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cerned; and also to regulate and order the way and manner of all elections to offices and places of trust, and to prescribe, limit and distinguish the number and bounds of all places, towns, and cities, within the limits and bounds herein after mentioned, and not herein particularly named, that have or shall have the power of electing and sending of freemen to the said General Assembly; and also to order, direct, and authorise the imposing of lawful and reasonable fines, mulcts, imprisonment, and executing other punishments, pecuniary and corporal, upon ofienders and delinquents, according to the course of other corporations within this our kingdom of England; and again, to alter, revoke, annul or pardon, under their common seal, or otherwise, such fines, mulcts, imprisonments, sentences, judgments and condemnationis, as shall be thought fit; and to direct, rule, order, and dispose of all other matters and things, and particularly that which relates to the making of purchases of the native Indians, as to them shall seem meet; whereby our said people, and inhabitants in the said plantations, may be so religiously, peaceably, and civiliy governed, as that by their good life, and orderly conversation, they may win and invite the native Indians of the country to the knowledge and obedience of the only true God and Saviour of man. kind; willing, commanding, and requiring, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, or daining and appointing, that all such laws, statutes, orders and ordinances, instructions, impositions and directions, as shall be so made by the Governor, deputy, assistants, and freemen, or such number of them as aforesaid, and published in writing under their common seal, shall be carefully and duly observed, kept, performed, and put in execution, according to the true intent and meaning of the same. And these our letters patent, or the duplicate or exemplification thereof, shall be, to all and every such officers, superior or inferior, from time to time, for the putting of the same orders, laws, statutes, ordinances, instructions, and directions, in due execution, against us, our heirs and successors, a sufficient warrant and discharge.

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And further, our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs and successors, establish and ordain, That yearly, once in the year for ever hereafter, namely, the aforesaid Wednesday in May, and at the town of Newport, or elsewhere if urgent occas on do require, the Governor, Deputy Governor, and Assistants of the said Company, and other officers of the said Company, or such of them as the General Assembly shall think fit, shall be in the said General Court or Assembly, to be held from that day or time, newly chosen for the year ensuing, by the greater part of the said Company for the time being, as shall be then and thcre present. And if it shall happen, that the present Governor, Deputy Governor, and Assistants, by these presents appointed, or any such as shall hereafter be newly chosen into their rooms, or any of them, or any other officers of the said Company, shall die, or be removed from his or their several offices or places, before the said general day of election, (whom we do hereby declare for any misdemeanour or default, to be removable by the Governor, Assistants and Company, or such greater part of them, in any of the said public courts to be assembled, as aforesaid) that then, and in every such case, it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor, Deputy Governor, Assistants, and Company aforesaid, or such greater part of them so to be assembled, as is aforesaid, in any of their assemblies, to proceed to a new election of one or more of their company in the room or place, rooms or places, of such officer or officers, so dying, or removed, according to their directions. And immediately upon and after such election or elections made of such Governor, Deputy Governor, Assistant or Assistants, or any other officer of the said Company, in manner and form aforesaid, the authority, office and power, before given to the former Governor, Deputy Governor, and other officer and officers so removed, in whose stead and place new shall be chosen, shall, as to him and them, and every of them respectively, cease and determine :-Provided always, and our will and pleasure is, that as well such as are by these presents appointed to be the present Governor, Deputy E

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Governor, and Assistants of the said Company, as those which shall succeed them, and all other officers to be appointed and chosen as aforesaid, shall, before the undertaking the execution of the said offices and places respectively, give their solemn engagement, by oath or otherwise, for the due and faithful performance of their duties, in their several offices and places before such person or persons, as are by, these presents hereafter appointed to take and receive the same ;--that is to say, the said Benedict Arnold, who is herein before nomi. nated and appointed the present Governor of the said Company, shall give the aforesaid engagement, before William Brenton, or any two of the said Assitants, of the said Company, unto whom we do by these presents give full power and authority to require and receive the same : and the said William Brenton, who is hereby before nominated and appointed the present Deputy Governor of the said Company, shall give the aforesaid engagement, before the said Benedict Arnold, or any two of the Assistants of the said Company, unto whom we do, by these presents, give full power and authority to require and receive the same; and the said William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Field, and Joseph Clarke, who are herein before nominated and appointed the present Assistants of the Company, shall give the said engagement to their offices and places respectively belonging, before the said Benedict Arnold and William Brenton, or one of them, to whom respectively we do hereby give fuil power and authority to require, administer, or receive the same. And further our will and pleasure is, that all and every other future Governor, or Deputy Governor, to be elected and chosen by virtue of these presents, shall give the said engagement before two or more of the said Assistants of the said Company, for the time being, unto whom we do, by these presents, give full power and authority to require, administer or receive the same; and the said Assistants and every of them, and all and every other officer or officers, to be hereafter elected and chosen by virtue of these pre

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sents, from time to time, shall give the like engagements to their offices and places respectively belonging, before the Governor or Deputy Governor, for the time being; unto which said Governor, or Deputy Governor, we do by these presents give full power and authority, to require, administer, or receive the same accordingly.

And we do likewise, for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said Governor and Company, and their successors, by these presents, that for the more peaceably and orderly government of the said plantations, it shall and may be lawful for the Governor, Deputy Governor, Assi tants, and all other officers, and ministers of the said Company, in the administration of justice, and exercise of governinents in the said plantations, to use, exercise, and put in execution, such methods, rules, orders, and directions, (not being contrary and repugnant to the laws and statutes of this our realm) as have been heretofore given, used, and accustomed in such cases respectively, to be put in practice, until at the next, or some other General Assembly, especial provision shall be made in the cases asoresaid.

And we do further, for us, our heirs, and successors, give and grant unto the said Governor and Company, and their successors, by these presents, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor, or, in his absence, the Deputy Governor, and major part of the Assistants for the time being, at any time, when the said General A sembly is not sitting, to nominate, appoint and constitute such and so many commanders, governors, and military officers, as to them shall seem requisite, for the lead ng, conducting, and training up the inhabitants of the said plantations in martial atlairs, and for the defence and safeguard of the plantations ; and that it shall and may be lawful to and for all and every, such commander, governor, and military officer, that shall be so as aforesaid, or by the Governor, or in his absence the Deputy Governor, and six of the As. si-tants, and major part of the freemen of the said Company, pre: ent at any General Assemblies, nomir nated, appointed and constituted, according to the ten

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or of his and their respective commissions and directions, to assemble, exercise in arms, marshal array, and put in warlike pošture, the inhabitants of said colony, for their special defence and safety ; and to lead and conduct the said inhabitants, and to encounter, repulse, and resist by force of arms, as well by sea as by land, to kill, slay, and destroy, by all fitting ways, enterprises, and means whatsoever, all and every such person or persons, as shall at any time hereafter attempt or enterprise the destruction, invasion, detriment or annoyance of the said inhabitants or plantations; and to use and exercise the law martial, in such cases only as occasion shall necessarily require; and to take and surprise, by all ways and means whatsoever, all and every such person and persons with their ship or ships, armour, ammunition, or other goods of such persons, as shall in hostile manner invade or attempt the defeating of the said plantation, or the hurt of the said Company and inhabitants; and upon just causes to invade and destroy the natives, Indians, or other enemies of the said colony.

Nevertheless, our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby declare, to the rest of our colonies in New-Eng-. land, that it shall not be lawful for this our said colony of Rhode-Island and Providence plantations, in America, in New-England, to invade the natives inliabiting within the bounds and limits of the said colonies, without the knowledge and consent of the said other colonies. And it is hereby declared, that it shall not be lawful to or for the rest of the colonies to invade or molest the native Indians, or any other inhabitants, inhabiting within the bounds or limits hereafter mentioned, (they having subjected themselves unto us, and being by us taken into our special protection without the knowledge and consent of the Governor and Company of our colony of Rhode-Island and Providence plantations.

Also our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby declare unto all Christian kings, princes and states, that if any person, who shall hereafter be of the said Company or plantation, or any other, by appointment of the said Governor and Company, for the time being, shall

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