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M. CAILLETET has invented a new pamp for compressing gases
A LUCKLESS LOVER, to a high degree of compression. The main point in its construction is the method by which he obviates the existence of useless
We crossed the pasture-lund together; space between the end of the piston-plunger and the valve, which
I knew that now my time drow uvar, closes the end of the oylinder. This be accomplishes by invert
And hastened, longing for the moment, jag tae cylinder and covering the end of the plunger with a con
Yet lingering, holding back iu fuar. siderable quantity of mercury. This liquid piston can, of course,
I wished the sunshine would not flicker adapt itself to all the inequalities of form of the interior space,
Aoross the river on my eyes; and sweeps up every portion of the gas, and presses it up a conical passage into the valve. The value by which the air enters
Then hers sne shaded with her bonnetthe body of the pump is opened by a cam-gearing after the de
How could I talk through that disguise ? scent of the piston below point where the air rusnes in.
I wished the catbird would not whistle,
I paused till he grew tired and still; A NEW explosive, called "dynamogen," is claimed by its in
And then the frogs took up the music, ventor, U. Petrie, of Vienna, to be superior in nearly every respect to
And lambs came bleating from the hill. gunpowder- it is cheaper, safer and more effective, while it contains no substance which can iajare the guns. In view of the an
Now all was silent; in the stubble nouncement of so many new and greatly superior explosives, it
The crickets even held their peace; seems a little singular that the old-fashioned gunpowder-first
But yet I waited, wishing only used at a period so remote that its origin cannot be traced
That all the crickets would not coase. should be the chief dependence of modern artillery,
I saw the gateway as we neared it, MAGNESIA in limestone, M. Pichard says, is quickly detected
I shaped my mouth and formed the word, by its alkaline reaction. If the stone, when pulverized, does not
When from the bonnet but demurely, at once react upon red litmus paper, a portion is heated on pla
A little laugh I thought I heard. tinum-foil at the spirit-Jamp to the temperature below dull red
A plowboy passing smiled and nodded, ness. Pure limestone remains unchanged, but it the one-ten
'I bit my lip and blushed tor shume; thousandth part of magnesia is present an alkaline reaction takes
Then stopped to pick a bood-red berryplace.
'Twas sour, and speechless I became. COMPOUND armor-plates-iron faced with steel - will very probably be adopted by the French Government for new men-of-war.
I leaned upon the bars; she fluttered The steel resists penetration, and the iron backing gives the re
A farewell signal back to mu; quired tenacity. Steel alone when struck fractures and falls to
I turned. I staggered froin the road way, pieces. Heavy sbot easily passes through a cousiderable thick
Gray log came drifting from the sea. ness of iron. Iron and steel combined make a surprisingly strong resistance to projectiles.
" PA, what kind of whisky do the doctors prescribe ?" "MoM. D'ABBADIE, in a letter to the Paris Geographical Society,
nongahealy, my son, Monongahealy. You shouldn't try your exsuggests the use of sulphurous fumigation as a protection against perienced old father with such easy ones." malarial influences in tropical countries. The elephant-hunters "It is strange," said an unsophisticated child, "that everyof Abyssinia, when they descend to the damp lowlands, resort to body gets taffy after they're dead." "Why, what on earth do you this hygienic process, to which they ascribe their immunity from mean ?" exclaimed the unsophisticated child's mammu. "I mean fever. M. d'Abbadio suggests a trial by European explorers. epitaph-y," answered the unsophisticated child.
DR. SCHWEINFURTU has succeeded in freshening and pragerv “Hil where did you get them trousers p" asked an Irishman ing many of the leaves and flowers from garlands found in the of a man who happened to be passing, with a remarkably short breasta of mummies discovered last year at Dier el Bahari. A pair of trousers. "I got them where they krew," wus the indigsmall herbarium is thus formed from plants which grew thirty- nant reply. “Then, by my conscience !" sald i at, "you've pulled five centuries ago. A number of the species have been identitled them a year too soon." with those now found in the East.
"I SHOLD so like to have a coin dated the year of my birth," IT 18 stated, according to Mr. Leokyer, the English astrono. said a maiden lady of uncertain age to a male acquaintance. "Do mer, that the Egyptians have recorded 373 solar iind 83: lunar you think you could get one for me?'. "I am afraid not,” he reeclipses. Mr. Lockyer thinks the statement correct, as the pro
plied. “These very old coins are only to be found in valuable portions are exact, and the eclipses of the sun and moon would collections.” And yet he cannot see why, when he met the lady reach the respective numbers given in a period of twelve or thir- the next day, she didn't speak to him. teen centuries.
SAID a singer to a farmer: "I would like to engage board with SOON The work of reclaiming the Zuyder Zee will begin. A dike you
for a month." The husbandman looked at him a moment, of twenty-lour and a half miles is to be made of saud, faced with then asked, "What do you do for a livin'?" "Oh, I sing in & clay, and so high that it will be six and a half feet above the church choir
in the city." "You do, eh? Well, you cau't board greatest tide lovel. The time for the completion of this under with me." " Why not?" gasped tho wondering warbler - 'Cause," taking is estimated at from seven to ten years, and the cost about replied the soil-tiller, " the last fellow who boarded with me was $10,000,000.
a singer, and he had such a thundurin' bass voice that every time GLASS-SPINNING and glass-flower manufacture is a very exten. he growled all the milk in the cellar turnud sour." Bive branch of the Austrian glass industry. It is now so developed that a petroleum flame gives some 1,550 yards of glass
A DARKY came to a Galveston justice of the peace and asked thread every minute. that are wovon not only for glass cloths, him for a warrant for the arrest of Jim Webster. "What's he eto., but also for watoh-chains, brushes, etc.
dono ?" "He stole my chickeus. Dar's de fedders in his yard." "How do you know
those feathers belonged to your chickens ?" A NEW screw, adapted to be put in position by driving, has "Ikin prove it by Colonel Jones, but I doesn't like to have him been invented, and is said to enter the wood without tearing the brung iato court, case he is modest-like." " What's the matter grain. A cono-point is used instead of the gimlet-point, and the with Colonel Jones ?" "Nothing, boss; but to tell de troot. eber screw-thread has suoh a pitch that it drives in barb fashion, and since I stole his chickens I loses all confidence in de man as onco in position is very dificult to remove.
soon as he looks me squar" in de face." Yeast mixed with about one-eighth of pure glycerine will keep
THE PC STER: GOES BUGGY RIDING. well for a long time if placed in a cool collar or chamber.
"SUPPOSE," he said, in accents soft,
"A fellow just like me
Should axle little girl to wed --
What would the answer be ?"
The maiden drops her liquid eyes
Her smiles with blushes mingloagonoy.
"Why seek the bridal halter when "I PUT outside my window a large box, Allod with mold, and sowed it with seed. What do you think came up ? " Wheat, bar
You may livo on, sur, cingleps loy, or oats ?" "No, a policeman, who ordered me to remove it."
And then he spoke : "Oh, be my bride,
I ask you once again;
You are the empress of my heart,
And thoro shall over roin!"
"111 never tire of kindly deed
To win your gentle heart.
And saddle be the shatt that rends
Our happy lives apart I"
Upon her cheeks the maiden felt and coffee borrowed six years ago, it rcay be set down as a fixed
The mantling blushes glow faot that her husband will make the race even if he fails to get the
she took him for her faithful hub, regular party nomination.
To share his wheel or wboa!
VOL. XIV.- No. 5.
HOW TO DECIDE THAT A MAN IS INSANE, AND HOW TO TREAT
HIM IF HE IS. Ever since the immortal anthor of "Don Quixote" pre- anxious about his wife. He was convinced that she was sented a type of mental aberration, in which natural becoming mentally unsound, and wished the physician's shrowdness and sound sense blended with the craziest opinion in regard to her, and the best treatment to be ideas drawn from fiction, the borderland between reason adopted. He was calm, clear and able, as he had shown and insanity has been a subject of study,
himself on the floor of the House of Commons. He left Cervantes wrote after witnessing many cases of insanity, the room to send his wife to the drawing-room. She and the delineation of the gentleman of La Mancha shows entered in a few minutes, Alging rather than walking, the result of examination.
her attire disordered, her eyes bloodshot, her whole person Insanity is very deceptive. It seems to sharpen natural showing extraordinary excitement, and a neglect of all that shrewdness and cunning, so that at times it will puzzle the care for personal appearance that seems inherent in a lady. most expert practitioner. The wife of a member of Par. In somewhat disconnected phrases she began to tell her liament sent once most urgently for a famous London phy- trouble. Her husband, gifted, talented, was evidently from sician. He responded, but soon after being announced overwork becoming insane. She began to describe his was met in the drawing-room by the gentleman himself, acts showing an unbalanced mind. The physician was who expressed his gratification on his timely call. He astounded. Each asserted the other to be insane. To all had been abont to summon him, for he was extremely appearance the calm, dignified husband was in full
"THE HUSBAND, IN A PAROXYSM OF MANIA, STANDING IN THE WRECKED DRAWING-ROOM, STILL HOLDING A PISTOL WHICH HE HAD
DISCHARGED AT AN IMAGINARY FOE IN THE MANTEL MIRROR." Vol. XIV., No. 5–33.
possession of his faculties, while in the wife reason had, before the courts was that of McNamara. He had been lost the balance of decision.
beaten by two roughs, political bangers-on, probably, and He urged her to calmness, assuring her that there was had made a complaint against them. To prevent his apno immediate danger, and insisting on the necessity of pearance in the case, or his institution of any civil action, care for herself if any trouble was at hand, prescribed an they contrived by some stratagem to entrap him into a anodyne for her, to be taken immediately.
carriage and drive him off to an insane asylum, where he Proceeding to other calls, he returned in an hour to find was confined for more than a year, although perfectly the lady calm and free from excitement, the husband in a sane ; get by some means the certificates and order were paroxysm of mania, standing in the wrecked drawing obtained. room still holding a pistol which he had discharged at an. In a series of cases brought before the New York courts imaginary foe in the mantel mirror. There was no longer there was not one in which actual insanity could be estabany doubt. Though he had spoken in the House within lished, and in every case the supposed lunatic was restored twenty-four hours, showing a complete mastery of an into liberty, free to recover any of his property that had tricate question, and its multiform statistics, insanity had not been squandered by his committees been coming on, and the faithful wife, watching him The loss in that way is often very great. In a case some daily, taxed her nervous system so severely that her con- years ago a great cotton operator was committed to Bloomdition seemed to indicate insanity rather than his. ingdale Asylum, and thougb his detention lasted only a
Within the past year the country has had many cases few weeks-bis counsel, one of the ablest members of the brought to public notice where the debatable land between New York bar, showing conclusively that, though subreason and unreason has been the subject of earnestject to delusions on two points (a supposed knowledge of debate and discussion. The long, strange trial of Guiteau French and music), he was in all business matters a man was, in the main, an examination into his mental condi- of wonderfnl ability, not only fully competent to manage tion at the time he committed his murderous act. Emi- bis business, but capable of managing transactions that nent physioi ıns, accustomed for years to the management few men could conduct successfully—the committee, from of thë insane, even after personal examination of the man lack of that very business ability, had lost several hundred and a study of his previous life, differed utterly in their thousand dollars. decision. And though the jury finally held that the proof The supposed lunatic, somewhat tartly, asked the Court of his insanity had not been full and clear, and that he to send the committee to an asylum, as he had shown beTas gane when he shot President Garfield, the question is yond all peradventure that he was utterly unfit to manage still in debate, and the microscopic examination of his his own affairs or other people's. brain is appealed to as proof that he was not a responsible Mere delusions, loss of memory, queer fancies, are not person.
enough to constitute insanity. Unless the delusions or Whether a person is or is not insane, tben, is a question fancies are the outgrowth of a long career of depravity, of great difficulty, if doctors differ, and the only sure test and a life showing no moral restraint or control ; unless is a microsoopio examination of the brain, which, of they show a tendency to injure the life or property of the ooarse, is impossible in a living subject.
person himself or of others, there ought to be great hesiYet in real life every day men and women are adjudged tation in depriving the individual of his liberty and the ingane, and deprived of their liberty and the management control of his property or business. So long as he can of their property, after a harried and superficial examina conduct himself without danger to himself and others, obtion, with no guarantee for the interests of the person al serving the usual decencies of life, and can follow his legel to be a lunatic, no opportunity for him to call in ordinary avocations, he should not be deprived of liberty testimony, and, in fact, no appeal.
and subjected to enforced idleness. Where insanity shows itself, or eccentricity that simu. Society can call for a suspension of personal liberty lates insanity, a family is thrown into great confusion. when, from unbalanced reason, that liberty is abused to the Then statements will often be excited and exaggerated. injury of others, or the danger of such abuse is so proxiA physician is oalled in; the suspected person resents the mate as to require immediate action. intrusion ; if naturally cholerio he will show violence. A A reform in the ordinary proceedings de lunatico inquisecond physician is summoned ; on their certificate a rendo seems imperatively demanded. Where the case rojudge at Chambers, hearing only one side, can declare a quires immediate action, and violence can be shown, or person a lunatic, and appoint a committee of his person circumstances that make it so probable as to render delay and property.
dangerous, an immediate commitment may be allowed. In This may be done where all are acting perfectly in good the unhappy cases where insanity is hereditary, and friends faith. But where the object is to get control of the prop- have lived for years in constant watchfulness, dreading erty of a severe but eccentric relative, and cunning is em- and watching the symptoms which, they feel almost cerployed to deceive and mislead the medical men called in, tain, will sooner or later manifest themselves, preliminary the oase is environed with difficulty.
proofs can be made without leaving everything to the last In one case in New Jersey a lawyer of ability was taken moment, when the outburst of insanity, sudden, though from his house and conveyed to an asylum. There had expected, fills a household with alarm. Bat the commitbeen family troubles, he was eccentrio, and at times car. ment of a person as a lunatic ought to be only preliminary ried his severity to an extent that bordered on violence and temporary, as a precautionary step to a full, thorough He took his confinement calmly, and while steps were examination of each case, and in cv:ry instance the accused taking to bring his case before the courts in such a ought to be represented by counsel, selected by him cr manner as to insure a fall and clear examioation, he con appointed by the court, with power to call a certain tinued in the asylum his study of a case that he was to a umber o experts, and the right of submitting the case to argue in one of the highest courts of New York State, a jury, and his arguments attested not only the soundness and This preliminary commitment, resembling that of a vigor of his mind, but the fidelity and accuracy of his magistrate in regard to one aosused of crime, will giro memory.
ample scope for calm investigation, and will defeat nefariThe most remarkable of the cases recently brought ous plans where a person not actually insane is accused.
Where in such a case a person has been treated covertly the fact that one of its beloved members is deprived of with drugs, and their effect at the time is mistaken for reason, perhaps kept within the family precincts, to the real insanity, the temporary detention will allow detection fear and discomfort of all the other members, at an erof its influence and the recovery of the patient, before be penee ill-afforded, or, what is still more likely, a suffering, is actually deprived of liberty by a final decision of the neglected inmate of some wretched, God-forsaken poorCourt.
house, abandoned by hope, and waiting that relief which In other words, such an examination as is now obtain death, sooner or later, brings to all. Our noble palatial able only by Habeas Corpus proceedings, in rare cases and State lunatic asylums give shelter and care to 7,000 of this with great difficulty, ought to be had in every case before unfortunate class ; but there are 60,000 others of the same the granting of the writ.
class, a majority of whom are inmates of poorhouses and of the three rights which the Declaration of our Inde- jails, and the numbers are increasing far more rapidly pendence declared to be inalienable, and which it is the than provision for their relief. These facts” (continues primary duty of all good government to insure-Life, Dr. Charles A. Lee) "certainly deserve not only the Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—two are directly attention of medical men, but of governments and legisAssailed and insidiously attacked by the present loose lators, for no civilization can be called advanced, or system of consigoing persons to insane asylums, on an er. worthy & religious people, that leaves its poor insane in a parte motion before a judge at Chambers without publicity, more wretched condition than its domestic animals." on the mere certificate of two physicians who perhaps Spirituous liquors, morphine, ether, chloral, licentiousnever made insanity a special study, or had a real case in ness, all swell the army of the insane. Domestic infeli. their practice.
city, loss of property, the terrors of the wreck at sea, or · During the Sammer, as the daily journals detailed case collision on land, all play their part in unsettling our after case, pablio attention was aroused, and the neces- boasted human reason ; and even religion, the balm and sity for some legislative action was generally admitted. comforter of trouble, man's greatest stay on earth, when Uofortunately, the public feeling is apt to be evanescent, the mind is given to it too absorbingly, makes man no and when the legislatures meet, unless some concerted longer a reasoning and resonable creatur "action is taken, the subject will probably be overlooked There is in many not suspected of insanity morbid or put aside for the manoeuvres of party or monopoly, impulse that often resembles unsoundness. There are and the real interests of a large class of our people be many who cannot look down from a high rook, window or ignored, till some terrible catastrophe forces it on legis- tower, without feeling a morbid impulse to throw them. lative bodies in a peremptory form that will prevent all selves down ; in a healthy person this impulse is confurther delay.
trolled ; in the weak it may control. Others, at the sight The necessity of wide and full legislation in regard to of a rapidly advancing railroad train, feel an impulse to insanity concerns the people of this country in an especial cast themselves before it, and the momentary insanity degree from the rapid increase of real cases. In no part arising from morbid impulse is undoubtedly the explanaof the world is there so much mental activity, and in tion of many cases of suicide. none do people live under such a constant strain of excite There is, then, much real insanity ; there are, unfortument. New England shows a very great amount of in- nately, cases where persons of sound mind are, through sanity; and the whole system of life among us predis. ignorance, haste or malice, committed as insane and deposes and accelerates mental disorders. Nervous diseases prived of liberty. Yet there is still another class of cases, prevail to an unprecedented degree-neuralgia, hysteria, where a commitment for insanity is submitted to willingly chorea, epilepsy and catalepsy; and all, by weakening the by a perfectly s ne person to escape either punishment at brain, tend more or less directly to bring about the con. the hands of justice or the loss of social reputation for dition most apt to result in insanity.
some delinquency. Such cases occur, as legal practitionIf the disease ended its course when the sufferer ers know. Public prosecation has been prevented or susbreathed his last, the question of insanity would not rise pended by the prompt action of friends in having the to the importance of a national one; but, unfortunately, guilty person judicially declared to be non compos mentis ; insanity descends, as all scientific writers admit. It is the wrong is redressed, the injured person compensated, almost certain to reappear, if not in the patient's children, and when the matter is forgotten, the individual is disat least in some succeeding generation. The proportion charged as cured. A family will sometimes seo po other of cases of insanity into which hereditary taint enters is way to avoid disgrace than by confining an erring variously stated by the anthorities, some placing it as member in an asylum to disarm the Larsh censure of a high as sixty-nine per cent., others as low as twenty-six. world not given to view too indulgently any faults but its “Authors," says Dr. Maudsey, "are not agreed as to the own. proportion of cases of insanity in which positive heredit Much as we may sympathize with families thus cruelly ary taint is detectable ; some, like Moreau, putting it as placed, we cannot feel inclined to wink at such a course, high as pine-tenths, others as low as one-tenth. The and with this matter of insanity formed into a special most careful researches fix the proportion as not lower branch of judicial investigation and treatment, it will be than one-fourth, if not so high as one-half; and there can rendered nearly impossible, except where extraordinary be no doubt that the tendency is to increase the propor- powers of simulation are possessed or acquired, as is often tion, as investigation becomes more certain and exact.” the case with malingerers in the army, who, in their
If the insanity is hereditary in more than one-fonrth of schemes to obtain a discharge, outwit the keenest surgeons. the actual cases, and the children of persons afflicted with The question of insanity is thus one of growing importnervous diseases are predisposed to mental unsoundness, ance, and though in earlier times it occupied a small and there is enough scope for all our benevolence in the care insignificant place in the course of legislation and judicaof the actually insane, without, by negligence, rashuess or ture, it now requires full and careful treatment, and new injustice, classing with these unfortunate people persons modes of trying a question that often proves difficult to still able to care for themselves and their families. the most varied expedient and soundest judgment.
"More than 60,000 otherwise happy homes in the With the recognized fact that we have, and must conUnited States are to-day made wretched and sad by I tinue to have, a large body of insane among us, arises the