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garden gate," "Jump up and kiss me,” and “Kiss me ere I rise."

Without adding further illustrations to show how numerous and varied are the associations which have in the course of years clustered round the act of kissing, we must not omit . to mention the celebrated

“kissing-comfits ”- sugarplums which were once extensively used by fashionable persons to make the breath sweet. Falstaff, it may be remembered, in the “Merry Wives of Windsor" (act v. sc. 5), alludes to these, for, when em. bracing Mrs. Ford, he exclaims, “Let it thunder to the tune of green sleeves, hail kissing - comfits, and

THE HISTORY OF KISSING.— A MORNING KISS. SEE PAGE 611, snow eringoes ;” and in Massinger's “Very Woman” (act i. so. 1) they are prob Alexander the Great defeated the celebrated Theban ably referred to:

band at Cheronea before arriving at the age of eighteen, “Faith, search our pockets, and if you find there ascended the throne at twenty, had conquered the world Comfits of ambergrease to help our kisses,

at twenty-five, and died at thirty-two. Conclude us faulty."

Julius Cæsar commanded a fleet before Mitylene and

distinguished himself before the age of twenty-two ; comEARLY DEVELOPED POWER TO COMMAND.

pleted his first war in Spain and was made consul before

the age of forty; conquered Gaul, twice crossed the The following list of great generals whose superior Rhine, and twice invaded Britain before the age of fortycapacity was exhibited in early manhood was compiled by five; won the battle of Pharsalia and obtained supreme the late Brevet Major-General Emory Upton :

power at fifty-two. He died at fifty-six, the victor of five Philip of Macedon ascended the throne at twenty-two, hundred battles and the conqueror of one thousand cities. was the conqueror of Greece at forty-five, and died at Hannibal was made commander-in-chief of the Carthaforty-seven.

ginian army in Spain at twenty-six, and had won all his

great battles in Italy, concluding with Candæ, at thirty-one.

Scipio Africanus, the elder, distinguished himself at the battle of Ticinus at sixteen, and at twenty-nine overthrew the power of Carthage at Zama.

Scipio Africanus, the younger, had conquered the other Carthaginian armies and completed the destruction of Carthage at thirty-six.

Genghis Khan achieved many of his victories and became emperor of the Monguls at forty.

Charlemange was crowned king at twenty-six, was master of France and the larger part of Germany at twenty-nine, placed on his head the iron crown of Italy at thirty-two, and conquered Spain at thirtysix.

Gonsalvo de Cordova, the great captain, had gained a great reputation and was made commander-in-chief of the army of Italy at forty-one.

Henry IV. of France was at THE EASTER KISS IN RUSSIA.

the head of the Huguenot army


at sixteen, became King of Navarre at nineteen, over Lord Clive distinguished himself at twenty-two, attained threw his enemies and became King of France before the bis greatest fame at thirty-five, and died at fifty. age of forty.

Wolfe was oonqueror of Quebec at thirty-two. Montecucali, at the age of thirty-one, with 2,000 horse, Napoleon was a major at twenty-four, general of brigade attacked 10,000 Swedes, and captured all their baggage at twenty-five, and commander-in-chief of the army of and artillery ; gained the victory of Triebel at thirty-two; Italy at twenty-six ; achieved all his victories and was defeated the Swedes and saved Denmark at forty-nine; finally overthrown before the age of forty-four. and at fifty-three defeated the Turks in the battle of St. Gothard. Sixe was a maréchal-de-camp at twenty-four, marshal of

A BOHEMIAN PRESENT. France at forty-four, and at forty-nine gained the famous victory at Fontenoy.

LA BRUYERE, the classical author of the time of Louis Vauban, the great engineer, had conducted several XIV., was in the habit of dropping in, during his strolis sieges at twenty-five, was maréchal-de-camp at forty-three, I about Paris, at the house of Michallet, the printer and and commissaire général of fortifications of France at forty-five.

Turenne, passing through the grades of captain, colonel, major-general and lieutenantgeneral, became a marshal of Franos at thirty-two, and won all bis distinction before he was forty.

The great Condé defeated the Spaniards at Rooroi at twenty-two, and won all his military fame before the age of twenty-five.

Prince Eugene of Savoy was colonel at twenty-one, lieutenant field - marshal at twenty-four, and shortly after general field marshal. He gained the battle of Zenta at thirty-four, and co-operated with Marlborough at Blenheim at forty-one.

Peter the Great of Russia was proolaimed Czar at ten years of age, organized a large army at twenty, won the victory of Embach at thirty, founded St. Petersburg at thirty-one, and died at the age of fifty-five.

Charles XIL completed his first campaign agaiost Denmark at eighteen, overthrow 80,000 Russians at Narva before nineteen, conquered Poland and Saxony at twentyfour, and died at thirty-six.

Frederick the Great ascended the throne at twenty-eight, terminated the first Silesian war at thirty, and the second at thirty-three.

Ten years later, with a population of but 5,000,000, he triumphed over a league of more than one hundred million of people.

Cortes effected the conquest of Mexico and completed his military career before the age of thirty-six.

Pizarro completed the conquest of Peru at thirty-five, and died at forty.


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bookseller. There he would poke among the old and new cubines. The husband must have no acquain tance, how. books and romp with Michallet's little daughter, a pretty ever slight, with women other than those of his own child, to whom he had taken a fancy. One day in the year harem, and should he observe slippers outside of the 1686 he took a roll of manuscript from bis pocket and harem door, he knows that ladies are visiting, and therehanded it to her father, saying:

fore cannot enter his own house. Then, again, if per“See here, will you print this? I cannot say if it will chance he strolls through the bazaar, there must be no be worth your while, but should it produce anything, it recognition of any of his own women, although they may will be my contribution to your little daughter's dowry." be throwing away his money right and left in a most

In 1687 the “Caracteres de la Bruyere" was published. lavish way on silks and jewels. He must not say a word, Half a dozen editions were snapped up, yielding a profit and so strokes his beard and passes on with an “Inof over one hundred thousand francs. The honest book shallah” (“Please God"), or “Allah kerim” (God is great seller went to the author, begging him to share the money and merciful"); for now he knows only too well how the with him. The generous author laughed at him.

money goes ! “What are you talking about ?” he demanded. “It is European ladies are the objects of much attention and no business either of yours or mine. It is your child's curiosity on the part of the women of a harem. Their property. I am only glad it has turned out so well." dresses are felt, they are pawed all over and asked childish

So little Mlle. Michallet remained in possession of her questions incessantly; for it must be remembered that a fortune.

large barem consists of wives and domestic slaves, the latter counted by hundreds. A young English lady, seventeen

years old, of great personal attractions and engaging man. THE END.

ners, some time back visited a harem, accompanied by The course of the weariest river

her mother and friends. The women questioned her, and Ends in the great gray sea;

would not believe that she had no children, or even a The acorn, for ever and ever,

husband. One of the wives, who took a great fancy to Strives upward to the tree.

her, threw her arms round her neck and entreated her to The rainbow, the sky adorning,

stay with them for ever. She could have any husband Shines promise through the storm;

she liked ; and even was so kind as to especially recomThe glimmer of coming morning Through midnight gloom will form.

mend her own, adding that she was sure he would soon By time all knots are riven,

want another wife, and that she, the real wife, would Complex although they be,

much rather it was this nice English girl, as then there And peace at last be given,

would always be the pleasure of having her as a friend Dear, both to you and to mo.

and companion. Here was a most decided offer. A firm Then though the path may be dreary,

refusal, however, of these honors caused much surprise Look onward to the goal;

and disappointment
Though the heart and the head be weary,

Lot faith inspire the soul;
Seek the right, though the wrong be tempting,

Speak the truth at any cost;

SHORTLY after the breaking-out of the French Revola-
Vain is all weak exempting

tion its advocates denounced William Pitt as “an enemy When once the gem is lost. Let strong hand and keen eye be ready

to the human race," that man, "so easy to live with," who For plain and ambushed foes;

sang the song about himself, called "Billy Pitt, the Tory.” Thought earnest and fancy steady

His secretary one day told him that a foreigner who spokə Bear best unto the close.

English tolerably well had twice or thrice asked to see him, The heavy clouds may be raining,

but not looking like a proper applicant, had been sent But with evening comes the light;

away, the great man's time being too precious for him to Though the dark low winds are complaining.

admit every stranger who on frivolous pretexts might seek Yet the sunrise gilds the height;

to gratify an idle curiosity. This person, however, had And Love has his hidden treasure

said he should return in an hour; the secretary therefore For the patient and the pure;

thought it his duty to inform Mr. Pitt of such intention, And Time gives his fullest measure

and asking his further orders in the affair. “Have the To the workers wbo endure;

goodness," said the Minister, “to open that top left-hand And the Word that no law has shaken Has the future plodge supplied ;

drawer in that cabinet, and bring me its contents." These For we know that when we “awaken"

were a pair of pistols and a morocco case. Opening the We shall be "satisfied."

letter, he produced a snuff-box, in wbich was set a portrait. “Is that like our visitor ?” asked Pitt. “It is

the man, sir," answered the secretary. "Ha, I have exHAREMS,

pected him for some days! He is sent over to assassinate

me; so, when he calls again, let him be shown up." OWING to the nature of the institution, our l.nowledge of "Sir," excluimed the attached retainer, “will you expose harem life is entirely derived from the visits of Earopean to danger your life on which so much depends ?” “There ladies. The Turkish authorities, it must be confessed, will be no danger, I thank you, but you may be within are very amiable in this respect, and little difficulty is ex. call, if you please." Accordingly, the Frenchman, on his perienced when the introductions are good. The Turk is return, was ushered into the room where William Pitt sat commonly believed to be a sort of Bluebeard. It is not alone, a loaded pistol in one hand, the miniature in the 80. The lower classes never have more than one wife, and other. it is only in the case of wealthy Pashas that there are “Monsieur Mehée de la Touche," said Pitt calmly, three or four wives, the latter number being legally "you see I am in every way prepared for you, thanks to allowed to every Mossulman, according to the Koran ; an agent employed by our Government. Attempt my life, this is exclusive of almost any numbər of slaves and con. I and you shall instantly pay the forfeit. In any case I

shall have you secured and given over to the law.” The intended assassin stood paralyzed and dumb at this cool reception. “But,” continued Pitt, “there is another alternative—personal safety and high rewards are in your Ipower. Sell your services to Great Britain ; make your market of whatever secret information you can procure that may guard us against the machinations of your country; be, in fact, one of the necessary evils which policy forces us to use in desperate cases; do what no honorable man could do to save yourself from speedy death; your conscience is stained by purposed murder. Comply perforce with these conditions, and you shall be as liberally paid as you must, by all parties, be justly despised.” The secretary used to repeat his illustrious master's words, which were, as nearly as possible, to the foregoing effect. The clever miscreant joyfully accepted these terms, and for many years earned the bribes of a spy in our behalf.


PERHAPs the most fortunate cure ever performed by a physician, pecuniarily speaking, was that performed by the English surgeon Broughton, on the nabob's daughter. In the year 1636, Broughton was sent from Surat, on the Bombay coast, to Agra, an important city in the heart of India, to treat one of the daughters of the Emperor Shah-Jehan; and, as good fortune and his own skill would have it, the princess was cured. By way of recompense, the Emperor, among other favors, gave him the privilege of a free commerce throughout his dominions. *

Broughton immediately repaired to Bengal, there to purchase goods; and scarcely had he arrived when he was summoned to attend the favorite of the nabob of the province, who was suffering under a dangerous and distressing disease. This patient, also, he restored to pristine health and vigor, whereupon the nabob settled a pension on him; and not only confirmed to him the privilege of the empire, but promised to allow the same to all the English who should come to Bengal.

Broughton communicated this to the English governor at Surat, and it was by the advice of the latter that the Company, in 1640, sent two ships from England to Bengal. Such was the origin of a commerce and of territorial acquisitions little dreamed of in Broughton's time.

A MECAHANIC's REAL WEALTH.—The mechanic may imagine that, when he had added together the amount of his savings, the value of his home and of his tools, he has accounted for all his wealth. But how much he has omitted His strong arm, his expert hands, his knowledge of his trade, his physical endurance, his reputation as a superior and faithful workmen—these are of more worth to him in the future, even from a money point of view, than all his material possessions. With them he can repair losses and make good deficiencies, and, if need be, with good heart and courage begin the world anew ; but, rob him of these, and he is poor and pitiable indeed.

It is eminently desirable that the practical and the speculative powers should be united as far as possible in every individual. He who can see both the near and the remote, who can take a comprehensive grasp of a subject, and yet arrange in every detail with precision, has a great advantage over him who can do only one. The very first step to supplying such deficiency is to be conscious of our own lack, and to respect and appreciate the needed power as soon as we discover it in others.


SoME years ago, a poor woman was discovered lying dead on the floor of her room in a low part of Westminster, with such marks of violence upon her body—notably a deep longitudinal cut on the head, which had incised a bone of the skull itself—as to point to the conclusion that she had been the victim of foul-play. Her husband was taken into custody, and put upon trial for murder. In making his defense, he accounted for the bruises, blocdstains, and other collateral evidence in various plausible ways; and for the scalp-wound by showing that the room was an attic with a broken skylight in the roof, and insinuating that a sharp-edged piece of glass must have fallen on his wife's head as she stood underneath. The surgeon who had been called in to view the body, in giving his evidence, expressed his opinion that a piece of glass in falling would not have sufficient force to cut into a bone. Notwithstanding this and other facts tending to prove that there was no moral doubt as to the guilt of the accused, the balance of legal testimony against him was not strong enough to convict, and he escaped. The surgeon—long since risen to the top of the professional tree, and now a man of European reputation—was at that time curator of an anatomical museum, where, in the department devoted to zoology and comparative anatomy, stood the skeleton of a cow. A few weeks after the trial above quoted, a violent thunderstorm, accompanied by hail, burst over London one night, and much damage was done; amongst other things, the museum skylights were extensively shattered. When the curator arrived next morning, he found a spiculum of broken glass actually sticking upright in the very edge of one of the sharp prominences of the bone—technically, the spinous processes—projecting from the vertebrae of the cow ! I have often heard him narrate the incident at lecture, as a warning to young men against conclusions jumped at on the strength of preconceived ideas instead of patient investigation and experience. The wound in the woman's skull might, after all, have been produced by falling glass.


ONE of the most eccentric wills of modern times was lately quietly set aside by Vice-Chancellor Bacon, in the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, England. The document in question was executed in May, 1868, by a Mrs. Anne Burdett, of Gilmorton, in Leicestershire, and her leading testamentary dispositions were made in a codicil, which directed certain appointed trustees, immediately after her funeral, to cause the windows and doors of every room in her dwelling-house to be bricked up in a solid and substantial manner, thus immuring all the goods and chattels in the house, even to the clock on the mantelpiece, and to continue the bricking-up for a period of twenty years. The kitchen only was to remain unsealed ; and in this apartment some respectable married couple were to be installed, at a peppercorn rent of one halfpenny per week, their duty being to take care of the premises, and, in particular, to see that no attempts were made to raise the brick blockade of the doors and windows. In order that her directions should be carried out to the letter, certain benefits under the will were given to the trustees, which benefits they were to forfeit if the house ceased to be in a strictly bricked-up and barricaded state.

By another codicil this lively and genial testatrix directed that the windows should be boarded up and nailed with good long nails, bent down on the inside, and then



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