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PerfectSłyszałem. Formed in the same way as given in the previous paradigms.

Pluperfect—Same as before.
Future—Będę słyszał, &c.

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GERUND—Słysząc, 'hearing.' Tenses wanting to this verb are supplied by the perfect form, usłyszeć ; e.g., usłyszałem, 'I have heard.'

All verbs in the fourth conjugation end in the infinitive in or . Verbs which make the infinitive in eć have in the past tenses a before ł, and e before l, as jęczałem, I groaned;" jęczeliśmy, 'we groaned.' Those verbs which make the infinitive in y, preserve it throughout the perfect tense.

PASSIVE VOICE.

There is no separate form for the Passive Voice in Polish. It may be expressed by the auxiliary być and the passive participle; but this method is rare in Polish, which prefers to represent the passive either by a reflexive verb, or by changing the mode of expression and using the active; or employing the third person of the present, or the past participle used impersonally with the accusative of the pronouns ja, ty, on, my, wy, oni, or a substantive; thus, instead of saying oni byli zabijani, they were killed,' it is more in accordance with the Polish idiom to say zabijano ich : this is by an idiom of the Polish language, by which, even in the case of a neuter verb, although it has properly no past participle passive, yet one may be employed in an impersonal use, as skakano, “they were leaping' (literally, it having been leapt); ziewano, “they were yawning.' Cf. Mickiewicz Pan Tadeusz, Book X. Ze mnie Jackowi czarną podano polewkę, “That the black soup was given to me, Jaczek.'

E

The reflexive verb, however, cannot be used for the passive when any ambiguity might arise ; thus we cannot say, Cezar zabił się dnia pietnastego Marca, Cæsar was killed on the fifteenth of March. The following enclitics are suffixed to verbs, li (which implies a question), and ż after vowels, że after consonants. The two latter add emphasis to the expression. Similar particles are found in the Russian and Bohemian languages. By an idiom of the Polish language the infinitives widać, słychać, may be used alone in an impersonal sense, without adding można, (it is possible); so also in the past tenses we have było widać, just as in English, there was to be seen.'

Sometimes, instead of był, został is used with the past participle as an historical perfect, as statek zaniesiony został ku brzegom Danii (Baliński), “the vessel was brought to the coast of Denmark. Both jest and był can be omitted by an idiom common to all the Slavonic languages. Every verb has its substantive, as bity, 'beaten,' bicie, 'the act of beating;' proszony, 'entreated,' proszenie, the act of entreating: these substantives are all of the neuter gender, and have no plural. The verbal noun in Polish can take with it the reflexive pronoun; as nieudanie się powtórney eleckcyi Leczynskiego, “the failure of the second election of Leczynski.'

IMPERSONAL VERBS. Of these there are many in Polish, as bywa, ‘it happens;' grzmi, ‘it thunders. All verbs may be made impersonal by adding the pronoun się to the third person of the

present and future of the active verb, and to the third person nenter of the perfect, as mówi się, it is said,' mówiło się, 'it has been said.'

PARTICIPLES.

There are four participles

Present.

1st. The undeclined, called sometimes the gerund, czytając.

2nd. The declined, czytający, 'reading.'

Past.

1st. Undeclined or gerund, dawszy, 'having given.' 2nd. Declined, przeczytany, 'having been read.'

PREPOSITIONS.
Prepositions which govern the genitive :-

Bez, 'without.'
Dla, 'for.'
Do, 'to.'
Około, 'around.'
Krom, okrom, prócz, oprócz, 'outside of.'
Miasto, zamiast, ' in place of.'
Od, from.'
Podle, near.'
Podług,

according to
Według,

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} “for, according to

Śród,

in the midle of.'
Wśród,

U, 'with ' (cf. the French chez).
Also the following adverbs used as prepositions :-

Blizko, 'near.'
Niedaleko, 'not far.'
Obok, 'by the side of.'
Poprzek, across.'
Wewnątrz, 'within.'
Zewnątrz, ' without.'

Wzdłuż, ' along:
Prepositions which govern the dative :-

Gwoli,
Kwoli,
Ku, forward."
Przeciw, )
Preciwko,

Wbrew, ' against, in contempt of.'
Przez, "by,' governs the accusative; przy, 'near,' the
locative.

Naprzeciw, naprzeciwko,' against,'opposite,' govern the genitive or dative.

Mimo, pomimo, in spite of,' 'notwithstanding,' govern the genitive or accusative. Mimo, however, when it means near,' always governs the genitive.

Z takes the genitive when it marks the place from which the movement comes, the cause, the material out of which a thing is made ; but when it signifies 'together with,' it must take the instrumental.

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