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M. CAILLETET has invented a new pamp for compressing gases
A LUCKLESS LOVER, to a high degree of compression. The main point in its construction is the method by which he obviates the existence of useless
We crossed the pasture-lund together; space between the end of the piston-plunger and the valve, which
I knew that now my time drow uvar, closes the end of the oylinder. This be accomplishes by invert
And hastened, longing for the moment, jag tae cylinder and covering the end of the plunger with a con
Yet lingering, holding back iu fuar. siderable quantity of mercury. This liquid piston can, of course,
I wished the sunshine would not flicker adapt itself to all the inequalities of form of the interior space,
Aoross the river on my eyes; and sweeps up every portion of the gas, and presses it up a conical passage into the valve. The value by which the air enters
Then hers sne shaded with her bonnetthe body of the pump is opened by a cam-gearing after the de
How could I talk through that disguise ? scent of the piston below point where the air rusnes in.
I wished the catbird would not whistle,
I paused till he grew tired and still; A NEW explosive, called "dynamogen," is claimed by its in
And then the frogs took up the music, ventor, U. Petrie, of Vienna, to be superior in nearly every respect to
And lambs came bleating from the hill. gunpowder- it is cheaper, safer and more effective, while it contains no substance which can iajare the guns. In view of the an
Now all was silent; in the stubble nouncement of so many new and greatly superior explosives, it
The crickets even held their peace; seems a little singular that the old-fashioned gunpowder-first
But yet I waited, wishing only used at a period so remote that its origin cannot be traced
That all the crickets would not coase. should be the chief dependence of modern artillery,
I saw the gateway as we neared it, MAGNESIA in limestone, M. Pichard says, is quickly detected
I shaped my mouth and formed the word, by its alkaline reaction. If the stone, when pulverized, does not
When from the bonnet but demurely, at once react upon red litmus paper, a portion is heated on pla
A little laugh I thought I heard. tinum-foil at the spirit-Jamp to the temperature below dull red
A plowboy passing smiled and nodded, ness. Pure limestone remains unchanged, but it the one-ten
'I bit my lip and blushed tor shume; thousandth part of magnesia is present an alkaline reaction takes
Then stopped to pick a bood-red berryplace.
'Twas sour, and speechless I became. COMPOUND armor-plates-iron faced with steel - will very probably be adopted by the French Government for new men-of-war.
I leaned upon the bars; she fluttered The steel resists penetration, and the iron backing gives the re
A farewell signal back to mu; quired tenacity. Steel alone when struck fractures and falls to
I turned. I staggered froin the road way, pieces. Heavy sbot easily passes through a cousiderable thick
Gray log came drifting from the sea. ness of iron. Iron and steel combined make a surprisingly strong resistance to projectiles.
" PA, what kind of whisky do the doctors prescribe ?" "MoM. D'ABBADIE, in a letter to the Paris Geographical Society,
nongahealy, my son, Monongahealy. You shouldn't try your exsuggests the use of sulphurous fumigation as a protection against perienced old father with such easy ones." malarial influences in tropical countries. The elephant-hunters "It is strange," said an unsophisticated child, "that everyof Abyssinia, when they descend to the damp lowlands, resort to body gets taffy after they're dead." "Why, what on earth do you this hygienic process, to which they ascribe their immunity from mean ?" exclaimed the unsophisticated child's mammu. "I mean fever. M. d'Abbadio suggests a trial by European explorers. epitaph-y," answered the unsophisticated child.
DR. SCHWEINFURTU has succeeded in freshening and pragerv “Hil where did you get them trousers p" asked an Irishman ing many of the leaves and flowers from garlands found in the of a man who happened to be passing, with a remarkably short breasta of mummies discovered last year at Dier el Bahari. A pair of trousers. "I got them where they krew," wus the indigsmall herbarium is thus formed from plants which grew thirty- nant reply. “Then, by my conscience !" sald i at, "you've pulled five centuries ago. A number of the species have been identitled them a year too soon." with those now found in the East.
"I SHOLD so like to have a coin dated the year of my birth," IT 18 stated, according to Mr. Leokyer, the English astrono. said a maiden lady of uncertain age to a male acquaintance. "Do mer, that the Egyptians have recorded 373 solar iind 83: lunar you think you could get one for me?'. "I am afraid not,” he reeclipses. Mr. Lockyer thinks the statement correct, as the pro
plied. “These very old coins are only to be found in valuable portions are exact, and the eclipses of the sun and moon would collections.” And yet he cannot see why, when he met the lady reach the respective numbers given in a period of twelve or thir- the next day, she didn't speak to him. teen centuries.
SAID a singer to a farmer: "I would like to engage board with SOON The work of reclaiming the Zuyder Zee will begin. A dike you
for a month." The husbandman looked at him a moment, of twenty-lour and a half miles is to be made of saud, faced with then asked, "What do you do for a livin'?" "Oh, I sing in & clay, and so high that it will be six and a half feet above the church choir
in the city." "You do, eh? Well, you cau't board greatest tide lovel. The time for the completion of this under with me." " Why not?" gasped tho wondering warbler - 'Cause," taking is estimated at from seven to ten years, and the cost about replied the soil-tiller, " the last fellow who boarded with me was $10,000,000.
a singer, and he had such a thundurin' bass voice that every time GLASS-SPINNING and glass-flower manufacture is a very exten. he growled all the milk in the cellar turnud sour." Bive branch of the Austrian glass industry. It is now so developed that a petroleum flame gives some 1,550 yards of glass
A DARKY came to a Galveston justice of the peace and asked thread every minute. that are wovon not only for glass cloths, him for a warrant for the arrest of Jim Webster. "What's he eto., but also for watoh-chains, brushes, etc.
dono ?" "He stole my chickeus. Dar's de fedders in his yard." "How do you know
those feathers belonged to your chickens ?" A NEW screw, adapted to be put in position by driving, has "Ikin prove it by Colonel Jones, but I doesn't like to have him been invented, and is said to enter the wood without tearing the brung iato court, case he is modest-like." " What's the matter grain. A cono-point is used instead of the gimlet-point, and the with Colonel Jones ?" "Nothing, boss; but to tell de troot. eber screw-thread has suoh a pitch that it drives in barb fashion, and since I stole his chickens I loses all confidence in de man as onco in position is very dificult to remove.
soon as he looks me squar" in de face." Yeast mixed with about one-eighth of pure glycerine will keep
THE PC STER: GOES BUGGY RIDING. well for a long time if placed in a cool collar or chamber.
"SUPPOSE," he said, in accents soft,
"A fellow just like me
Should axle little girl to wed --
What would the answer be ?"
The maiden drops her liquid eyes
Her smiles with blushes mingloagonoy.
"Why seek the bridal halter when "I PUT outside my window a large box, Allod with mold, and sowed it with seed. What do you think came up ? " Wheat, bar
You may livo on, sur, cingleps loy, or oats ?" "No, a policeman, who ordered me to remove it."
And then he spoke : "Oh, be my bride,
I ask you once again;
You are the empress of my heart,
And thoro shall over roin!"
"111 never tire of kindly deed
To win your gentle heart.
And saddle be the shatt that rends
Our happy lives apart I"
Upon her cheeks the maiden felt and coffee borrowed six years ago, it rcay be set down as a fixed
The mantling blushes glow faot that her husband will make the race even if he fails to get the
she took him for her faithful hub, regular party nomination.
To share his wheel or wboa!
VOL. XIV.- No. 5.
HOW TO DECIDE THAT A MAN IS INSANE, AND HOW TO TREAT
HIM IF HE IS. Ever since the immortal anthor of "Don Quixote" pre- anxious about his wife. He was convinced that she was sented a type of mental aberration, in which natural becoming mentally unsound, and wished the physician's shrowdness and sound sense blended with the craziest opinion in regard to her, and the best treatment to be ideas drawn from fiction, the borderland between reason adopted. He was calm, clear and able, as he had shown and insanity has been a subject of study,
himself on the floor of the House of Commons. He left Cervantes wrote after witnessing many cases of insanity, the room to send his wife to the drawing-room. She and the delineation of the gentleman of La Mancha shows entered in a few minutes, Alging rather than walking, the result of examination.
her attire disordered, her eyes bloodshot, her whole person Insanity is very deceptive. It seems to sharpen natural showing extraordinary excitement, and a neglect of all that shrewdness and cunning, so that at times it will puzzle the care for personal appearance that seems inherent in a lady. most expert practitioner. The wife of a member of Par. In somewhat disconnected phrases she began to tell her liament sent once most urgently for a famous London phy- trouble. Her husband, gifted, talented, was evidently from sician. He responded, but soon after being announced overwork becoming insane. She began to describe his was met in the drawing-room by the gentleman himself, acts showing an unbalanced mind. The physician was who expressed his gratification on his timely call. He astounded. Each asserted the other to be insane. To all had been abont to summon him, for he was extremely appearance the calm, dignified husband was in full
"THE HUSBAND, IN A PAROXYSM OF MANIA, STANDING IN THE WRECKED DRAWING-ROOM, STILL HOLDING A PISTOL WHICH HE HAD
DISCHARGED AT AN IMAGINARY FOE IN THE MANTEL MIRROR." Vol. XIV., No. 5–33.
possessicn of his faculties, while in the wife reason had lost the balance of decision, He urged her to calmness, assuring her that there was no immediate danger, and insisting on the necessity of care for herself if any trouble was at hand, prescribed an anodyne for her, to be taken immediately. Proceeding to other calls, he returned in an hour to find the lady calm and free from excitement, the husband in a paroxysm of mania, standing in the wrecked drawing: room still holding a pistol which he had discharged at an imaginary foe in the mantel mirror. There was no longer any doubt. Though he had spoken in the House within twenty-four hours, showing a complete mastery of an intricate question, and its multiform statistics, insanity had been coming on, and the faithful wife, watching him daily, taxed her nervous system so severely that her condition seemed to indicate insanity rather than his. Within the past year the country has had many cases brought to public notice where the debatable land between reason and unreason has been the subject of earnest debate and discussion. The long, strange trial of Guiteau was, in the main, an examination into his mental condition at the time he committed his murderous act. Emiment physicians, accustomed for years to the management of the insane, even after personal examination of the man and a study of his previous life, differed utterly in their decision. And though the jury finally held that the proof of his insanity had not been full and clear, and that he was sane when he shot President Garfield, the question is still in debate, and the microscopic examination of his brain is appealed to as proof that he was not a responsible person. Whether a person is or is not insane, then, is a question of great difficulty, if doctors differ, and the only sure test is a microscopic examination of the brain, which, of course, is impossible in a living subject. Yet in real life every day men and women are adjudged insane, and deprived of their liberty and the management of their property, after a hurried and superficial examination, with no guarantee for the interests of the person alleged to be a lunatic, no opportunity for him to call in testimony, and, in fact, no appeal. Where insanity shows itself, or eccentricity that simulates insanity, a family is thrown into great confusion. Then statements will often be excited and exaggerated. A physician is called in ; the suspected person resents the intrusion; if naturally choleric he will show violence. A second physician is summoned; on their certificate a judge at Chambers, hearing only one side, can declare a person a lunatic, and appoint a committee of his person and property. This may be done where all are acting perfectly in good faith. But where the object is to get control of the property of a severe but eccentric relative, and cunning is employed to deceive and mislead the medical men called in, the case is environed with difficulty. In one case in New Jersey a lawyer of ability was taken from his house and conveyed to an asylum. There had been family troubles, he was eccentric, and at times carried bis severity to an extent that bordered on violence. He took his confinement calmly, and while steps were taking to bring his case before the courts in such a manner as to insure a full and clear examination, he continued in the asylum his study of a case that he was to argue in one of the highest courts of New York State, and his arguments attested not only the soundness and vigor of his mind, but the fidelity and accuracy of his memory. T The most remarkable of the cases recently brought
before the courts was that of McNamara. He had been beaten by two roughs, political hangers-on, probably, and had made a complaint against them. To prevent his appearance in the case, or his institution of any civil action, they contrived by some stratagem to entrap him into a carriage and drive him off to an insane asylum, where he was confined for more than a year, although perfectly sane; yet by some means the certificates and order were obtained. In a series of cases brought before the New York courts there was not one in which actual insanity could be established, and in every case the supposed lunatic was restored to liberty, free to recover any of his property that had not been squandered by his committees. The loss in that way is often very great. In a case some years ago a great cotton operator was committed to Bloomingdale Asylum, and though his detention lasted only a few weeks—his counsel, one of the ablest members of the New York bar, showing conclusively that, though subject to delusions on two points (a supposed knowledge of French and music), he was in all business matters a man of wonderful ability, not only fully competent to manage his business, but capable of managing transactions that few men could conduct successfully—the committee, from lack of that very business ability, had lost several hundred thousand dollars. The supposed lunatic, somewhat tartly, asked the Court to send the committee to an asylum, as he had shown beyond all peradventure that he was utterly unfit to manage his own affairs or other people's. Mere delusions, loss of memory, queer fancies, are not enough to constitute insanity. Unless the delusions or fancies are the outgrowth of a long career of depravity. and a life showing no moral restraint or control; unless they show a tendency to injure the life or property of the person himself or of others, there ought to be great hesitation in depriving the individual of his liberty and the control of his property or business. So long as he can conduct himself without danger to himself and others, observing the usual decencies of life, and can follow his ordinary avocations, he should not be deprived of liberty and subjected to enforced idleness. Society can call for a suspension of personal liberty when, from unbalanced reason, that liberty is abused to the injury of others, or the danger of such abuse is so proximate as to require immediate action. A reform in the ordinary proceedings de lunatico inquirendo seems imperatively demanded. Where the case requires immediate action, and violence can be shown, or circumstances that make it so probable as to render delay dangerous, an immediate commitment may be allowed. In the unhappy cases where insanity is hereditary, and friends have lived for years in constant watchfulness, dreading and watching the symptoms which, they feel almost certain, will sooner or later manifest themselves, preliminary proofs can be made without leaving everything to the last moment, when the outburst of insanity, sudden, though expected, fills a household with alarm. But the commit. ment of a person as a lunatic ought to be only preliminary and temporary, as a precautionary step to a full, thorough examination of each case, and in cy:ry instance the accused ought to be represented by counsel, selected by him cr appointed by the court. with power to call a certain number o experts, and the right of submitting the case to a jury, This preliminary commitment, resembling that of a magistrate in regard to one accused of crime, will givo
"ample scope for calm investigation, and will defeat nefari
ous plans where a person not actually insane is accused.
Where in such a case a person has been treated covertly with drugs, and their effect at the time is mistaken for real insanity, the temporary detention will allow detection of its influence and the recovery of the patient, before he is actually deprived of liberty by a final decision of the Court. In other words, such an examination as is now obtainable only by Habeas Corpus proceedings, in rare cases and with great difficulty, ought to be had in every case before the granting of the writ. Of the three rights which the Declaration of our Independence declared to be inalienable, and which it is the primary duty of all good government to insure—Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—two are directly assailed and insidiously attacked by the present loose system of consigning persons to insane asylums, on an exparte motion before a judge at Chambers without publicity, on the mere certificate of two physicians who perhaps never made insanity a special study, or had a real case in their practice. During the Summer, as the daily journals detailed case after case, public attention was aroused, and the necessity for some legislative action was generally admitted. Unfortunately, the public feeling is apt to be evanescent, and when the legislatures meet, unless some concerted action is taken, the subject will probably be overlooked or put aside for the manoeuvres of party or monopoly, and the real interests of a large class of our people be ignored, till some terrible catastrophe forces it on legislative bodies in a peremptory form that will prevent all further delay. The necessity of wide and full legislation in regard to insanity concerns the people of this country in an especial degree from the rapid increase of real cases. In no part of the world is there so much mental activity, and in none do people live under such a constant strain of excitement. New England shows a very great amount of insanity; and the whole system of life among us predis. poses and accelerates mental disorders. Nervous diseases prevail to an unprecedented degree—neuralgia, hysteria, chorea, epilepsy and catalepsy; and all, by weakening the brain, tend more or less directly to bring about the condition most apt to result in insanity. If the disease ended its course when the sufferer breathed his last, the question of insanity would not rise to the importance of a national one; but, unfortunately, insanity descends, as all scientific writers admit. It is almost certain to reappear, if not in the patient's children, at least in some succeeding generation. The proportion of cases of insanity into which hereditary taint enters is variously stated by the authorities, some placing it as high as sixty-nine per cent., others as low as twenty-six. “Authors,” says Dr. Mauds'ey, “are not agreed as to the proportion of cases of insanity in which positive hereditary taint is detectable; some, like Moreau, putting it as high as nine-tenths, others as low as one-tenth. The most careful researches fix the proportion as not lower than one-fourth, if not so high as one-half; and there can be no doubt that the tendency is to increase the proportion, as investigation becomes more certain and exact.” If the insanity is hereditary in more than one-fourth of the actual cases, and the children of persons afflicted with nervous diseases are predisposed to mental unsoundness, there is enough scope for all our benevolence in the care of the actually insane, without, by negligence, rashness or injustice, classing with these unfortunate people persons still able to care for themselves and their families. “More than 60,000 otherwise happy homes in the
the fact that one of its belovel members is deprived of reason, perhaps kept within the family precincts, to the fear and discomfort of all the other members, at an expense ill-afforded, or, what is still more likely, a suffering, neglected inmate of some wretched, God-forsaken poorhouse, abandoned by hope, and waiting that relief which death, sooner or later, brings to all. Our noble palatial State lunatic asylums give shelter and care to 7,000 of this unfortunate class; but there are 60,000 others of the same class, a majority of whom are inmates of poorhouses and jails, and the numbers are increasing far more rapidly than provision for their relief. These facts” (continues Dr. Charles A. Lee) “certainly deserve not only the attention of medical men, but of governments and legislators, for no civilization can be called advanced, or worthy a religious people, that leaves its poor insane in a more wretched condition than its domestic animals.” Spirituous liquors, morphine, ether, chloral, licentiousness, all swell the army of the insane. Domestic infelicity, loss of property, the terrors of the wreck at sea, or collision on land, all play their part in unsettling our boasted human reason ; and even religion, the balm and comforter of trouble, man's greatest stay on earth, when the mind is given to it too absorbingly, makes man no longer a reasoning and resonable creatur. There is in many not suspected of insanity morbid impulse that often resembles unsoundness. There are many who cannot look down from a high rock, window or tower, without feeling a morbid impulse to throw themselves down ; in a healthy person this impulse is controlled ; in the weak it may control. Others, at the sight of a rapidly advancing railroad train, feel an impulse to cast themselves before it, and the momentary insanity arising from morbid impulse is undoubtedly the explanation of many cases of suicide. There is, then, much real insanity; there are, unfortunately, cases where persons of sound mind are, through ignorance, haste or malice, committed as insane and deprived of liberty. Yet there is still another class of cases, where a commitment for insanity is submitted to willingly by a perfectly some person to escape either punishment at the hands of justice or the loss of social reputation for some delinquency. Such cases occur, as legal practitioners know. Public prosecution has been prevented or suspended by the prompt action of friends in having the guilty person judicially declared to be non compos mentis; the wrong is redressed, the injured person compensated, and when the matter is forgotten, the individual is discharged as cured. A family will sometimes see no other way to avoid disgrace than by confining an erring member in an asylum to disarm the harsh censure of a world not given to view too indulgently any faults but its own. Much as we may sympathize with families thus cruelly placed, we cannot feel inclined to wink at such a course, and with this matter of insanity formed into a special branch of judicial investigation and treatment, it will be rendered nearly impossible, except where extraordinary powers of simulation are possessed or acquired, as is often the case with malingerers in the army, who, in their schemes to obtain a discharge, outwit the keenest surgeons. The question of insanity is thus one of growing importance, and though in earlier times it occupied a small and insignificant place in the course of legislation and judicature, it now requires full and careful treatment, and new modes of trying a question that often proves difficult to thg most varied expedient and soundest judgment. With the recognized fact that we have, and must con
United States are to-day made wretched and sad by | tinue to have, a large body of insane among us, arises the