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marble sepulohres of Juan and his wife, Maria, kneeling was transferred to Madrid, and, during my visit to Segovia, with an attendant, have been treated. Chipped, broken, they were striking off nothing but copper, the metal a piece cut out here, a fragment knocked off there, these coming from Rio Tinto. splendid works of art are barely enabled to show the The Puerta de Santiago is Moorish. Everywhere in visitor of to-day, in certain places, what they once were. Segovia the granite portals and peculiar Toledan ball
The ceilings of the Library and Refectory were pecu- ornaments prevail, the gate of San Andres being quite a liirly quaint. I visited the Museo Provincial in the Epis- picture. In fact, the gate of any walled town is a place of cipal Palace, which contains some bizurre portraits of interest in Spain. This is the spot to seek for character monks and nuns, and a few MSS., but none of the wealth and color. To lounge near the gateway and watch the that antiquarians and bookworms are in search of is to be inhabitants, so delightfully and unconsciously picturfound here. The Aqueduct and Cathedral and Alcazar esque, pass in and out, is a species of entertainment that must satisfy.
pays to the uttermost and last minute. The lazy soldiery, I climbed up to the Plaza de la Constitucion, which is the gayly-attired women who hover round the military, like the square of an old German town, having endlessly the water-carriers, the washerwomen, the fruit-sellers, the varied and colored houses with high roofs, and was glad mule-drivers with their lightly caparisoned mules and to find rest and a table with the invariably good chocolate asses, the lawkers, the peasants from the distant mountand white bread of the country. The bishop lives in a ains in their holiday dresses, the padrones, the hideous picturesque old palace in the Plaza of San Esteban, the old women, the students, the religious processions, etc., fine church opposite, with its beautiful tower, Saxon form a moving panorama that is as satisfying to the eye as arches, and open cloister, being dedicated to that saint. it is picturesque. This house is the original one purchased for St. Theresa These gates possessed a strange fascination for me, and in 1574, by Doña Ana de Ximenes, who was the first lady I would repair thither of a morning, and seating myself in to receive the habit in Segovia. It is dedicated to St. some vine-trellised venta, remain gazing at the bizarre Joseph, and the first Mass was said in it by St. John of sights till the heat of noon pronounced in favor of the the Cross The nuns, says Lady Herbert of Lee, main- siesta. tain the reformed rule in all its austerity. They show the How rigorously those stiff-necked custom-house officials saint's cell, now converted into an oratory, and also the examined the packets of the country folk for contraband, room of St. John of the Cross, whose convent is in the unless the reals were slipped into their willing palms! valley below, just outside the walls of the town. There How cruelly that corporal, in his red cap, long blue coat his body rests—that body still uncorrupted, of one whom and sandaled, dirty, naked feet, treated that black-eyed, it has been truly said, that he was a "cherub in wisdom black-haired, red-lipped and voluptuously-formed, shortand a seraph in love,” On the door of his cell is his skirted señorita, who, it was evident, loved the son of Mars favorite sentence :
not wisely, but too well! I was witness to her ardor, his " Pati et contemni pro Te!"
coolness, her tears, his rebuffs, and I felt for her. I am
quite prepared to think that she was a shameless slut, but This convent is rich both in his letters and in those of she looked so picturesque, and she loved so well, that I St. Theresa. Here it was that the saint received the news found forgiveness in my heart for her all the time. of the death of her favorite brother, Laurence de Cepeda. And those mule-drivers—what hravy stage villains ! She was quietly at work during recreation when ho ap- What a chance for opera-bouffe ! what a “show” for a peared to her; the saint, withont uttering a word, put chorus! They have never yet been properly done, not down her work and hastened to the choir to commend the even by the indefatigable Colonel Mapleson. Our entredeparting spirit to our Lord. She had no sooner knelt preneurs should visit Segovia for color. They should before the blessed sacrament than an expression of in- sit in that gate and watch the crowd as it passes in and tense peace and joy came over her face. Her sister asked out, the tide as it ebbs and flows. A chorus of lavanderas, hər the reason, and she told them that our Lord had then those bright, handsome washerwomen, a little less décolletée revealed to her the assurance that her brother was in though, would insure the run of an opera if they could be heaven. His sudden death occurred at the very moment intrusted with one of their national melodies, a sort of when he had appeared to her in her recreation-room. tra-la-la-lal chorus to the wringing of the linen of Segovia. Over the door of her oratory are the words : “Seek the The wine is particularly good in Sagovia; and the winecross”; “Desire the croes"; and a little further on, “Let shops seem busier than in any other city I visited in Spain, us teach more by works than by words.”
although I cannot call to recollection having beheld a The Church of San Millan, outside the walls, is well single intoxicated person. The city's prosperity once worthy a visit. It is pure Romanesque in style, with ex- depended on its staple, wool, but there were only half a ternal cloisters, and dates from 1250. The portal of San dozen "one-horse" cloth factories going in the suburb of Martin attracts the eye, while in the church are the tombs San Lorenzo on the occasion of my visit. of Don Rodrigo, in armor, and of Gonzalo Herrera and his A movement was made in 1829 to introduce improved wife.
machinery, but the handloom weavers soon made short The tower in the Plaza de San Esteban is a noble work of it. The cabañas or sheep-flooks of Segovia thirteenth-century tower of five stories, of elegant arcades, furnished the fleeces, and the Eresma offered a peculiar round arches alternating with the pointed.
water for washing the wool. The sheep washings and A walk up the Valley of the Eresma leads to the Casa de shearings were once the grand attractions of the place, Moneda, or mint. This necessary establishment was and " drew” nearly as well as a ball-fight. The Rocks founded by Alfonso VII., rebuilt by Enrique IV., in 1455, were driven in May into larga Esquileos or quadrangles of and repaired and refitted with German machinery by two stories, over which a "Factor" presided. First, the Philip II. in 1586. Formerly all the pational coinage was sheep went into the Sudadero, and when well sweated, their struck in this mint, as the river afforded water-power, legs were tied by Ligadores, who handed them over to the while the adjoining Alcazır formed a pretty safe treasury, shearers, each of whom would clip from eight to ten sheep so far as thick walls, iron bars, and oaken doors with giant a day. When shorn, the anim ils next were taken to the locks were concerned. In 1730 the gold and silver coinage' Empegadero to be tarred and branded, after which the
whole lot were looked over by the Capalazes or head shepherds, when the old and useless were selected for the butcher, while those spared were carefully attended to, as being liable to take cold after shearing and dio. Segovia has undergone that process of war known as “the sacked,” at the hands of the French. General Frere, on June 7th, 1808, entered the city, and although no resistance was offered, the inhabitants imagining that they would be respected, it was given over to the soldiery, who “annexed ” everything they could possibly lay their hands on. Terrible stories are still told of the tortures worthy citizens were put to in order to compel them to divulge the whereabonts of their treasures, and the name of France is hated with a hatred only known to the swarthy Spaniard. One girl, a great beauty, Juanita Gomez, who became infatuated by a French officer, with her lover, suffered a horrible death. They were surprised together by a band of Segovians, who bound them, and muffling their heads with cloaks, bore them to the rock overhanging La Peña Grajera. At a given signal the cloaks were removed, as were also the ligaments. The despairing lovers were then ordered to leap over the rock. In vain they pleaded, implored, prayed. A living wall of steel encompassed them. The girl was the first to leap. The man, a craven, clung to the feet of his grim executioners, to the grass, to the rocks, and eventually his fingers had to be chopped off in order to compel him to take the death-fall. This is only one instance of the feeling against the sackers of Segovia. The best excursion from Segovia is to San Ildefonso, or La Granja, which can be struck by rail or diligence. This cool castle in the air—as the difference in Summer between La Granja and Madrid is as 689 to 832 Fahrenheit, say the Castilians—is a worthy chateau of the King of Spain. As he is the first and lostiest of all earthly sovereigns, so his abode soars nearest to heaven. The elevation of his residence at least cannot be doubted, as the palace is placed on the northwest range of the Sierra, some 3,840 feet above the level of the sea, and thus, in the same latitude as Naples, stands higher than the crater of Mount Vesuvius. The surrounding locality is truly Alpine—rocks, forests, crystal streams, waterfalls—la Peñalara towering 8,500 feet above all. While Nature is truly Spanish at La Granja, art is most decidedly French, for the one idea'd Philip V. could conceive no other excellence but that of Marly and Versailles. This King's shyness, like that of the present Ring of Bavaria, drove him into retirement, and he asked for nothing better than the company of his wife and his confessor. He was no sooner fixed on the Spanish throne than he medit ted its abdication, always hurboring, like Henry III. of Poland, a secret wish to return and reign in beloved France. It chanced that while hunting at Walsain, in 1720, he discovered this granja, then a grange or farmhouse of the Segovian Monks of La Parral. He lought the site of them, and here he died, July 9th, 1746, mnd here he lies buried. The Colegiata, built in the form of a Latin cross, is the first object of interest. On each side are the royal pews, or tribunas, inclosed with glass. The dome, pendentives and ceiling are painted in fresco by those academical twins of common-place, Bayeu and Mael a. The white stucco is picked out with gilding, and the retahlo is composed of fine jaspars with red pillars from Cabra. The altar was constructed at Naples. The tabernacle is of rich lapislazuli. The Virgin's wardrobe is absolutely dazzling in its magnificence, her cloak being incrusted with jewels. The especial relic in this church is the staff of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, held by Christina while giving birth to Isabel II. The illustrous founder is buried in a chapel
which lies to the west of the high altar, to which a door communicates; but it is usually entered by the sacristy, and it was by this entrance that I visited it. The tomb of Philip W. and his wife, Isabella Farnese with its medallions and Fame and Charity, and other ornaments is in hideous taste. A portion of the grand old granja is still preserved near the Fuente, for the building is a thing of expedients and patchwork, and so far is a bit of Spain. A long line of railing divides three sides of a square. The centre body, with a dome, is destined for the royal family, the wings being appropriated to their suites, guards, and officers. The facade fronts the garden, and is cheerful, although over-windowed, and looking like a long Corinthian conservatory. The salons above and below were once filled with paintings and antiques, among which were the marbles of Queen Christina of Sweden, purchased for Spain by Camillo Rosconi. After having been long neglected they were carted out to Madrid by Ferdinand VII., when he restored and refinished the palace with his favorite modern trumpery. The royal apartments are light, airy, and agreeable, without being magnificent. Strange events could these walls chronicle. Here, in January, 1724, Philip W. abdicated the crown, which he resumed in the next August, on the death of his son, urged once more to become a King by his wife, who, by all accounts, was pretty particularly weary of private life. Here, in 1783, Charles III. received the Count d'Artois (Charles X. of France) when on his way to take Gibraltar—a feat, however, which he failed to accomplish. Here, on August 18th, 1796, the minion Goday signed the famous and fatal treaty by which Spain was virtually handed over to revolutionized France. Here Ferdinand VII., September 18th, 1832, revoked the decree by which he had abolished the Salic law, and declared his daughter, Isabel, born October 10th, 1830, to be heiress to the crown, an act which led to civil war and disputed succession. Here Christina, in her turn, was deprived of royal rights, for here on August 12th, 1836, the rude soldiery, headed by one Garcia, a sergeant, compelled her to proclaim the Cadiz democratical institution of 1812. The result was the downfall and exile of the Queen Regent. The gardens of the Palace are among the finest in Spain; the grand walk in front, called the parterre—for everything here in name and style is French—looks over wondrous terraces and flowers and waters and picturesque mountains. Spring fruits ripen in the artificial garden in Autumn. Everything is artificial, and the cost was 45,000,000 of piastres, the precise amount of Philip W.'s debts when he shuffled off this mortal coil. Ferdinand VI., Philip's son and successor, stoutly refused to pay his father's debts. No amount of wheedling could induce him to part with a piastre. To form these gardens, rocks—nav, small mountains—were leveled, while great caverns were tunneled to admit of earth for the roots of trees. They were removing the earth in one of these caverns while I was there, and the mound raised by the stuff dug out was of no mean proportion. San Idelfonso, after all, is but an imitalion on a smaller scale of the gardens of Versailles, but its fountains are far more real than those of its celebrated French original. Pure water is the charm, requiring no force-pumps or pressure of any kind to send it flying in diamond showers high into the air. The Cascada Cenador is a superb sheet of falling water, which, under the sun of Castile, glitters like molten silver. It is supplied from a large pond, which the people of Aranjuez are modest enough to term el Mar, or the ocean. The gardens, in which art vies with natur, are divided
into high and low. They are laid out in grand style, | idea of enigma, but the men of his time were deeply exerbeing planted with avenues, labyrinths, statuary, etc., etc., cised over its solution. “Samson said, 'Out of the eater including twenty-six fountains, the most famous, the came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetFama, throwing water 130 feet into the air. Pbilip V. ness.' But they could not in three days expound the riddle. stopped before it on its completion. “This cost me three And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they said millions,” he sighed, "and I have only been amused three unto Samson's wife, 'Entice thy husband, that he may minutes."
declare unto us the riddle, lest we burn thee and thy Charles III. came every year to La Granja to fish and father's house with fire.' And Samson's wife wept before shoot, and here he set up a linen and a glass 'factory. him and said, “Thou dost but hate me, and lovest me not: While at La Granja a pleasant excursion can be made to thou hast put forth a riddle unto the children of my the Quita Pesares, the Sans Soucie of Christina, and where people, and hast not told it me.' And he said unto her, this modern Dido first met the Æneas Muñoz. I walked Behold I have not told it my father nor my mother, an il over to Valsain three miles, the ancient hunting-seat of shall I till it theo ?' And she wept before him the seven the Crown, and occupied by Philip V. during the burning days, while their feast lasted; and it came to pass on the of La Granja. There is boar-hunting in the royal seventh day that he told her, because she lay sore upon preserves, and Alfonso was daily expected, with his young him; and she told the riddle to the children of her bride-a bride destined so soon to die-Mercedes. people. And the men of the city said unto him on the
To return to Segovia. No one should visit Spain with seventh day before the sun went down, "What is sweeter out turning aside to see this wondrous old city of the than honey ? and what is stronger than a lion ?' And he Middle Ages-its walls, its Alcazar, its Cathedral, and its said unto them, 'If ye had not plowed with my heifer, ye Agneduct
had not found out my riddle.'"- Judges, xiv. 14-18. The riddle was one of rare ingenuity, and in the origin al
could be turned in every conceivable direction without RIDDLES.
disclosing its true meaning. It was clear as glass, and That our riddles are degenerating into mere jeu d'esprit yet the Philistines utterly failed to solve it until they is a great calamity. When the solema questions of life plowed with Samson's heiser. and destiny are changed into idle conceits, of what conse The riddle has a curious parallel in the German story of quence can it be how they are answered ? The fatal a woman who interceded for her husband. The man was riddle of the Sphinx was no matter of wit and laughter. under sentence of death, but the judges promised to reThe strange question : "What being has four feet, two lease him if his wife would give them a riddle they could feet and three feet; only one voice; but whose feet vary, not solve. The woman remembered that she had that day and when it has most, is weakest ?” so moved the men of passed a dead horse by the roadside, and that between its Thebes that they gave Edipus their kingdom and the ribs was a bird's nest containing six young birds, which hand of the queen for answering, "Man I" It required she took with her. She therefore propounded this ridule : oideo-pous, swollen feet, to explain a riddle of the feet, and a man under the pressure of necessity to solve the prob.
"As ik hin güng, as ik wedder kam, lem of mankind. The fable relates that when the Sphinx
Den Lebendigen ik uet den Doden nam.
Süss (sechs) de güungen de Saowten (den siebenten) quitt, found her occupation gone she leaped from a high rock ; Raet to, gy Herren, nu ist Tyt."* but she certainly did not destroy herself, for the poet's lines are still true :
The judges had no heifer to plow with, and so the "The Sphinx is drowsy,
culprit was released. Her wings are furied;!
Some of Solomon's Proverbs are, strictly speaking, Her ear is heavy,
riddles. Josephus describes a contest in riddles, in which She broods on the world."
Solomon vanquished Hiram, King of Tyre, and was himShe will continue to "brood on the world,” every mo- self defeated by one of Hiram's subjects. An English ment demanding "the fate of the manchild and the mean writer calls it a philosophical gambling match. Large ing of man.” They who solve the riddie of their own sums of money were lost and won at ancient riddlehumanity save themselves and others, while all who fail matches. The "hard questions” with which the Queen are devoured. It was no shrewd guess on the part of of Sheba proved Solomon are believed to bave been Edipus-he was the answer, and in self-recognition he riddles. Erasmus thinks the Saviour employed the riddle solved the problem. It took the right man, but the mo- in Matthew xii. 43–45. We have a riddle in Revelation ment of necessity was needed to bring him out. That xiii
. 16, and a challenge to its solution in the eighteenth moment so fatal to all the fools in Thebes was the corona- verse. The Sphinx of Theocritas is a famous example of tion of Edipus. For nothing should a wise man return the classic enigma. Homer's death is said to have been deeper thanks than for necessity. It brings him in con caused by mortification at not being able to solve a tact with himself
, disciplines bis affections, ripens his un riddle. The most inexplicable riddle of the ancients is derstanding, strengthens his nature and enriches his expe. called, from a Latin inscription at Bologne, "Ælia Lælia rience ; it thrusts goodness and greatness upon him-it Crispis,” and may be translated into English thus : does more, it reveals to him the goodness and greatness
"ÆLIA LÆLIA CRISPIS. latent in his nature. A moment of necessity is worth an "Neither man, nor woman, nor androgyno age of opportunity.
Neither girl, nor boy, nor eld; Ohpesargen's Sphinx, in six volumes, shows us how the Neither wife nor maid; riddle is fallen from its high place. A riddle is now only
But all (of these). a conundrum, and often a very coarse one at that. The “Carried off neither by hunger, nor sword, nor poison; "Demands Joyous," the treatise of the Abbé Cotiro,
But by all (of them). whose modesty did not prevent bim from assuming the
Neither in heaven, nor in the water, nor in the earth; title, "Le Père de l'Enigme," and the Mercure de France
But biding everywhere. all bear witness to the degradation of the riddle,
* As I came along, I took the living out of the dead: six got Samson's riddle is persoral, and comes nearer to our quit of the seventh ; guess away, my masters; now is the time.