« ПредишнаНапред »
The prepositions między, pomiędzy, 'among ;' nad, upon; pod, 'under;" przed, before ;' za, 'beyond, govern the accusative when motion is signified, but the instrumental when rest is implied. The prepositions na, 'on;' 0, "about;' po, after;' w,sin,' govern the accusative when the verb with which they are used marks motion to a place. On the other hand, they govern the locative when the verb with which they are used implies rest.
I can only find room here for the principal adverbs: the rest can be learned from the dictionaries.
ADVERBS OF TIME.
Koniecznie,' certainly;' ba, 'yes.' Adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing the termination of the adjective into e or 0; for example, wesoły, gay,' wesoło, ' gaily.'
Adverbs ending in ie are formed from adjectives which have a hard consonant in the last syllable but one, as pewne,“ sure,' pewnio, 'surely.'
Some adverbs have a double termination, as śmiało, or śmiele, boldly.'
Many adverbs are formed in Polish by the use of substantives, either alone or with prepositions, as na bakier,
across ;' na jaw,' evidently;' na oślep, ' blindly ;' poprzek, across;' pogotowiu, 'in readiness; wewnątrz, 'within ;' wet za wet, 'tit for tat.' So also substantives alone, as vbłazem, 'in a body ;' raptem, 'suddenly ;' ukradkiem, secretly;' rankiem, 'in the morning;' pospołu, 'together.'
The comparative of adverbs is formed by adding j or ej to the stem; as, skromnie, ‘more modestly ;' smieléj,'more boldly. For the superlative add naj to the coniparative adverb; as, piękniej, 'more beautifully ;' najpiękniej, 'most beautifully.'
CONJUNCTIONS. Of these there are different sorts : some join sentences together, as a, i, 'and;' także, tež, also ;' oraz, tudzież, so that ; nie tylko-ale, not only,' — but;' animani, 'neither.' A when employed between two adverbs strengthens the expression of the adverb, as wszyscy a wszyscy, all without exception ;' nic a nic, 'absolutely nothing.'
Alternative conjunctions, albo, lub... ...albo, lub, or bądź......bądź... .., whether'......, orczy, ‘if;' czyli, or czy.......czy, 'whether it be that,' &c. Conjunctions of
comparison, jako......tak; as, tak......že, so that ;' niż niżeli (after the comparative), raczej .....niż, ‘rather than.'
Adversative conjunctions, such as acz, aczkolwiek, although, ale, lecz, “but, choć, chociaż, “although, zaś, "but,' which latter, like the Latin quoque, is never put as the first word in a sentence. Conditional conjunctions are byle, 'provided that,' chyba, “unless.' Conjunctions of time are gdy, 'when,' jak tylko, as soon as.' Optative conjunctions, bogdaj oby, 'God grant that,' used to express the optative mood.
Syntax. As brevity has been aimed at in this Grammar, I shall allow myself to omit those points of Syntax which are not peculiar to Polish, but are shared in by the majority of languages.
CASES OF NOUNS. 1. The genitive is used after many adjectives and participles: of these a few are here specified—the rest must be learned by practice; as, godzien nagrody, 'worthy of recompence;' potrzebujący wsparcia, 'having need of assistance.'
2. After all the cardinal numbers beginning with pięć, 'five. (See page 17.)
3. The genitive is always used after the verb when it goes with a negative; as nie czyta listu, he does not read the letter.'
Ale serce u mołojców,
Niezlęknie sie Turków.-(Siemieński.) ' But the hearts of the young men do not fear the Turks.'
4. After the impersonal verb, niemasz or niema, niebyło, there is not,' there was not;' as nie ma zgody, 'there is no agreement.'
5. After active verbs where they have a partitive sense ; as daj mi wody, “Give me some water.'
6. Verbs compounded of the prepositions do, od, na, nad, przy, u, take the genitive; as nazrywać kwiatów,'to gather flowers.'
7. The genitive is used after adverbs implying abundance, or want, as in other languages.
8. Also to express quality or character; as człowiek wysokiego wzrostu, 'a man of tall stature.'
9. Also to express point of time; as Dwadziestego dziewiątego stycznia roku tysiącznego ośmsetnego ośmdziesiątego czwartego, ‘ January 29, 1884.
A great number of verbs take the genitive, but these must be learned by the help of a good dictionary.
The Dative.—Many adjectives take the dative, as posluszny, obedient. Verbs compounded with do take the dative, and many others which can be learned from the dictionary.
The Accusative is, as in most languages, the ordinary case after the verb. The price of a thing is put in the accusative, also duration of time, distance, height and length (with these four last compare the Latin use).