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about 23° west of the true north. The discovery of the fact was at first halled as of immense importance to navigation; it was imagined the longitude of a ship at sea might be determined by the declination of the compass alone. It is said that Sebastian Cabot boasted on his death-bed of having this knowledge through “special divine manifestation.” The idea of the early navigators can be readily understood. In 1492 Columbus discovered in the Azores a position of no declination, or where the compass pointed due noth and south, and it was imagined that the declination increased in a regular manner from this position. Suppose the compass deviated one degree for each 100 miles east or west from this point, then the mariner could easily tell how far he was distant from the point by noting the number of degrees the compass has deviated. As observations on declination were multiplied, however, the hope of the early navigators was dissipated, for it was found that the phenomenon was exceedingly irregular ; and if the points of equal declination were joined by lines, after the manner of geographical meridians, as laid down in maps, these lines were of an exceedingly irregular and wavy form, so that the declination of the compass at any particular spot could only be known by actual observation, and until the whole surface of the world had been mapped out the declination of the needle could not be msed as an exact indicator of the longitude. In 1576 Robert Norman directed attention to the dippingneedle as a means of investigating the distribution of the earth's magnetism. This instrument measures, not the deriation of the needle from the true north and south line, but the inclination or angle which its deviation makes with the horizontal line, when it is free to move in a vertical plane. This method may be understood if we observe the behavior of such a needle when placed in various positions over a large bar-magnet. When at the centre it will have no dip, but be quite horizontal ; but as it is carried toward either pole it will incline more and more, until it becomes vertical at the poles themselves, as illustrated on page 509. The middle point, where the needle is horizontal, may be termed the magnetic equator. Investigating the earth's magnetism in this way, it was found that the inclination generally increased from the equator to the poles, and sanguine hopes were entertained that the latitude might be determined by its means; just as similar hopes had been entertanied regarding the determination of longitude by means of the declination; but the same cause dissipated the hope in both directions—viz., the extreme irregularity of the distribution of the earth's magnetism. The lines forming the points of equal inclination were found to be as irregular as in the case of declination, and the magnetic equator was not a large regular circle coinciding with the geographical, but passed around the globe, sometimes north and sometimes south of the latter, and cutting it in two, or perhaps four, places, but not coinciding with it to any extent. Locally, however, the inclination may be, and has actually been, used by vessels in darkness or mist to determine whether they were north or south of a port they wished to enter. By the aid of a dipping-needle, however, the positions of the north and south magnetic poles or points, where its direction is vertical, have been determined. The north magnetic pole is found to be in lititude 750 5, and longitude 96° 46' west, and the south pole in latitude 75°, and longitude 1389 east. They are not, therefore, diametrically opposite, and no straight line can be drawn between
them and referred to as a magnetic axis analogous to the
geographical axis of the earth. The two methods of investigation just described depends on the direction of the needle; a third method, however,
due mainly to the illustrious traveler Humboldt, remains to be mentioned. This has reference, not to the direction, but to the intensity, of the magnetic force at different parts of the earth's surface. If we cause a magnetic needle to oscillate backward and forward near a large magnet, we shall find these oscillations to increase in rapidity as the needle approaches the magnet or as the strength of the magnetism increases; and we know that the force increases in proportion to the square of the number of oscillations in a given time. Thus, if at one place of the earth's surface the number of oscillations is ten, and at another seven in the same time, we know that the force at the one place is to the force at the other as one hundred is to forty-nine. The results obtained by investigating the distribution of terrestrial magnetism by this method agree with those obtained by observing the declination and inclination, for while the intensity generally increases from the equator to the poles, the increase shows the same irregularity as observed in the other phenomena. The study of these various phenomena is greatly complicated by the fact that none of them is constant; they are all subject to incessant change, mostly of a regular periodic character : that is to say, the needle does not always exhibit the same declination or inclination, nor does the intensity of the magnetic force always remain the same at the same place. These changes are ceaseless and complicated, and their study is attended with great difficulty; but as the result of many careful observations, it appears that some of them depend on the time of day, some on the season of the year, etc., while others of a sudden and irregular character, when the needle is simultaneously affected over thousands of miles of the earth's surface, appear to coincide with the outburst of spots upon the sun's surface. In the northern hemisphere the north pole of the needle commences to move westward about 8 A.M., and continues to do so till about 2 P.M., when it turns suddenly, and moves back again toward its starting-point, which it reaches about midnight. During the nig.t it repeats the movement, although on a smaller scale. So regular is the movement, that between the tropics the hour of the day may be known from the position of the compass-needle. Recently another movement, of an analogous nature, but which takes twenty-six days to complete, has been recognized; this time is just about the same as the sun takes to go round its axis. Another periodic movement seems to coincide in time with the eleven-years period of maximum and minimum sun-spots. Besides these whose periods have been recognized, there is a slow secular change, which has been going on for nearly 300 years, but whose cycle is not yet complete. Thus, in 1657 the compass-needle pointed due north and south at London; since then it has gradually turned westward, and in 1800 it pointed 240 36. W., and it is now as gradually returning to the east again. The following table exhibits the character of the change, which is of the same nature as those of the shorter periods.
The cause of terrestrial magnetism is not yet satisfac. torily explained. It is evident that we cannot consider the earth as a body regularly magnetized, but rather as made up of an indefinite number of small magnets, the general result of whose action is directed north and south. Until lately it was supposed that only iron, nickel and cobalt were capable of exhibiting magnetic phenomena, and the magnetism of the earth was attributed to large masses of these existing in the interior of the globe; and, no doubt, there are large mountain masses capable of acting powerfully on the magnetic needle.
The researches, however, of Faraday, Weber and Tyndall have established the fact that all substances are capable of being rendered magnetic, and the phenomena exhibited seem to depend more on the physical state, as regards pressure, etc., than on the chemical nature of the substance. We may, therefore, suppose either that, owing to pressure, etc., the whole body of the earth is rendered magnetic permanently, or that it is rendered temporarily so by the inductive action of some body external to itself. There is one great difficulty in the way of such explanations, however, in the fact that all traces of magnetism disappear from all substances at a high temperature. Thus, iron at a bright red heat ceases to give the least indication of its presence.
As the interior of the earth must be at a very high temperature, it is difficult to understand how it could become magnetic, unless the great pressure modifies the action of heat on magnetism to a large extent.
Many theories have been advanced to account for the variations in the magnetic elements of declination, inclination, and intensity which we have noticed, but none are satisfactory and complete. It is very evident, however, that in this, as well as in many other of the grander phenomena of nature, we must not confine our attention to the earth itself, but must consider the action of external bodies, and especially that of the great centre of the solar system. The coincidence in time of many of the variations with solar phenomena irresistibly leads us to attribute to its action much of what we observe, and we shall point out one or two ways in which that action may be exercised. First, we may suppose the sun itself to be a magnet acting inductively on the earth, and, of course, his varying condition, distance and relative postion, would produce corresponding changes in the earth's magnetism.
To this explanation there are, however, great objections. From the fact we have mentioned—of a high temperature destroying the power of magnetism—it seems almost impossible to conceive that such a body as the sun can be magnetic ; and, besides, it has been proved, from a mathematical investigation of the subject by Messrs. Chambers and Stoney that the variations observed in the earth's magnetism cannot be accounted for by the magnetism of the sun or moon, supposing these bodies to be magnetic.
It would seem, therefore, that the sun cannot act in this direct manner. It ulay act, however, indirectly by means of the heat which it radiates toward the earth's surface. If we take a ring composed of two metals—say iron and copper—joined at two points, and heat one of the junctions while the other is kept cool, we shall find that a current of electricity will circulate round the ring. Now, we know that a current of electricity passing in this way acts exactly like a magnet. It is supposed that the sun acts in this way on the earth as it revolves, causing currents of electricity to circulate on its surface, producing magnetic action. These currents have been proved by observation really to exist, but on measuring them accurately they are also found totally inadequate to explain the phenomeua observed.
One of Faraday's most brilliant discoveries—that oxygen gas, which composes about a fifth of our atmosphere, was really capable of being rendered magnetic, like iron—was eagerly seized upon as a possible cause of magnetic variation. He found that the amount of magnetism induced upon oxygen depends on its density; that again depends on its temperature, as it expands when heated, and becomes, of course, less dense. It was conjectured that, being expanded by the sun's heat, its lessened terrestrial magnetic inductive power would react on terrestrial magnetism, and produce the variations observed in the latter. This ingenious explanation cannot be considered as more satisfactory than those already mentioned, as many of the phenomena to be accounted for do not occur at the time nor to the extent we should expect if the explanation were complete. Recently Professor Balfour Stewart has suggested another possible mode of the sun's indirect action. We know that if any body is moved across magnetic lines of force electricity is developed; and he says that the sun's heat causes convection-currents in the upper regions of the atmosphere, and these currents, cutting through the lines of force of the earth's magnetism, develop electricity, which reacts on the earth and produces the variations of the magnetic elements. There is no doubt the sun's heat may, and probably does, affect the condition of the earth's magnetism in the indirect ways we have noticed ; but no one of them, nor all of them together, seem to offer a satisfactory solution of this very complex problem. They offer no explanation of that slow secular movement we have referred to as having been observed since 1580, and whose cycle is not yet completed. There is also a difficulty in the way of all heat theories in the fact that there is well-marked variation in the earth's magnetism, due to the moon's influence; and as the heat from that satellite is quite inappreciable, it seems impossible that the explanation sought can be found in that agent. It must be admitted that our knowledge of “terrestrial magnetism” is confined entirely to the observations made in various parts of the earth, and these are by no means complete. We have not as yet mapped out the distribution of the earth's magnetism over its whole surface, but only at isolated stations. We can but hazard a probable conjecture as to the cause of the magnetism itself; but as to its variations, we must confess that all our the cries f, ll short of a complete explanation. The study of the mysterious movements of the compassneedle has thus led us over a wide field of inquiry; it has shown us that the earth is, indeed, magnetic, but presenting the phenomena of an indefinite collection of small magnets irregularly distributed rather than those of a regular large magnet; it has shown us also that the magnetism is subject to incessant wave-like movements, some of them taking hundreds of years to complete and others only a few hours. We are obliged to confess onr inability to unravel all the mysteries disclosed to us, but we are urged by the attractiveness of the inquiry to pursue our investigation. We feel assured that the sun is in some way connected by a magnetic bond to this little world of ours, as every movement he makes or outburst that takes place on his surface is instantly registered by the tiny needle. Possibly, there may be some hitherto unrecognized form of solar energy yet to be discovered by the student of science; but whether this be so or not, the close connection, if not absolute identity of electricity and magnetism, the probability of light being a magnetic phenomenon, and various other matters, render the inquiry full of promise,
Owing to its practical value in navigation, many gov- tions. A movable disk is set by a table, calculated for the ernments have lent their aid in investigating this subject, bours and minutes, and when the sun passing over the and numerous observatories have been established all over gnomon cuts the edge of the movable disk, the shadow the world, where thousands of observations are made every gives the true north, and the compass can unerringly be year by competent workers ; and it cannot be long before adjusted therefrom. Another arrangement which proves
the accuracy of this is likewise attached ; and at night the stars can be also observed, and the adjustments made from one of them with equal facility. The ease by which it is operated and the substantial simplicity of its construction are its chief merits, while its perfect accuracy in results must convince the most skeptical of its utility.
THE EDITOR'S OPERA-GLASS. The “nut-brown mayde," October, finds is at the end of a very hot Summer. Never did the pleasure-seekers by the sea suffer so much, and even Newport was very warm, The first part of the season was virtually ruined by the heat; the latter part rendered delightful by the coolness. The President's visit to Governor Morgan was a splendid event for even Fashion's high abiding-place, and there are
a thousand reasons why society should greet President "COMPASS AND CAPSTAN. !
Arthur with much distinction, for he is making the social nature will yield up her secret, as she always does, to per- atmosphere of the White House most attractive by his own sistent and well-directed effort, and then another field will entertainments and highbred courtesy. have been wrested from the region of thò unknown, and As the anniversaries came about, all reflecting people added to the ever-increasing domain of physical science. remembered the effect produced upon Newport during the
sad Summer of 1881 as Garfield lay dying. How different THE MARINER'S COMPASS AND NEW ADJUSTER..
the fates of the two men! Over one, destiny held a pall; The manager of a number of iron steamships once remarked: “Compasses in iron steamships never are, and never will be, correct, and I do not want the compasses of my ships to be so. I forbid my captains to suppose it possible, as they would become careless." There are BO many causes for compass errors, that it is a wonder more marine disasters do not occur. Even when correctly adjusted before leaving port, it is a common matter for a compass to increase in error until it varies from four to six points. Captain H. O. Cook, for many years an officer of the
CAPTAIN COOK'S ADJUSTER. British Navy, has devoted nearly twenty years to the investigation of this subject, and has at length succeeded in over the other, the purple canopy of success. The ono devising an apparatus by which a compass may be re- was called to martyrdom; the other to triumph. What adjusted at any time and place. Recent experiments
seer could have foretold that at Chicago ! have been made in presence of officers of the United States it. No body of represen tatives were ever so severely criti
Congress sat late, nor left a very brilliant record behind cised. Especially do the naval officers reprobate that Bill which made so many of them lose years of promotion. The gallant Captain Selfridge, of the Torpedo Station, is put back for six years—a most undesirable event.
The death of General Gouverneur Kemble Warren stirred the hearts of the people as few events have done since the war. He was relieved of his command on the battle-field by Sheridan, as it must be remembered, and, as he thought, most unjustly. Indeed, the world thought that Sheridan acted hastily. Since that day the proud soldier sought redress, but in vain. He worked, earned money, lived but for that purpose. A highly educated
officer, most thoroughly acquainted with his profession, CAPTAIN COOK'S NEW COMPASS. THE AZIMUTE INDICATOR.
he was placed after the war at the highly desirable post of navy, the revenue department and the mercantile marine, engineer-officer in command of the Department of the and the device met the fullest approbation.
East, with headquarters at Newport, in a romantic old The instrument has the appearance of a compass, but mansion in Newport, where Washington received Rochamhas neither magnetic needle nor swinging card, but is bean. Here, with an attractive family, a delightful social simply a mechanical and scientific instrument, with a position, General Warren seemed to have entered upon a movable gnomon adjusted to each latitude. The degrees happy and useful life. His great professional skill are cat on an onter circle, just as an azimuth would be ; brought him in fresh triumphs daily. But the wound an inner circle is marked with the variations and declina- 1 rankled. He was the slave of an idée fice,
Restoration to his rank, the wrongs of eighteen years righted, the apology of his superior officer, all were his due, he thought. Finally, after years of waiting, expense, trouble, courts of inquiry, he failed. He died of that oldfashioned malady, a broken heart, and now the country says, “Alas I poor Warren I he asked for bread—they will give him a stone.” It is one of those pitiful cases where there is no one to blame. But, oh! the pity of it !
Over the water, one listened amid the Summer days for the guns which opened on the Aboukir forts, which reechoed to our shores before they began —such are the mysteries of Time and the telegraph—and burned with indignation over the case of Mr. Dwyer Gray, in Dublin. The high position of the gentleman, and his good character, seems to have been so thoroughly established, that he should have been pardoned a much more heinous offense than the disparaging of a drunken jury. But whom the gods would destroy they first make mad, so we cannot but dread that the vengeance of the gods is bespoken for those who so misgovern and misunderstand Ireland.
and Light” comes down upon us severely, quoting the Atlantic Monthly, the New York Nation, and, we are sorry to say, Mr. Lowell, as amongst the disparagers of our nationality. He takes his descriptions of American sociallife from some town near Denver, which cannot be held as typical, and while scolding, denouncing, and vilifying American civilization, he says, demurely, that he is only “holding a friendly conversation with American lovers of human life." This should for ever shut all doors against Matthew Arnold in America. Emerson said of an Englishman, “When he speaks directly of the Americans, the Islander forgets his philosophy and remembers his disparaging anecdotes." Mr. Arnold even enters into other and less philosophical statements. “A community which can barely find time for sleep or meals; that men have their hats tipped at every angle except the right one, and their feet anywhere but on the floor," etc., etc. (This from a country which has sent us an Oscar Wilde!) All this reminds us of an anecdote which had much interest for us at the time. An American lady went to the “Zoo,” on a Sunday
Miss Fanny Parnell, a most interesting but misguided enthusiast, died in America since our last glance at the world. The Parnell ladies are all interesting, and have much of their old American grandfather, Commodore Stewart, in their veins. But the wrongs of Ireland have driven them over to Communism, and one regrets to read that Miss Fanny Parnell consorted with Louise Michel, in Paris. She was a poetess of no mean ability, and a noble woman. It is not the least painful side of the wrongs of Ireland that they had nearly driven such a woman mad. As for Mr. Gray's sentence, the Freeman's Journal remarks: “It is absolutely unparalleled. He only received notice of the nature of the proceedings against him on Tuesday evening, and was without any time to prepare his defense, which would probably have consisted of affidavits sustaining the truth of his published assertions. If his imprisonment tends in any way toward the reform of legal abuses or the greater freedom of the press, he will cheerfully endure it.” When we read that this gentleman was taken to jail between a tremendous hollow square of mounted scarlet English soldiers, we do not wonder that Ireland writhes.
All these mistakes should make Matthew Arnold more lenient toward America, and yet the author of “Sweetness
afternoon, with Sir John Bowring, twelve years ago. He had been everywhere else, but never in America. He was on this particular Sunday led by his companion through rows of hideously-dressed Englishwomen into a group of beautiful and well-dressed Americans. He thought they were brilliant young countrywomen of his own, of the “Prince of Wales's set,” which set the old scholar did not know at all, and he turned admiringly to the lady on his arm, saying, “I suppose, you find the women here remarkably well dressed; they get all their fashions from Paris, it is so near ! Now, America is so far, that you rarely can see a Paris fashion, I suppose.” When the lady told him that every well-dressed woman he saw was an American, and that all New York imported French fashions, the old Chinese scholar looked amazed. But to English misappreciation of America we must learn to submit. There is no balm in Gilead for that. Prince Bismarck, meantime, discourses thus of Austria : “Austria will have to share the dangers created for Europe by the connection between Russia and France, and must avert them by timely sacrifices by either making concessions in Italy for advantages to be obtained in Germany, or else strengthening herself against attacks by treaties with other Powers. I believe she will choose the
first alternative, and that she will try to gain Russia's 000- | Belonging to the "Brahmin class," he was always the fidence by a personal change of ministry. Austria will friend of the people, and in the close of his eighty-five only in case of utmost necessity avail bersell of our or of years a noble and a lovely career of anblemished useful. English support. If she should end avor to make us Dess is ended. guarantee her foreign possessions by new treaties, I do not believe she would use such a treaty for any other purpose than to parade it on the diplomatic field to her advantage
RECENT PROGRESS IN SCIENCE, and to our injury. Even supposing that arrogance and RECENT DISCOVERIES IN THE PLANET MARS.--An intended hatred should allow the Vienna Cabinet to ask for English article, of which an announcement appeared in Nature a few assistance, or to have the hereditary imperial provinces second time by Prof. Schiaparelli, at Milan, during the opposition protected by Russia, Austria is, on the other haod, even of 18:9-80, has been anticipated,
and in part superseded by inforstrengthened by an alliance with us and with England, too eries made by him in the beginning of the preseut year. Pending cautious to engage in a serious straggle against France the preparation of a fuiler and more detailed memoir, he has pub
lished a preliminary notice, read before the academia dei Lincei, and Russia if it can be avoided per fas et nefas. She will
on March 5th, and accompanied by a photographed drawing of consider the party of the Teutonio nations too weak for her the plauet's surface. The results are of a very remarkable and to join, and, in my opinion, she will be right in this respect,” unexpected character; and as through the courtesy of this dis
tinguished observer, the notice and photograph have boen placed A concession! Proud Prince Bismarck! The whole in my hands, I am induced to reproduce the latter, which, thuugh European world is thus by the ears, and we see nothing not pretending to minute accuracy (the original. in fact, is only a for any of them, or all of them, but trouble, expense and duplication of the so-called "canals." which, between
191 h and February 24th, in about twenty instances, unfolded itself Tant mieux pour nous. All the singing-birds, disturbed by took place at the late meeting of the astronomical Society, so far conflict, are coming over hure. Nilsson and Patti, and even as my information extends, sabstantiated strongly by independ. Mrs. Langtry, too! and we are to have the first represent- them even in positions where they have not been delineated by ation of Gilbert and Sullivan's new opera on November Schiaparelli: but their duplication by similar and parallel lines 7th. A gay and prosperous Winter seems to be the out of opinion may possibly be expected conceruing these strange aplook for New Yorkers.
pearances; and the consequent enfeebling (to say the least of it) It is to be hoped that we may, before another year, unacceptable; but the established reputation of the observer de
of the long-admitted terrestrial analogy may be to some minds, receive our promised statue of Liberty, by Bartholdi-a mands, at any rate, a respectful attention to his statements. It generous gift from France, asking us only to raise a ceive a full elucidation of the subject in the memoir, of which
we pedestal. It is so enormous that the sculptor asked a possess only a preliminary notice; for the present it may suffice party of friends to dine in the thigh. The banquet was clearer than in 1877, and was thus enabled to recover the markings successful and unique. The guests walked in by the then detected more satisfactorily even than in 1879-80, and to conright toe. One laid himself down comfortably inside frm the general accuracy of his two earlier charts; while the a toe. Ladders conveyed them all the way up the calf, variable brightness of some great regions, the progressive onand finally deposited them where a temporary platform largement on one side, since 1879, of the " Kaleer Sea" (his Syrtis had been constructed. Soon they expect to enjoy a bun- toward the limbs, the confirmed existence of oblique white quet in the head. Those travelers who have been so for streaks, the unfolding of minute labyrinthina detail, and the contunate as to travel up the colossal statue of Carlo Borro-collateral lines which double the so-called - canals," and extend meo, on Lake Maggiore, will remember the vast sensations with them ordinarily along great circles of the sphere all these, enjoyed in that immense figure, and the beautiful pros-wendad and detailed communication. For some of these most repect from the colossal eyes.
markable appearances parallels may be, to a certain extent, proFashion has made a step backward ; all the new gowns present appears, the duplication stands alone. The discoverer is are made to lace down the back. The lovely Princess of disposed to infer a connection between these progressive doWales will wear only long dresses. Her walk is said to be welopments and the seasons of the planet, and on that account more graceful in consequence, “A rapid, gliding step, sition at the opening of 1884, notwithstanding the diminished 80 different from the springy, Dutch doll step that has diameter (only 12"-9). confirmation of his annoncements may be
obtained from other observers. We sincerely trust that a report come in with short dresses.” The Autumn coolness has which has reached us may be verified as to the erection of a much brought back the pretty fashion of white-silk waistcoats larger telescope in the Royal Observatory at Milan, and that the under tweed jackets. Buttons with impressions from rewarded, not only by the confirmation, but the extension of re
extraordinary talent and diligence of the director may be richly antique seal.rings, in graduated sizes, are the most elesults which must so materially influence our conclusions as to gant. Some hunting Dianas wear buttons with foxes, the physical condition of this peculiarly interesting
planet. heads, horses, stirrups, dogs, whip and spur, and jockey SIGNOR BONCELLI, of the Italian Parliament, has devised a cap. The button I always the button, an important con simple and practical method of voting by eloctricity. Each
member of the house has in front of him a metal plate bearing
his pection between he waistcoat and the color of the jacket. name or vumber, on which are three buttons marked respectively Red geraniams and white chrysanthemums—any yell.w Yoa," No" and " Abstain.” The buttons are connected with a
central printing apparatus, which prints in three separate col. flower that can be found -and golden-rol and aster are the umns the yeas, nays and abstentions, according to the button Lashionable bouquets for October,
touched by the mombors, while, with every addition to each
column, the sum of the votos in the column is automatically reThe appointment of W. W. Astor, Esq., for the Roman corded. mission has met with universal favor. Mr. Astor is a The proportion of salt in the water of the ocean varies greatly very good linguist, although scarcaly rivaling the extra. in different localities. M. de la Grye has made a series of obser ordinary capacity of Hon. George P. Mars'ı, his predeces- -- he has found that the
saltness diminishes rapidly as a coast is sor, who spoke twenty-eight dialects ; but Mr. Astor has approached, due, probably, to the freshening by rivers discharge much knowledge of foreign life, has a large fortune, a bergs. These facts would seem to have an important bearing on beautiful wife, and every social consideration in his favor. navigation, as in bad weather tests of the saliness of sea-water New York has had to mourn the loss of a most dis- might enable the mariner to avoid running into unseen coasts or
icebórgs. tinguished, valued and charitable citizen, Frederick de
DR. L. RIOCIARDI bas analyzed six specimens of the lava ejected Peyster, Esq., who died calmly at the advanced age of 85. from Ætna in 1669, takon at different depths of one and the same Mr. de Peyster has held more offices in literary and char- stream, and in the same perpendicular plain. He found the only itable institutions than any man except General Dix. I highest stage of oxidation,
difference to consist in the different proportions of iron in the