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light he could not read, and in which he trembled. He and he knew he would pass free from among them. He was scarcely reassured when she touched his hand in laughed bitterly, and looked from Lyon to Dorothea. greeting.

“And you!" he said "you know me from the first ?" “The last of Dorothea Vance's caprices !” she said, “Yes,” said Dorothea, fierce and beautiful as an avengplacing the lamp on a small malachite stand, and facing ing angel. "I knew you. I brought your mother here George Latten, with a dazzling and bewitching smile, to identify you. I had you dogged by night and by day; her pretty hands claspsed, her bright eyes shining on and in my visits among the hospitals, I found your brother, him.

who had come in pursuit of you-Cain, that you are !-"All your caprices are as beautiful as yourself," he lying, stricken down by an accident; and this is the managed to say, mechanically, through dry lips, for the result !” intangible terror was closing in upon him, whence or how “Very effective !" said Altamond Grey: "but you seem he knew pot.

to forget that you are my promised wife, Miss Vance.” “Even to my whim of visiting hospitals, and bringing Dorothea turned to Lyon, and laid her hand in his. my dainty raiment in contact with my fellow-pieces of “I was married to Lyon Grey an hour ago." clay, whom we call the poor ?” said Dorothea Vance, "Well,” said Altamond Grey, coolly, “I suspect I must with a sudden flash of mockery in her eyes. “Your con- be rather de trop here, so I shall make my adious. It is version, parole d'honneur, is sudden !"

not likely we shall meet again !" and, with a wave of his “I loathe the poor and poverty," he said, looking coolly hand and a smile, he left the room, and within an hour had away from her and gnawing his full underlip.

left the city, with all the available funds he could collect. And Dorothea Vance, the angel of consolation to the Well, so the affair ended, except that it left Lyon an starving, the lame, the blind, the halt, was going to aged and melancholy man, to whom the wifely affection marry this man! Were not her first pure instincts of of Dorothea was as a glimpse of heaven, and yet had no terror of him true and faithful witnesses ?

power to blot out the memory of the past. The glamour of his beauty was upon her; she would A man with the glorious face of Altamond Grey was awake, and—too late-words of anguish! Intolerable swept away with yellow fever, during a terrifio visitation death of Hope, the flame of Life!

of the scourge to New Orleans, and was buddled, a name“George,” she said, looking with arch eyes at Mrs. less pauper, into a common pit, with scores of others. Danscombe, “my last escapade is my worst. Will you On his finger was a worn gold ring, with a ruby-heart marry me this evening, instead of to-morrow at church ? dropped upon its circle. All is prepared. The clergyman and witnesses are here, and I-I am ready !" “Dorothea I”

THE HISTORY OF KISSING. "I am in earnest," she said, looking at him seriously. “My dear,” cried Mrs. Dupscombe, “think of what

By T. F. THISTLETON DYER. people will say! In your position, too ! and the guests As an act expressive of endearment, kissing would apinvited!

pear to be the most natural. "'Tis certain," says Steele, Dorothea caught her hands in hers affectionately. “Nature was its author, and that it began with the first

“When I was a queer little elf of a child, you dear old courtship.” Although, however, the first symbol of affecgoose !" she said, "I used to introduce myself as “no- tion throughout the civilized world, yet in days gone by it body's business. I am in the same predicament yet!" was entirely unknown to many races, such as the aborigines

As in a dream, George Latten found himself standing of Australia, the New Zealanders, and the Tahitians. Sir with Dorothea before the clergyman, in the wide, bright John Lubbock, in his “ Prehistoric Times” (1878, p. 440), silence of those rooms, with the first words of the marriage- speaking of the various ways by which the feelings are service falling on his ears, as if from some high-lifted expressed in different countries, has shown that by the shore among the stars.

Esquimaus kissing was formerly unknown, and remarks Then he heard Dorothea whisper to him, "Have you a that the Hill tribes of Chittagong do not say “Kiss me," ring ?” and he began, mechanically, to remove one from but “Smell me.” Indeed, the circumstance that certain his finger ; but, in a sudden, silver, shrill voice, she said : rude tribes have no knowledge of what may be regarded “Stay! I will furnish one!"

as one of the very earliest forms of primitive culture may With a hasty movement, she started from his side, and be considered as a proof of primeval barbarism. The fact, stretched out her white arm to him, dropping into his too, is all the more remarkable because of the earliest hand a bruised ring of gold, a ruby heart dropped upon ages in the world's history-from its very infancy-the its shining circle.

act of kissing has been handed down as the natural expresShe was facing him now, pale as some wondrous statue sion of affeetion. And so one would have imagined that cf ivory, her eyes outflashing the diamonds blazing about slightest intercourse of cultured races with uncivilized her-beside her a man with a haggard face and an almost communities would at once have taught them almost in. skeleton frame, even yet magnificent in its colossal pro- tuitively to embrace so simple an exponent of feeling. portions, the miner of Water-hole Guloh, Lyon Grey! Without, however, further discussing this subject, which

The devil did not desert his angel. Altamond Grey Alung is rather one for the student of anthropology, there can be the ring at his feet, and faced them, grand in his young no doubt that the custom of kissing is of all acts the beauty as some star-crowned creation of mythology. most universal, and in the present paper we propose to

“So !” he said, “the game is up! I thought when I give a brief survey of the numerous rites and ceremonies stole on your solitude, you thinking me thousands of with which in the course of history it has been promin. miles away, at the college at which your bounty kept me, ently associated. that I had rid myself of you for ever, Lyon. That is the In the first place, then, as a mode of salutation, we may traitor ;” and he kicked the ring at his feet. “I lost it in trace the custom of kissing to a very remote period, your shanty. Well, how is it to be ?"

numerous instances occurring in the Sacred Writings. Thus The young villain saw the unutterable anguish of com- we read how men saluted the sud, moon, and stars by passion and hopelessness of him in that dark, kingly face, I kissing the band, a superstition of which Job says he was

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taking an oath can by any
means be avoided, the false
witness escapes the risk of in.
curring the charge of perjury.
“It has occasionally been ad.
vanced,” we are informed, “as
a plea of legal non-liability in
actions for false swearing, that
the accused kissed his or her
own right thumb which held
the volume, and never touched
it with the lips at all.”

Then there is in England the
kissing the sovereign's hand
at court, in connection with
which may be related the
following anecdote. In China,
it appears, the person admitted
to the presence of the Celestial
Emperor prostrates himself
nine times, each time beating
his head against the ground.
This act of ceremony is to be
performed to the emperor's
place, throne, or chair of state
even though he himself should
be absent. In the year 1816,
when Lord Amherst went as
ambassador to China, an im-
perial banquet was given to
him and his suite; but when
he was called to pay the usual


emperor was present, he re

fused. When Napoleon at St. never guilty-the same honor having been tendered to Baal. | Helena heard of this, he said, “the English minister had Bat, apart from such reference as these, abundant evidence acted wrongly in not ordering him to comply with the of the universality of this practice in past and modern customs of the place he was sunt to, otherwise they ought times is to be found in the writings of most countries. not to have sent him at all.” He further added, “Different

The Greeks, we know, were in the habit of kissing the nations have different customs. In England you kiss the lips, hands, knees, or feet, in salutations, according as king's hand at couit. Such a thing in France would be they considered the person worthy of more or less respect. looked upon as ridiculous, and the person who did so

In Homer we see Priam kissing the hands and embrace would be held up to publio scorn ; but still, the French ing the knees of Achilles while he supplicates for the body ambassador who performed such an act would not be conof Hector. The custom also prevailed in ancient Rome, sidered as having degraded himself. In England, some and Mr. Disraeli, in his “Curiosities of Literature," re- hundred years back, the king was served kneeling; the ferring to it, remarks how "the great respect paid to the tribunes, consuls, or dictators obliged individuals to live with them in a more distant and respectful manner; and instead of embracing them as they did formerly, they considered themselves as fortunate if allowed to kiss their hands. Under the emperors, kissing hands became an essential duty, even for the great themselves." The Carthaginians, as a mark of love and sign of friendship, were in the habit of kissing their right hands each together, and then would kiss one another. Indeed, under a variety of forms the act of kissing has entered largely in most countries into the ceremonies of salutation; and, at the present day, many of the kissing customs kept up, apart from their social usage, are interesting in so far as they have been handed down by our forefathers from the distant past.

Another important use to which kissing has been applied has been termed "the kiss of ceremony." Thus, in our courts of law and other places, the form of kissing the New Testament, as an acknowledgment of the juror's faith therein, in support of the sacred nature to him of the vow he has just taken, is an old-established usage. Indeed, there is a popular notion that if " kissing the Book " in


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certain woman, when making an offering to the Pope, not only kissed his band, but committed the terrible outrage of squeezing it. The Pope, seeing the danger to which he was thus exposed, cut off his hand, and by this means escaped the contamination to which he had been rendered liable. Since that time the precaution has been taken of kissing the Pope's toe instead of his hand; and lest any one should doubt the accuracy of this account, the


same ceremony now takes place in Spain. A man who goes into a country must comply with the ceremonies in use there. And it would have been no degradation whatever for Lord Amherst to have submitted to such ceremonies before the Emperor of China as are performed by the first mandarins of that empire."

In Théophile Gautier's “Constantinople of To-day" there is an account of the ceremony of

historian argues that the hand, which had been cut off five or six hundred years before, still existed at Rome - & standing miracle, since it was preserved in its original state, free from corruption. When the ceremony of kissing the Pope's toe takes place, he wears on the occasion a slipper with a cross. We may note here that kissing the foot is a common Oriental

sign of respect, and is said to have been THE KISS OF CHILDHOOD AND OF YOUTH.

introduced into the West by the later kissing the Sultan's toe, an honor which is reserved for Roman emperors, whose court ceremonies were mixed the vizier, ministers and certain privileged pashas. This with so many servile customs. act of homage is performed with the utmost solemnity, Among other ceremonious acts in which kissing holds and is marked by every sign of respect worthy of so im- the prominent place may be noticed that of kissing portant an occasion.

the hand—an act supposed to indicate extreme gratiReferring, in the next place, to the custom of kissing tude; this custom, too, is still kept up amongst the the Pope's toe, Matthew of Westminster thus explains its lower orders, who often show their sense of thankfulness origin. Formerly it was usual to kiss the band of his to a benefactor by kissing his hand. Then there is the Holiness, but toward the close of the eighth century a practice of kissing one's hand as a mark of courtesy, to

which we find an allusion in Howell's “Familiar Letters"

Shakespeare, again, introduces it, as in the “Merry (1650)—." This letter comes to kisse your hands from fair Wives of Windsor,” where to kiss the hostess is indirectly Florence, a city so beautifull.” In a less refined form spoken of as a common courtesy of the day. In Lupton's this custom was termed “kissing the claws,” to which "London,” too (1632), an established attraction of a Taylor refers :

country inn, we are told, was a pretty hostess or her “ These men can kisse their claws, with-Jack, how is't ?

daughter to salute the guests, without which, it would apAnd take and shake me kindly by the fist, And put me off with dilatory cogges.“

pear, there was small chance of its becoming a popular

resort for the customers of that period. Again, amongst In former years the fractice of saluting ladies with a some of the old customs, in which kissing held a pron.ikiss seems to have been very general, and many amusing nent place, may be mentioned the ceremony of betrothanecdotes of this social custom are on record. It was, ing, where it served as a kind of seal. Thus, in “Twelfth however, occasionally severely censured as being open to Night" (act v, sc. 1), Shakespeare makes the priest say, abuse. Thus, for instance, John Bunyap, in his “Grace Abounding," speaking of it, strongly condemns it. "The

“A contract of eternal bond of love,

Confirm'd by mutual joinder of your hands, common salutation of women," he says, “I abhor; it is

Attested by the holy close of lips, odious to me in whomscever I see it. When I have seen

Strengthened by interchangement of your rings; good men saluto those women that they have visited, or

And all the ceremony of this compact, that have visited them, I have made my objectiors against

Seal'd in my function, by my testimony." it; and when they have answered that it was but a piece we may also compare the following passage in “King of civility, I have made my objections against it; I have John ” (act ii. sc. i), where King Philip says: told them that it was not a comely sight. Some, indeed, have urged the holy kiss; but then I have asked them

“Young princes, close your hands." why they made balks 2-why they did salute the most handsome, and let the ill-favored go ?" In spite, how. Whereupon the Duke of Austria says : ever of the censure poured on this old fashion by even

" And your lips, too; for I am well assured conscientious moralists of the time, there can be no doubt

That I did so when I was first assured.” that it found favor in the eyes of most of the ladies of our own and other countries.

A very early instance of this custom occurs in the It has been often remarked, with more or less truth, i "Life of St. Leobard," who flourished about the year 580 that there are few of the fair ses who are, in their inmost (written by Gregory of Tours), and who is related to have heart, indifferent to the admiration paid to them in daily given to his affianced a ring, a kiss and a pair of shoes. life, and who would regard with disfavor a kiss politely Douce, in his "Illustrations of Shakespeare" (1839, p. offered to them from some gallant swain whom, it may be, 69), quotes a curious anecdote from the "Miracles of the they have captivated by their countless charms. History, Virgin Mary," compiled in the twelfth century by a we know, is daily repeating itself, and it is difficult to be. French monk.' lieve that human nature is different nowadays from what

It appears that a young man, falling in love with an it was in years gone by, although the manners of society image of the Virgin, inadvertently placed on one of its may have undergone certain changes. It is easy to criti- fingers a ring which he had received from his mistress, cise in unmeasured terms the social usages of our prede-accompanying the gift with the most tender language and cessors, but, after all, it must not be forgotten that in the mark of affection. A miracle instantly took place, and present age the same customs are often as popular as ever; the ring remained immovable. The young man, greatly the only difference being that, instead of having public alarmed for his rash conduct, at once consulted his friends, recognition, they find a tacit acceptance.

who advised him by all means to devote himself entirely Returning again to some of the famous instances of sal. to the service of the Madonna. Unable, however, to relinutation by kissing, it may be remembered how Cavendish, quish his love for his former mistress, he married her. in his “ Biography of Cardinal Wolsey," dwells on this But, alas ! on the wedding-night the newly betrothed custom, when describing his visit at Monsieur Crequi's lady appeared to bim, and urged her claim with so many castle : “I being in a fair, great dining-chamber," he tells dreadful menaces that he felt himself compelled to abandon us, "where the table was covered for dinner, and there I his bride, and that very night to retire privately to a berattended my lady's coming; and after she came thither mitage, where he became a monk for the rest of his days. out of her own chamber, she received me most gently,

Not only, too, did the kiss form a part of the old cerclike ons of noble estate, having a train of gentlewomen. mony of affiancing, but it even constituted a portion of the And when she, with her train, came all out, she said to marriage service itself, as appears from a rubrio in one of me: 'For as much,' quoth she, “as ye be an Englishman the Salisbury missals. It may be remembered what an whose custom it is in your country to kiss all ladies and excellent use Shakespeare has made of this custom in the gentlewomen without offense, and although it be not so in “ Taming of the Shrew," where he relates how Petruchio this realm (France), yet will I be so bold as to kiss you, (act iii. sc. 2) :

“ Took the bride about the neck; and so shall all my maidens.' By means whereof I kissed

And kiss'd her lips with such a clamorous smack, my lady and all her maidens."

That at the parting all the church did echo." Chaucer frequently alludes to this old custom, and our readers may recollect how, in the “Sompnour's Tale,” he Again, in “King Richard II.” (act v. sc. 1), where the notices the zeal with which the holy father performs this Duke of Northumberland announces to the King that he is aot of gallantry. When the mistress of the house enters to be sent to Pomfret, and his wife to be banished to the room, where he is basily engaged in "groping ten. France, the King pathetically exclaims : derly" her husband's conscience, we are told how

"Doubly divorced! Bad men, you violate
“He riseth up full cnrtishly

A twofold marringe, 'twixt my crown and me,
And her embraceth in his armes Darrow,

And then betwixt me and my married wife.
And kisseth her sweet, and chirketh as a sparrow

Let me unkiss the oath 'twixt thee and mo;
With his lippes."

And yet not so, for with a kiss 'twas made."

Marston, too, in his "Insatiate Countess," says:

the figure continuing until every pair had followed the

example set them. “The kisse thou'gavest me in the church, here take."

The Puritans of the Elizabethan age strongly con

demned this dance, and Stubbes exclaims, “What clipAt the present day there is a popular notion in some ping, what calling, what kissing and bussing, and monchparts of the country that it is the privilege of the parsoning of one another!” In spite, however, of all opposition, who ties the knot to be the first to kiss the bride on the a writer in the “Graphic and Historical Illustrator ("1834, conolusion of the ceremony. Mr. Henderson, in his “Folklore of the Northern Counties” (1879, p. 39), relatos p. 183) remarks that this kissing-dance “ ran a career un

paralleled in the history of salutation. It spread from how a clergyman, a stranger in the neighborhood, after land to land : and everywhere, from the court to the performing a marriage in a Yorkshire village, was sur cottage, was enthusiastically welcomed.” Wraxall

, also, prised to see the party keep together as if expecting some relates in his “ History of France," how the Duke of thing. “What are you waiting for?” he asked, at last. Montpensier, only a few days before he expired, was “Please, sir," was the bridegroom's answer, "yo've no removed from his bed purposely to witness “one of these kissed Molly." Not many years ago, we are told how a fair lady from the dances, which was performed in his own palace by some of

the young nobility.” County of Durham, who was married in the South of Eng

In modern days we may compare with this once fashland, so undoubtedly reckoned for the clerical salute, ionable dance that popular game known as “Kiss in the that, after waiting for it in vain, she boldly took the Ring," which is kept up with so much enthusiasm initiative and bestowed a kiss on the much-amazed South- amongst the lower orders. Once more, to quote another country vicar. The practice, too, was in years past much scene of merriment in which kissing constitutes the chief kept up in Scotland, as is referred to in the following old attraction, we may mention that Christmas gambol known song, in which the bridegroom, addressing the minister, as “ Kissing under the Mistletoe,” for, in accordance with says:

an old notion formerly prevalent, the maid who was not "It's no very decent for you to be kissing;

kissed under it at Christmas would not be married in that It does not look woel in the black coat ava, "Twould have set you far better tae hae gi'en your blessing

year. Than thus by such tricks to be breaking the law.

This custom is said to have originated thus : Balder, Dear Wattie, quo' Robin, it's just an old custom,

the Apollo of Scandinavian mythology, was killed by a And the thing that is common should ne'er be ill ta'en, mistletoe arrow given to the blind Höder, by Loki, the For where ye are wrong, if yo had na a wished him,

God of Mischief. Balder was, nevertheless, restored to You should ha' boon first. It's yoursel' is to blame.”

life, but henceforth the mistletoe was placed under the

care of Friga, and was never again to be an instrument of It has been suggested that this custom may be a relio of evil till it touched the earth, the empire of Loki. On this the osculum pacis, or the presentation of the Pax to the newly account it is always suspended from ceilings, and so married pair. Mr. Henderson also informs us that some whenever persons of opposite sexes pass under it they years ago it was customary in Ireland for the clergyman to give one another the kiss of peace and love, in the full conclude the marriage ceremony with the words, "Kiss assurance that this plant is no longer an instrument of your wife," and occasionally “the bridegroom was hard

mischief. put to prevent one or other of his companions from inter

Lastly, of the many kissing terms employed at different cepting the salute designed for himself."

times, there was one formerly in use termed "Kissing the Again, in years gone by, a kiss was the recognized fee hare's foot,” applied to those who came so late that they of a lady's partner, and as such is noticed by Shakespeare lost their dinner or supper ; the meaning probably being in “Henry VIII.” (act i. sc. 4):

that those who came too late to partake of the bare had no “I were unmannerly to take you out

better chance than to kiss the foot, and get nothing to eat. And not kiss you."

In Browne's “British Pastorals” we read :

“ 'Tis supper-time with all, and we had need In an old treatise, too, entitled the “Use and Abuse of

Make haste away, unless we mean to speed Dancing and Minstrelsie," we read :

With those that kiss the hare's foot. Rhumes are bred,

Some say, by going supporless to bed,
“But some reply, what foole will daunce,

And those I love not."
If that when daunco is doon;
He may not have at ladyes lips

“To kiss the post,” meant to be shut out, and occurs in That which in daunce he woon."

Pasquil's “Night Cap" (1612): The custom is still prevalent among country people in "Men of all countries travel through the same many parts of the kingdom. “When," says Brand (“Pop.

And, if they want money, may kisse the post." Antiq.” ii. 140), “the fiddler thinks his young couple have had music enough, he makes his instrument squeak out Again, the “Lamourette's kiss," which is a term used for

a reconciliation of policy without abatement of ranorr, the notes which all understand to say 'Kiss her!'”

In the sixteenth century it appears that English balls originated in the following circumstance : On July 7th, were usually opened with a kissing-dance entitled "A 1792, the Abbé Lamourette induced the different factions Brawl,” to which Shakespeare refers in "Love's Labor's of the Legislative Assembly of France to lay aside their

differences; so the deputies of the Royalists, ConstituLost” (azt iii, sc. 1), where Moth asks :

tionalists, Girondists, Jacobins, and Orientalists rushed “Master, will you win your love with a French brawl ?” into each other's arms, and the King was sent for to see

"how these Christians loved one another"; but the reconThe performers, we are told, first united hands in a ciliation was hollow and unsound. circle, and then, after the leading couple had placed them. Once more, the pansy, from its habit of coquettishly selves in the centre of the ring, and the gentleman saluted hanging its head and half hiding its face, has had many all the ladies in turn, and his fair partner each gentleman ; I quaint names applied to it, such as “Kiss me behind the

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