consult the oracle of Rimac, regarding the interpretations of these commotions of the elements. Their replies, as might be expected, knowing his fears, were ambiguous. Other omens foretold the emperor

of his fate. He ordered his friends to make his favorite son, Atahualpa, their most sacred care.

Huasca Inca was emperor over the hereditary dominions of the Incas, while Atahualpa reigned in Quito. Huasca was prevented from making conquests on the north by his brother--and became restless and jealous of him, and required that Atahualpa should render him homage—and demanded that he should not add an inch to his kingdom by any future conquests. This resulted in a feigned, reconciliation, and, by the bitter jealousy of the emperor of Quito, into an overthrow of Huasca and his authority. The whole race of the Incas was

nearly extirpated by Atahualpa, and not only them, but most of the great men of the nation. After keeping Huasca for a while in order that he might allay any revolt, by offering to restore their emperor, at length the atrocious Atahualpa inhumanly murdered Huasca with many of his dearest friends.

The time was now at hand when Atahualpa was to suffer in his turn. In the year 1526, Pizarro landed at Tumbez; and the Spaniards for the first time feasted their eyes with the fine temples; the gold, silver, and all the opulence and civilization of the Peruvians. They were astonished to find such a race of men. Pizarro, however, did not commence the conquest of Peru at this time, but returning, he invaded the country in February, 1531. He landed in the bay of St. Matthews with a hundred and forty-four infantry, and thirty-six cavalry, and was reinforced with about an hundred and twenty under Benalcazar and Soto. At this moment the civil wars were raging between Huasca and Atahualpa.

Pizarro took advantage of this state of affairs. Posting himself securely in the temple of Caxamulca, he sent his brother Ferdinand, and Hernand Soto to the camp of Atabualpa, who received them with cordiality. The Spaniards were astonished at the reverence paid to the emperor, and at the order as well as splendor of the court. Pizarro invited the Inca to pay him a visit; he accepted, and arrived sitting on a throne, attended with more than eastern magnificence, in singers, dancers, and every insignia of royal splendor. Father Vincent Valverde, a bigot of the church, advanced with a crucifix and a breviary. He explained the Christian doctrines—and stated that the Pope had made a donation of the new world to the king of Castile and required Atahualpa to embrace the new faith and submit to the king. This was all incomprehensible to the Inca, who was indignant; he asked where these things had been learned ? “In this book” said Valverde. The Inca opened the volume and put it to his ear. “It is silent," said he, “it tells me no such thing," and threw it with disdain to the ground. The enraged monk ran to his companions and cried, "To arms, to arms, Christians! your religion has been insulted ; avenge it on these impious dogs.” The martial music struck up; the cannon begun to roar; the muskets were fired in tremendous vollies; the horse sallied out to the charge, and the work of death was carried on in earnest. Pizarro seized the Inca by the throat, and dragged him to the ground. The carnage did not cease until the close of the day. Four thousand Peruvians were butchered, but not a Spaniard was killed. The plunder was immense. Pizarro offered to give liberty to the Inca for a ransom of so much gold as would fill a room twenty-five feet long, and fifteen wide, and as high as a line Soto scratched on the wall with his sword. This was done in two months and a half, but did not save the life of Atahualpa ; he was forced to go through a mock trial, and was condemned to be burnt, and on a promise of mitigation of his sentence, if he would embrace the Christian religion, he consented ; and

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