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PAGE

415

PAGR
Poetry-Continued.

Ross Vanderlyn's Wife. By Rett Winwood.....

730
Ďake of Athol, The......
402

621
End, The
618 | Safest Seat...

756
Faith, Hope and Charity
660 Seeing by Telegraph. By H. Trueman Wood.

662
Fatima. By G. A. Davis

39 Segovia. By Nugent Robinson ..
Flora ....
626 Sense of Smell....

86

39
Flowers, The
224 Shoes and their History. By M. E. W. Sherwood..

98
Gone Home. By Hannah Muller
339 Silver Web, A. By Carrie D. Beebe...

82
Grave by the Stream. By Joel Bates Swett.

563 Singer's Ghost, The. By Nathan D. Urner.
Green Gnome, The
290 Slight Surprise, A. By M. F. Aymar..

753
In Summer Fields
359 Smuggling Opium....

281
In Vain ....
503 Snakes— Ăn Essay on. By a Veteran Snake-slayer,

423
"I Think it is John that's Out." By Edward Greey. 270 Speke and King M'tesa...

54
415
Just for To-night. By Sarah Doudney.

296
St. Gothard Tunnel...

274
Keith of Ravelston. By Sydney Dobell

207
St. John's Day in an Indian Village in Mexico..
Laocoon....
226 Superstitious W bale-fishers.....

319
Leaf by Leaf and Tear by Tear.

82
Little Bo-Peep..

446 Tahiti, the Last King of. By C. F. Gordon Cumming 470
Lost Lamb, The
730 The Great en Deshabille....

399
Love and Age. By Mme. d'Houdetot..
606 Three Snake Stories ....

283
Love and Money. By Sarah Duudney.
107 Through Flood, through Fire..

571
Love's Acre...

336 Tom Navarro. By Amelia A. Barr...
Love's Depth.
591 Tradition of Elbow Lane. By Julius Chambers,

591
Mermaid of Galloway, The, By Allan Cunningham. 524 Trunks and Trunk Packing.

168
My Sister Ellen. By Rebecca S. Nichols..
63 Two to One.......

683
Ned and Jack..

192
Nile, The..
178 Vegetables, The Part some Play......

575
On the Shore..
571 Verified Prediction ....

303
Seven Sisters, The ..

247 Visit to the Phosphate Fields and Hills. By Miss Jennie
Sonnet (From Quevedo)..

719
Haskell...

411
Sonnet's Voice, The..
3+ Vivian Leigh. By Florence Allen.

466
Summer Longings. By D. Florence McCarthy

208
To a Piano...

366
Warfare in Chivalrous Times..

287
Too Late..
468 Warning against Hasty Conclusions.

619
To the Grasshopper and the Cricket.
166 Watches, Early..

523
“What has Vexed the Lovely Clare?"'.
646 Whale's Blow Hole..

86
Who only Stand and Wait. 'By G. A. Davis.
683 | What a Deed Conveys.

222
Plymouth and its Pilgrim Memories...
166 Whip-poor-will, The...

704
Primer, The......

447 Whited Sepulchre, A, By M. T. Caldor. ,449, 677, 705
Prince of Wales's Feathers.
218 Who was He?.

226

Why Featherstonaugh Puzzled Him. By Collin Shackleford.. 626
Rafe's Rival. By Esther Serle Kenneth.
481 Wild Pair, A. By S. A. Weiss....

402
Rector, The. By R. A. Lea..
290 Wolf-hunt in Colorado, A.

155
Recent Progress in Science.. .126, 256, 383, 510, 638 759 Wolseley, Sir Garnet.

385
Rob Langtry's Red Letter Day. By K. V. Hastings.. 673 Writing with Lemon-juice....

38
Romance of a Photograph. By Burke O'Farrell..

306
Royal Bengal's Last Dash, The....
654 | Young Woman's Story, A.

606

ILLUSTRATIONS..

.

PAGE

FAGE
Abelard and Heloise, Restored Tomb at Pere Lachaise, Paris.. 288 Bird's-eye View, A....

240
Affront Avenged, An:

Bowie Knife Hero, The:
“ They made the Abbé sing half the songs he know".

“Bowie returned the fire with a double-barreled gun and
The Abbé with a loaded pistol compelling the Count

pistol .....

464
to dance....
573 Bowls, A Game of, in the Days of Old...

688
Aristocratic Distinction-Humorous..
736 Braes of Yarrow, The....

692
Ashantees....

389, 392 Brigandage in Macedonia :
At Bay.....

109 A Group of Brigands-An Encampment of Greek Brigands 149
At the Seashore. By Professor Bartholoniew Giuliano.. 329 Greek Brigands Bringing a Party under Escort to a Halt 152
At the Village Pump.

80 Brought to Confession :

*They could all see her then. A woman with a young
Bank of England, The:

dead face, loose hair and clasped hands”.

369
The Portrait of William Paterson, Founder of the Bank Burr, Aaron :
of England ...
641 Portrait of Aaron Burr...

228
Bank of England in 1730, seen from the Mansion House.. 644 Portrait of Theodosia Burr.

229
The Inner Court at the Bank of England...

Aaron Burr Disguised as a Priest - " Burr raised his arm
The Weighing Office in the Bank.....

648
and struck the arm of the mutineer"...

232
The Bank of England Parlor.....

649 Aaron Burr on bis Midnight Visit to Mrs. Prevost - Aaron
Ground-plan of the Bank..

651
Burr's Stratagem at ibe Week's Trial.......

233
The Accountants' Office - The Bullion Vault..

652 The Home of Madame Jumel, once the Wife of Aaron Burr 236
Bank-note Store Office...

653 Butterfly, A:
Barcelona .....

The Papilio Machao-Caterpillar and Chrysalis.. 629
Barton's wife:

Membraneous feet of Caterpillar - Metamorphoses of the
“I swam here and there, when suddenly I was struck by

Nervous System....

... 632,633
some wood from the burning vessel”.

Larva and Pupe-Antenna--Chrysalides...

633
Beauty of the Last Century, A:

Scale of Wings-Oldest Fossil Butterfly Wing.

636
Portrait of Grace Dalrymple Elliot..

695
Lady Charlotte Bentinck.
697 | Carême is Interviewed..

16
Philip Egalité, Duke of Orleans.
700 Cashmere..

597, 608
Louis XVI, in the Power of the Mob...
701 Cat Hatching Chickens,

576

645

85,

96

209

[graphic]

TAGB

PAGE

Fire...

4

Cecil Carteret's Heart:
“He catches her in his arms, but the warnı enfoldment

Earth's Treeless Region - Continued.

General View of the Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska.
meets with but the coldness of death”.
112

120

Bad Lands, Minnesota-An Illinoi Prairie on Fire
Chaperon, The :

121
Taking Lessons

A Ride through the Pampas, South America - A Prair.e

300
She sits stock still, with those pale, lanky girls all in a

124

The Colossi of Memnon,
row,

the Desert of Egypt-Amid

301
Circumstantial Evidence:

the Northern Ice-The Cavalcade in the Desert,

Egypt....
" Forget:ul of rheumatism, and shaking her stick at him,

125
Editha....
she shrieks, *Out of my presence! Go, before my

512
Emerson, Ralph Waldo :
poor girl returns?

529 Portrait....
Cinderella :

100

The Old Manse - Home of Emerson..
" I cast one terrified glance írom bis handsome face to the

101
Emerson's Library .....

101
people about me

161 Summer School at Concord
City of the Catalans, The

105
School of Philosophy.

109
The Cathedral at Barcelona..

85 End of a Tragedy, The :
Municipal Election at Barcelona-l’laza de la Constitucion

“Ile was coming toward where the spectral corpse of my
-A Street Scene....

88
missing father ) y"

33
Royal Palace and Custom House..

89 England's only Living General, Sir Garnet Wolseley :
Plaza San Agustin Bella - Gralla House.
92 Portrait.

385
Catalans Rushing to the City Hall, Barcelona..
93 Fort Garry-Winnipeg, Capital of Manitoba.

388
Procession of Corpus Christi - Demonstration in front of

Surfboats Landing Wolseley's Troops on the A'rican Coast
the Lonja..

96
Coins...

- Landing Stores by Native Boats-The Advance
..56 00
Guard met by Ashantee Priests....

389
Colonial Days and Tobacco :

Sir Garnet Receiving News from the Front-Capture and
Last Remnant of Jamestown, the First City of Virginia -

Destruction of Coomassie, King Coffee's Capital.... 392
The Grave of Powhatan ...

532 Sir Garnet Proceeding to bis Installation as Governor of
Pocahontas Interceding for the Life of John Smith 533

Cyprus - Holding a Reception at Nicosia, Cyprus.... 393
Bacon's Rebellion - Pocahontas-The Virginia Penny 536 A Bush-fight with Zulus - Assault on Morosi's Mountain-
Picking and Sorting Tobacco-leaves for Fillers—The Spin-

Surrender of Cetewayo's Brothers..

396
ning Process for Working into Plug.....

537 Cetewayo Entering Wolseley's Camp-Wolseley's Capture
Stemming the Tobacco-leaves --The Steaming Process-

of Sekukuni's Stronghold, Zulu Chiefs Signing Peace
Rolling in Plug...

540
Stipulations....

397
Drying the Leaves after Coming from the Tank— The

Portrait of Cetewayo..

400
Second Drying

541 English Mission, 'The First Century of the :
Ordering or Flavoring the Tobacco—The Shaping-press -

John Adams...
Pressing the Plug in the Boxes .....

544 John Jay-James Munroe...
Colored Plates :

Martin Van Buren - Washington Irving
Learning to Paddle. From the Painting by R. Epp.

Edward Everett - George Bancroft....
Facing page..

1

James Buchanan-George M. Dallas-Charles Francis
The Spanish Flower-girl.

129

Adams-Robert C. Schenck.
The Right Path

257

J. Lothrop Motley..
The Sultana, from a Painting by Richter

385 Reverdy Johnson - John Walsh - J. Russell Lowell... 18
Teasing. By William A Shade..
513 Enid. From a Painting by G, E. Hicks...

457
Colza Harvest in Italy, The...

437 Escape for Life from a Fijian Cyclone :
"Come Into the Meadowa".

184

“I heard a plunge into the sea behind me "'_“I clutched
Comforts and Discomforts of 'Travel :

at it in a helpless kind of way

621
Danger Ahead !-- The Torpedo Signal.

129 “The Fijians, seeing that I was numb with cold"-" They
Promenade Deck of an Ocean Steamer --Grand Saloon of

pluckily dived into the hold".

624
an Ocean Steamer--All Aboard ; the Last One - The
Captain's Office..
132 Faith, Hope and Charity.....

600
Comfort for One Sex.

133 Faith of Kilmarnock, The:
The Modern Railroad Station - Light and Space-The Es-

“He raised his chapeau from the raven curls, and the
cursion Steamer --Scanty Space .

136

monrnful eyes of the stately rider were fixed with pity
English Idea of Comfort in a Railway Carriage.

137
on her own

337
Railroad Comfort-The Sleeping-car- Baggage Checked Favorite of the School, The..

197
Through-Street Railroad Discomfort

140 Federal Cities and Capitols of the United States :
A Concert on a Sound Steamer .

141 State House of Philadelphia, the First National Capitol.. 257
Eighteenth Century Idea of Comfortable Traveling-

Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, First Meeting Place of
Nineteenth Century Idea...

144

Congress-Old Chair Preserved in Carpenter's Hall.. '260
Corn Flowers. From a Painting by C. Landelle.

585 Congress House, Baltimore, Second National Capitol... 260
Cradle Song ...

304 Court House at York, Pa., Third National Capitol....
Criticising the Old Lady's Picture.

408 Nassau Hall, Princeton, Fourth National Capitol.. 261
Cross of Blood, The :

State Hall, Annapolis, Md., Fifth National Capitol.. 265
“ Elise, white as a corpse, never heeded the scar, fixing

Old Stone Church, Trenton, N. J., Sixth National Capitol 25
ber eyes, dilated with horror, upon a large seal ring

Old City Hall, Broad and Wall Streets, New York,
on the fourth finger of the disfigured hand"

615
Seventh National Capitol.

264
Cucuyos, South American Girl with..
249 The Present Capitol at Washington.

268
Cyprus....
393 | Feeding the Orphans.

713
Feeding the Pony..

280
Desperate Chase, A:

Female Ileroism

492
"The next instant she disappeared down a basement stair First Cradle, The

549

3G
way, and the crowd, with her pursuers, surged past". 177Fisher's Wise and Child, 'The..
Discovery, A.

193 Flower-girl, The...

69
Dolorosa...

Flowers, The..

24
Dorothy:

Found in a Coffin :
**Check again !' said she, defiantly, and the color began

" Lending over the open part, she began to take out of its
to mount into her cheek"...

241

depths, books, papers, India shawls, jewel-cases, and
Duck-shooting...

405
similar cases, laying them carefully upon the floor". 273

704
Duke of Athol, The:

Franconia Mountains. By J. F. Kensett..

193
“How can I marry thee, Jeanie -- how can I marry French Shepherd-girl.....
thee?"".
401 Frog, A:

376

Young Frog Catchers...
Earth's Treeless Regions :

African Bullfrog- American Bullfrog.

377

378
A Pathway through an African Prairie....

113 Segmentation of Frog's Egg...
A Prairie-dog City near the Pacific Railroad...

116 Tranverse Section of Vertebrate Body-Vertical Section
A Cactus Thicket......

117 of the skin of Frog-Vertical Section of Frog's Heart 379

264

[blocks in formation]

Frog, A-Continu:d.

I Think it is John that's Out - Continued.
Metamorphoses of Frog-Structure of the Tadpole - Skele-

“One called at the farm last week; when he saw me he

380
of the Frog.....

272

wouldn't wait'
Siren Lacertina showing External Gills-Brain of Frog

632
Catching Frogs for Market....

381 | Jamestown, Va..
Juggernaut ..

552 500
Gamekeeper's Daughter, The..

73

497
Gathering Flowers...,

276

Keith of Ravelston ...
General Putnam's Feat at Horseneck.

277 King Herring:
Giraffe Huut in South Africa, A...

245 Looking out for a School of Herring at the Magdalen
Glow-worms....

249
Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence...

724
Golden Arrow-head, The:

IIerring Fisheries at the Mouth of the Ese, England--
“Paolo bounded upon Kalooma's flying footsteps with

Pulling for a School — The French Purse....

723
such desperate speed that lie caught ber".

49 Dipping and Hauling the Nets at the Magdalen Islands.. 728
Cone Home

400 King's Daughter, The:
Grandma's Cap....

565 " Here is something he will give you.' He opened his
Grave by the Stream, TŁe..

564

coat, displaying the ribbon of the Cross of the
Gypsies and their Friends :

Garter” "Softly kissing his hand, she drew him
A Gypsy Village in Wallachia—Gypsy Camp in England

along to a small door behind the altar"..

353
Gypsies on the March......

130 Kissing, History of:
A Gyp-y Girl Dancing the Zorongo in Spain..

181 The Kissing Bridge, New York, The Young Mother's
An Old Gypsy Fortune-teller.

184
Kiss

612
A Gypsy Belle.....
185 The Kiss of Childhood and of Youth...

613
A Gypsy Kitchen - Hungarian Gypsies on the Move... 188 A Morning Kiss – The Easter Kiss, in Russia.

616
A Fair Young Gypsy Fortune-teller..
189 A Kiss on the Sly.....

617

The Kiss that Waked the Sleeping Beauty and her Court.. 620
Hats off! The Hat Question in the English House of Com Kostroma....

361
mons

680
Wearing Fiats at Worship-The Quakers-Scene in Lager Beer in America :
France in the Seventeenth Century

681

A Lake of Lager- How the Beer is Barreled...... 212
White Hat Day in the New York Stock Board.

684 Visit to a Lager Beer Brewery, Traversing a Cellar. 213
Sailors' Hats at the End of a Long Cruise..

685 A New York Cellar of Lager- The Real Lager Winter
Highland Sports and Pastimes :

Cellar - A Beer Cooler.....

216
Tossing the Caber-Wrestling

220 The Cellar where the Lager Ferments - Bottling the Lager. 217
Putting the Stone—Throwing the Ilammer
221 Lantern or Firefly, The great....

253
Ilistory of Money, The:

Lamb, The, and its Gurdians...

593
Obverse and Reverse View of the Cowry-Ring Money

Land of the Peri:
Ancient Chinese “ Pu" Coin - Ancient Chinese “ Tao"

The Mosque at Serinagur, Cashmere.....

697
Coin -- Ancient Lydian Coin - Gold and Silver Coins

The Hari-Parbat Bridge View of Serinagur.

600
from Chimu, Peru-Chalchihuitls Mexican Stones,

A Bayadere, or Dancing Girl..

601
Valued above Gold-Stater of Philip of Macedon-

The Plane-tree Isle, in the Lake of Cashmere - An Orphan
Jewish Shekel-Gold Stater- Dadrachma of Egina... 56

House after a Famine - A Festival on the Lake of
Ancient British Coins-As (Obverse and Reverse) – Uncia

Cashmere ....

COL
(Obverse and Reverse) Milled Sixpence of Queen

Interior of a Mosque at Serinagur.

005
Elizabeth - Silver Penny of Ethelwolf – Of Ed-

A Widow in Cashmere - A Girl of Cashmere.

608
ward the Confessor-Of Canute-Of Egbert-Roman Leaf by Leaf and Tear by Tear..

84
Gold Coin-Groat of Richard IJI......

57 Letter “S"; or, the Jocelyn Sin, The:
The Somers Island Piece - New England Shilling - The

“ Winifred broke away from him and stood like a tigress
Maria Teresa Dollar- A Piece Cuined for a lỈundred

at bay”.

65
Years for Circulation in Africa - Japanese Coin-
Lewis and the Rattlesnake.

569
American Trade Dollar for the Chinese Trade . 60 Little Bo-Peep..

436
Honeymoon, The. From a Painting by Knut Ekwall
717 Little Don't Care.

489
Hopesul Words of Sympathy, The.....

589 Lord of the World:
“ Tow do you do, Grandma?”.
733 Original form of the Car of Jagannatha...

552
Hunchback's Legacy, Tle:

Jagannatha-Balarama, Brother of Jagannatha-Subha-
“ Two famous Surgeons and three odd-looking men, suz-

dra, bis Sister - Group of three Trisulas at Sanchi... 553
gestive of libraries and ancient folios, were also pres-

Part of a very Ancient Car of Jagannatba, Preserved near
ent"

501

the Temple, Trisula - The Sudarsana Chakra.. 55A
Gateway of the Temple of Jagannatha, at Puri..

557
Incidents in the Burning of Roanoke :

General View of the Temple of Jagannatha...

560
“He cut loose one of the forward horses and mounted Lost Bar, The:
him "_" Messrs. Donaldson were both shot down as

“His blue eyes were fixed upon her; they inspect with a
they arose from their bed "

420

sort of fiery impatience the whole graceful and beauti,
" He turned a large empty box over her and her babe, and

ful picture

433
then crawled under himself "_" Pierce took the babe Lost Lamb, The..

732
in his arms, and passed through the room where lay Lore's Acre ...

336
the murdered husband and father".
Insane, How to Decide that a Man is :

Macaw, The Blue and Yellow....

693
“ The husband, in a paroxysm of mania, standing in the Magalloiray, Scene upon the River.

568
wrecked drawing-room, still holding a pistol which te Maiden Meditation......

485
had discharged at an imaginary foe in the mantel Maori, A Year with the:
mirror”.

513 Maori Pah with Gigantic Iluman Figures-An old New
Insane Men at St. Anne's Hospital, Paris-Insane Women 616

Zealand Chief - Maori Girl in Native Cloak..... 21
Insane Poor at their Meals in a State Institution..
517 Entrance to a Pah...

24
The Straitjacket in Front - Behind- Belt and Shackles

The Tetarata, or Hot Springs in New Zealand.

25
used in some Asylums - Dark Room for Insane Pa-

A Maori Wha-re - Vapor Springs, Koropete.

28
tients ...

521 A Maori Dance before a Wha-re-A Native Woman with
Scene in an Insane Asylum

522

her Heitiki-Wi Marsh, Ohinemutu Chief, with Creer
In the Gardens of Versailles in the Days of Louis XIV.. 20

Stone Merimere...

29
In the Same City :

Nose Rubbing, the Maori Mode of Salutation ---Carved
"My God!' was his only exclamation. Put her back!

Gateway of a Maori Temple, ...

32
continued he, with a groan. 'I know her?”

729 | Mariner's Compass, The :
In Vain ..
496 Teaching Boys to Box the Compass..

104
I Think it is John that's Out:

Ma netic Needle and its Support--Compass in the Binna-
"Lawyer! what's these here papers that Johnny has

cle- Indicating the Direction of the Dipping Needle 505
brought me to sizn?"_"John was cross, and I was

Compass and Capstan -- Captain Cook’s New Compass
spunky"....

269

The Azimuth Indicator - Captain Cook's Adiuster... 503

421

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VOL. XIV.- No. 1.

JULY, 1882.

$3.00

PRR ANNUM.

of

THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE ENGLISH MISSION.

By Hon. JOHN Bigelow. SAOULD Mr. Lowell remain in charge of the American given by our leading men for the English mission. Of Legation in London until the close of the Administration all our Presidents, for example, John Quincy Adams was of President Arthur, it will be just a century since diplo- probably the only one who had a full command of any matic relations were first established between the United language but the English. States and Great Britain.

As the official deportment of the present incumbent is Our representation at this Court during that period has just now under fire, and a lively clamor is being raised in been practically uninterrupted, and no other American certain quarters for his recall, it will be interesting and mission has been filled with such a succession of equally profitable to review rapidly the personal history of this eminent men.

mission, and Of the twenty

to study some six gentlemen

of the difficul. who have

ties and risks filled that

and perils mission, five

which have have been

beset those Presidents of

who, in times the United

past, have States, and

occupied that more than

position, from half of them

which one members

[graphic]

fact, at least, the Cabinet.

will distinctly Certain sim

appear, that ilarity in lan

those minisguage, in laws,

ters whose in blood, and

official conin the religion

duot has of the two

passed unchalcountries bas

lenged have doubtless

not always caused this

deserved best mission to be

of their regarded as

country. first in political import

JOHN ADAMS, ance, and

1785-1788. tended to

Passing draw to it the

over the anxibest diploma

ous period tic talent of

during which the country.

Dr. Franklin Ignorance of

was the agent the language

of the colon. usually spo

ies, the first ken at other

person upon Courts has

whom fell the no doubt had

honor of reits influence

presenting the in establish

United States ing the prefer

after the enoe tsually

acknowledgVol. XIV., No. 1-1.

JOEN ADAYE,

ment of their independence was John Adams, who was appointed by Congress in 1785, our Constitutional Government being not yet organized.

His sojourn in London was anything but pleasant. No American, probably, could have been found whose reception at the English Court, under the circumstances, would have been gracious. For many centuries England had sustained no such humiliation as the loss of the larger and better portion of her American colonies, and the neeessity of recognizing and treating as an equal the despised colonists through whom this humiliation was wrought, was bitter, and not readily to be forgotten or forgiven. Nor would it have been easy to find a prominent man in all the colonies personally less welcome in England than Adams, who had been identified with all the boldest measures of the rebellion from the beginning; whose pride of opinion was boundless, and who had little faculty for commending unpleasant opinions to any one. He went little into general society, and as an American was welcome nowhere; he passed his time, however, perhaps not unprofitably in writing his “Defense of the American Constitution,” a book no longer read, but which had its valre in those days as a tolerably effective statement of the objections to the theories of Turgot, Mably, and of Dr. Price, who advocated single legislative assemblies, and the consolidation of the legislative and administrative powers of Government. After remaining in London about three years, during which time England not only omitted to send any diplomatic agent to the United States, but refused to recognize any basis upon which the numerous differences between the two Governments could be adjusted, he asked to be recalled, and returned to the United States in February, 1788, and at the approaching election, under the new constitution, had the historic distinction of being elected the first Vice President of the United States, on the same ticket with their first and most illustrious President.

THoMAS PINCKNEy, 1792–1794.

Mr. Adams was succeeded at London by Thomas Picckney, of South Carolina, the (son of Mrs. Chief Justice Pinckney, who deserves ever to be held in grateful remembrance for having first introduced the culture of rice into the Carolinas. He was sent to England in 1792. Of the results of his diplomacy there is little to be said, except that in 1794 he was transferred to Spain, where he negotiated the treaty of Saint Ildefonso, by which the free navigation of the Mississippi River was guaranteed to the United States. He seemed to have been personally acceptable to both those Courts; so acceptable indeed at the Court of Great Britain that his predecessor, Mr. Adams, was wont to ascribe his appointment to British influence.

After his return, and in the session of 1798, the Senate passed a resolution authorizing Mr. Pinckney to receive dertain presents which had been tendered to him by the Courts both of Madrid and London. The House of Representatives, however, on grounds of public policy, refused to concur with the Senate. This was the first case of the kind which arose under the new constitution; but, unhappily, the disposition made of it did not acquire the authority of a precedent. It would be difficult to name any branch of our Government nowadays which has the moral fortitude to decline presents of any sort or value, come they from what quarter they may.

John JAY, 1794–1795. The difficulties between Great Britain and the young republic were everyday growing more serious; the boundaries of their respective possessions on the American continent were undefined, while the British habit of regulating the

British colonial commerce with exclusive reference to home interests, was prolific of misunderstandings, which could only be settled by treaty. President Washington wished to send Alexander Hamilton as a special minister to London, to treat of these matters. The Senate, however, were so hostile to Hamilton, and so suspicious of his monarchical sympathies, that his appointment was found impracticable. Washington's choice then fell upon John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was appointed and confirmed in the Spring of 1794, having just been defeated as a candidate for Governor of New York, by George Clinton. It is perhaps the greatest reproach which can be made to the name of John Jay that the first Chief Justice of the United States should have been the first judicial officer under the American constitution to set the pernicious example of running for a political office. Though his example has been repeatedly imitated by members of the Federal judiciary since, happily it has never, in a single instance, been crowned with success. Jay reached London on the 15th of June, 1794, signed a treaty on the 9th of November, and was in New York again in the following May. Among other things, his treaty provided that British ships were to be admitted into all American harbors, with the right to ascend all rivers to the highest ports of entry, but did not confer upon American vessels the corresponding privilege of ascending the rivers of British North America. It also provided that Americans might trade to the West Indies in vessels not exceeding seventy tons burden, but they must not transport to Europe any of the colonial products. Though the treaty received the reluctant approval of Washington, as on the whole the best that could then be done with England, and much better than a renewal of the war, and though the Senate ratified the treaty by exactly a two-thirds vote, it provoked a fearful storm of popular indignation, and was denounced throughout the country, more or less, but with great unanimity in the Southern States as a pusillanimous surrender of American rights, and as a scandalous infidelity to France. The Boston democrats burned Jay in effigy with the treaty. Hamilton was stoned while speaking at a public meeting in New York in defense of it. The resolution that it was expedient to pass the laws necessary to carry the treaty into effect was only agreed to by the House of Representatives after a fierce debate, in which Fisher Ames led the forces of the administration. Only four members from the New England States voted against the resolution, and by a curious coincidence only four from the Southern States voted in its favor. Fortunately for Jay, he had been put in nomination for the Governorship of New York before he left England, and many months before the terms of the treaty transpired. He was elected by a large majority, and the result was officially declared just two days before he landed. He was, therefore, in a peculiarly fortunate position “to bide the pelting of this pitiless storm.” In the great commercial centres of the North and East, the public became reconciled to Mr. Jay, but the damage which his reputation sustained in the agricultural regions of the South was irreparable and effectually extinguished any presidential aspirations which a person who had held successively the office of Chief Justice of the United States, Minister to England, and Governor of New York, might reasonably have entertained.

RUFUS KING, 1796–1804.

It was not till the Spring following the confirmation of the Jay Treaty that Washington ventured to fill the

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