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about 239 west of the true north. The discovery of the fact due mainly to the illustrious traveler Humboldt, remains was at first balled as of immense importance to navigation; to be mentioned. This has reference, not to the direction, it was imagined the longitnde of a ship at sea might be but to the intensity, of the magnetic force at different parts determined by the declination of the compass alone. It is of the earth's surface. If we cause a magnetio needle to said that Sebastian Cabot boasted on his death-bed of oscillate backward and forward near a large magnet, we having this knowledge through "special divine manifesta- shall find these oscillations to increase in rapidity as the tion.” The idea of the early navigators can be readily needle approaches the magnet or as the strength of the understood. In 1492 Columbus discovered in the Azores magnetism increases; and we know that the force increases a position of no declination, or where the compass pointed in proportion to the square of the number of oscillations due noth and soutb, and it was imagined that the declina- in a given time. Thus, if at one place of the earth's surtion increased in a regular manner from this position. face the number of oscillations is ten, and at another seven
Suppose the compass deviated one degree for each 100 in the same time, we know that the force at the one place • miles east or west from this point, then the mariner conld is to the force at the other as one hundred is to forty-nine.
easily tell how far he was distant from the point by The results obtained by investigating the distribution of noting the number of degrees the compass has deviated. terrestrial magnetism by this method agree with those
As observations on declination were multiplied, however, obtained by observing the declination and inclination, for the hope of the early navigators was dissipated, for it was while the intensity generally increases from the equator found that the phenomenon was exceedingly irregular ; to the poles, the increase shows the same irregularity as and if the points of equal declination were joined by lines, observed in the other phenomena. After the manner of geographical meridians, as laid down The study of these various phenomena is greatly comin maps, these lines were of an exceedingly irregular and plicated by the fact that none of them is constant; they wavy form, so that the declination of the compass at any are all subject to incessant change, mostly of a regular particular spot could only be known by actual observa- periodio character : that is to say, the needle does not tion, and until the whole surface of the world had been always exhibit the same declination or inclination, nor mapped ont the declination of the needle could not be does the intensity of the magnetio force always remain the used as an exact indicator of the longitude.
same at the same place. These changes are ceaseless and In 1576 Robert Norman directed attention to the dipping complicated, and their study is attended with great needle as a means of investigating the distribution of the difficulty ; but as the result of many careful observations, barth's magnetism. This instrument measures, not the it appears that some of them depend on the time of day, deviation of the needle from the true north and south line, but some on the season of the year, etc., while others of the incination or angle which its deviation makes with the sudden and irregular character, when the needlo is simulhorizontal line, when it is free to move in a vertical plane. taneously affected over thousands of miles of the earth's
This method muy be understood if we observe the surface, appear to coincide with the outburst of spots upon behavior of such a needle when placed in various posi- the sun's surface. In the northern hemisphere the north tions over a large bar-magnet. When at the centre it will pole of the needle commences to move westward about 8 bave no dip, but be quite horizontal; but as it is carried A.M., and continues to do so till about 2 P. M., when it turns toward either pole it will incline more and more, until it suddenly, and moves back again toward its starting-point, becomes vertical at the poles themselves, as illustrated which it reaches about midnight. During the nigłt it on page 509. The middle point, where the needle is repeats the movement, although on a smaller scale. So borizontal, may be termed the magnetic equator.
regular is the movement, that between the tropics the Investigating the earth's magnetism in this way, it was hour of the day may be known from the position of the found that the inclination generally increased from the compass-needle. Recently another movement, of an egnator to the poles, and sanguine hopes were entertained analogous nature, but which takes twenty-six days to comthat the latitude might be determined by its means ; just plete, has been recognized; this time is just about the as similar hopes bad been entertanied regarding the deter- same as the sun takes to go round its axis. Another mination of longitude by means of the declination ; but periodic movement seems to coincide in time with the the same cause dissipated the hope in both directions-viz., eleven-years period of maximum and minimum sun-spots. the extreme irregularity of the distribution of the earth's Besides these whose periods have been recognized, there magnetism. The lines forming the points of equal in- is a slow secular change, which has been going on for clination were found to be as irregular as in the case of nearly 300 years, but whose oycle is not yet complete. declination, and the magnetic equator was not a large Thus, in 1657 the compags-needle pointed due north and regular circle coinciding with the geographical, but passed south at London ; since then it has gradually turned westaround the globe, sometimes north and sometimes sonth of ward, and in 1800 it pointed 24° 36' W., and it is now as the latter, and cutting it in two, or perhaps four, places, gradually returning to the east again. The following table but not coinciding with it to any extent. Locally, how- exhibits the character of the change, which is of the same ever, the inclination may be, and has actually been, used nature as those of the shorter periods. by vessels in darkness or mist to determine whether they were north or south of a port they wished to enter. By the aid of a dipping-needle, however, the positions
CHANGE OF DECLINATION AT LOxdox. of the north and south magnetic poles or points, where its direction is vertical, have been determined. The
Declination. north magnetic pole is found to be in lititode 75° 5', and longitude 960 46' mest, and the south pole in latitude 75°,
1760 19° 30 and longitude 1380 east. They are not, therefore, diamet
23 89 rically opposite, and no straight line can be drawn between 1657
24 96 them and referred to as a magnetic axis analogous to the
1815 geographical axis of the earth.
24 11 The two methods of investigation just described depends
1851 24 0
1740 16 10 on the direchon of tue needle; a third method, however,
0 0 094 W.
The cause of terrestrial magnetism is not yet satisfac. One of Faraday's most brilliant discoveries—that oxygen torily explained. It is evident that we cannot consider the gas, which composes about a fifth of our atmosphere, was earth as a budy regularly magnetized, but rather as made really capable of being rendered magnetic, like iron-was np of an indefinite number of small magnets, the general eagerly seized upon as a possible cause of magnetic variaresult of whose action is directed north and south. Until tion. He found that the amount of magnetism indnced lately it was supposed that only iron, pickel and cobalt upon oxygen depends on its density ; that again depends were capable of exhibiting magnetic phenomena, and the on its temperature, as it expands when heated, and bemagnetism of the earth was attributed to large masses of comes, of course, less dense. It was conjectured that, these existing in the interior of the globe; and, no doubt, being expanded by the sun's heat, its lessened terrestrial there are large mountain masses capable of acting power- magnetic inductive power would react on terrestrial magfully on the magnetic needle,
netism, and produce the variations observed in the latter. The researches, however, of Faraday, Weber and Tyndall This ingenious explanation cannot be considered as more have established the fact that all substances are capable of satisfactory than those already mentioned, as many of the being rendered magnetic, and the phenomena exhibited phenomena to be accounted for do not occur at the time seem to depend more on the physical state, as regards pres- nor to the extent we should expect it the explanation were sure, etc., than on the chemical nature of the substunce.complete. We may, therefore, suppose either that, owing to preseure, Recently Professor Balfour Stewart has suggested anetc., the whole body of the earth is rendered magnetic other possible mode of the sun's indirect action. We permanently, or that it is rendered temporarily so by know that if any body is moved across magnetio lines of the inductive action of some body external to itself. force electricity is developed ; and he says that the sun's There is one great difficulty in the way of snch explana- beat causes convection-currents in the upper regions of tions, however, in the fact that all traces of magnetism the atmosphere, and these currents, cutting through the disappear from all substances at a high temperature. lines of force of the earth's magnetism, develop electricity, Thus, iron at a briglit red heat ceases to give the least in which reacts on the earth and produces the variations of dication of its presence.
the magnetic elements. As the interior of the earth most bo at a very high There is no doubt the sun's heat may, and probably temperature, it is difficult to anderstand how it could does, affect the condition of the earth's magnetism in the become magnetio, unless the great pressure modifies the indirect ways we have notioed; but no one of them, por all action of heat on magnetism to a large extent.
of them together, seem to offer & satisfactory solution of Many theories have been advanced to account for the this very complex problem. They offer no explanation of variations in the magnetic elements of declination, incli- that slow secular movement we have referred to as having nation, and intensity which we have noticed, but none are been observed since 1580, and whose cycle is not yet comsatisfactory and complete. It is very evident, however, that pleted. in this, as well as in many other of the grander phenomena There is also a difficulty in the way of all beat theories of nature, we must not confine our attention to the earth in the fact that there is well-marked variation in the earth's itself, but must consider the action of external bodies, and magnetism, due to the moon's influence; and as the heat especially that of the great centre of the solar system. from that satellite is quite inappreciable, it seems impossiThe coincidence in time of many of the variations with ble that the explanation sought can be found in that agent. solar phenomena irresistibly leads us to attribute to its It must be admitted that our knowledge of "terrestrial action much of what we observe, and we shall point out one magnetism" is confined entirely to the observations made or two ways in which that action may be exercised. First, in various parts of the earth, and these are by no means we may suppose the sun itself to be a magnet acting in complete. We have not as yet mapped out the distribuductively on the earth, and, of course, his varying condition of the earth's magnetism over its whole surface, but tion, distance and relative postion, would produce corre only at isolated stations. We can but hazard a probable sponding changes in the earth's magnetism.
conjecture as to the cause of the magnetism itself ; but as To this explanation there are, however, great objections to its variations, we must confess that all our thecries f. Il From the fact we have mentioned- of a high temperature short of a complete explanation. destroying the power of magnetism-it seems almost im The study of the mysterious movements of the compasspossible to conceiva that such a body as the sun can be needle has thus led us over a wide field of inquiry ; it has magnetic; and, besides, it has been proved, from a mathe- shown us that the earth is, indeed, magnetic, but presentmatical investigation of the subject by Messrs. Chambers ing the phenomena of an indefinite colleotion of small and Stoney that the variations observed in the earth's magnets irregularly distributed rather than those of a magnetism cannot be accounted for by the magnetism of regular large magnet; it has shown us also that the magthe sun or moon, supposing these bodies to be magnetic. netism is subject to incessant wave-like movements, some
It would seem, therefore, that the sun cannot act in this of them taking hundreds of years to complete and others direct manner. It way act, however, indirectly by means oply a few hours. of the heat which it radiates toward the earth's surface. If We are obliged to confess our inability to unravel all we take a ring composed of two metais-say iron and the mysteries disclosed to us, but we are urged by the atcopper-joined at two points, and heat one of the junc- tractiveness of the inquiry to pursue our investigation. tions while the other is kept cool, we shall find that a We feel assured that the sun is in some way connected by current of electricity will circulate round the ring. Now, a magnetic bond to this little world of ours, as every movewe know that a current of electricity passing in this way ment he makes or outburst that takes place on his surface acts exactly like a magnet. It is supposed that the sun is instantly registered by the tiny needle. Possibly, there acts in this way on the earth as it revolves, causing may be some hitherto unrecognized form of solar energy currents of electricity to circulate on its surface, pro- yet to be discovered by the stndent of science; but ducing magnetic action. These currents have been proved whether this be so or not, the close connection, if not absoby observation really to exist, but on measuring them ac-lute identity of electricity and magnetism, the probability ourately they are also found totally inadequate to explain of light being a magnetic phenomenon, and various other the phenomowa observed.
matters, render the inquiry full of promise,
Owing to its practical value in navigation, many gov- tions. A movable disk is set by a table, calculated for the ernments have lent their aid in investigating this subject, bours and minutes, and when the sun passing over the and numerous observatories have been established all over gnomon cuts the edge of the movable disk, the shadow the world, where thousands of observations are made every gives the true north, and the compass can unerringly be year by competent workers ; and it cannot be long before adjusted therefrom. Another arrangement which proves
the accuracy of this is likewise attached ; and at night the stars can be also observed, and the adjustments made from one of them with equal facility. The ease by which it is operated and the substantial simplicity of its construction are its chief merits, while its perfect accuracy in results must convince the most skeptical of its utility.
THE EDITOR'S OPERA-GLASS. The “nut-brown mayde," October, finds is at the end of a very hot Summer. Never did the pleasure-seekers by the sea suffer so much, and even Newport was very warm, The first part of the season was virtually ruined by the heat; the latter part rendered delightful by the coolness. The President's visit to Governor Morgan was a splendid event for even Fashion's high abiding-place, and there are
a thousand reasons why society should greet President "COMPASS AND CAPSTAN. !
Arthur with much distinction, for he is making the social nature will yield up her secret, as she always does, to per- atmosphere of the White House most attractive by his own sistent and well-directed effort, and then another field will entertainments and highbred courtesy. have been wrested from the region of thò unknown, and As the anniversaries came about, all reflecting people added to the ever-increasing domain of physical science. remembered the effect produced upon Newport during the
sad Summer of 1881 as Garfield lay dying. How different THE MARINER'S COMPASS AND NEW ADJUSTER..
the fates of the two men! Over one, destiny held a pall; The manager of a number of iron steamships once remarked: “Compasses in iron steamships never are, and never will be, correct, and I do not want the compasses of my ships to be so. I forbid my captains to suppose it possible, as they would become careless." There are BO many causes for compass errors, that it is a wonder more marine disasters do not occur. Even when correctly adjusted before leaving port, it is a common matter for a compass to increase in error until it varies from four to six points. Captain H. O. Cook, for many years an officer of the
CAPTAIN COOK'S ADJUSTER. British Navy, has devoted nearly twenty years to the investigation of this subject, and has at length succeeded in over the other, the purple canopy of success. The ono devising an apparatus by which a compass may be re- was called to martyrdom; the other to triumph. What adjusted at any time and place. Recent experiments
seer could have foretold that at Chicago ! have been made in presence of officers of the United States it. No body of represen tatives were ever so severely criti
Congress sat late, nor left a very brilliant record behind cised. Especially do the naval officers reprobate that Bill which made so many of them lose years of promotion. The gallant Captain Selfridge, of the Torpedo Station, is put back for six years—a most undesirable event.
The death of General Gouverneur Kemble Warren stirred the hearts of the people as few events have done since the war. He was relieved of his command on the battle-field by Sheridan, as it must be remembered, and, as he thought, most unjustly. Indeed, the world thought that Sheridan acted hastily. Since that day the proud soldier sought redress, but in vain. He worked, earned money, lived but for that purpose. A highly educated
officer, most thoroughly acquainted with his profession, CAPTAIN COOK'S NEW COMPASS. THE AZIMUTE INDICATOR.
he was placed after the war at the highly desirable post of navy, the revenue department and the mercantile marine, engineer-officer in command of the Department of the and the device met the fullest approbation.
East, with headquarters at Newport, in a romantic old The instrument has the appearance of a compass, but mansion in Newport, where Washington received Rochamhas neither magnetic needle nor swinging card, but is bean. Here, with an attractive family, a delightful social simply a mechanical and scientific instrument, with a position, General Warren seemed to have entered upon a movable gnomon adjusted to each latitude. The degrees happy and useful life. His great professional skill are cat on an onter circle, just as an azimuth would be ; brought him in fresh triumphs daily. But the wound an inner circle is marked with the variations and declina- 1 rankled. He was the slave of an idée fice,
Restoration to his rank, the wrongs of eighteen years, and Light" comes down upon us severely, quoting the righted, the apology of his superior officer, all were his Atlantic Monthly, the New York Nation, and, we are sorry to due, he thought. Finally, after years of waiting, expense, say, Mr. Lowell, as amongst the disparagers of our nationtrouble, courts of inquiry, he failed. He died of that old ality. He takes his descriptions of American social life from fashioned malady, a broken heart, and now the country some town near Denver, which cannot be held as typical, says, "Alas! poor Warren I be asked for bread-they will and while soolding, denouncing, and vilifying American give him a stone." It is one of those pitiful cases where civilization, he says, demurely, that he is only "holding there is no one to blame. But, oh! the pity of it! a friendly conversation with American lovers of human
Over the water, one listened amid the Summer days for life.” This should for ever shut all doors against Matthew the guns which opened on the Aboukir forts, which re. Arnold in America. Emerson said of an Englishman, echoed to our shores before they began !—such are the “When he speaks directly of the Americans, the Islander mysteries of Time and the telegraph-and burned with forgets his philosophy and remembers his disparaging indignation over the case of Mr. Dwyer Gray, in Dublin. anecdotes." Mr. Arnold even enters into other and less The high position of the gentleman, and his good character, philosophical statements. "A community which can barely Beems to have been so thoroughly established, that he find time for sleep or 'meals; that men have their hats should have been pardoned a much more heinous offense tipped at every angle except the right one, and their feet than the disparaging of a drunken jury. But whom the anywhere but on the floor,” etc., etc. (This from a country gods would destroy they first make mad, so we cannot but which has sent us an Oscar Wilde!) All this reminds us dread that the vengeance of the gods is bespoken for those of an anecdote which had much interest for us at the who so misgovern and misunderstand Ireland.
time. An American lady went to the " Zoo," on a Sunday
RECENTLY DISCOVERED CANALS IN THE PLANET MARS.— SEE NEXT PAGE. Miss Fanny Parnell, a most interesting but misguided | afternoon, with Sir John Bowring, twelve years ago. He enthusiast, died in America since our last glance at the had been everywhere else, but never in America. He was on world. The Parnell ladies are all interesting, and have this particular Sunday led by his companion through rows much of their old American grandfather, Commodore of hideously-dressed English women into a group of beautiStowart, in their veins. But the wrongs of Ireland have ful and well-dressed Americans. He thought they were driven them over to Communism, and one regrets to read brilliant young country women of his own, of the “Prince that Miss Fanny Parnell consorted with Louise Michel, in of Wales's set,” which set the old scholar did not know at Paris. She was a poetess of no mean ability, and a noble all, and he turned admiringly to the lady on bis arm, woman. It is not the least painful side of the wrongs of saying, “I suppose, you find the women here remarkably Ireland that they had nearly driven such a woman mad. well dressed; they get all their fashions from Paris, it is As for Mr. Gray's sentence, the Freeman's Journal re- so near! Now, America is so far, that you rarely can seo marks : "It is absolutely unparalleled. He only received a Paris fashion, I suppose." notice of the nature of the proceedings against him on When the lady told him that every well-dressed woman Tuesday evening, and was without any time to prepare he saw was an American, and that all New York imported his defense, which would probably have consisted of affi- French fashions, the old Chinese scholar looked amazed. davits sustaining the truth of his published assertions. If But to English misappreciation of America we must learn his imprisonment tends in any way toward the reform of to submit. There is no balm in Gilead for that. legal abuses or the greater freedom of the press, he Prince Bismarck, meantime, discourses thus of Austria : will cheerfully endure it.” When we read that this gen. “Austria will have to share the dangers created for tleman was taken to jail between a tremendous hollow Europe by the connection between Russia and France, and square of mounted scarlet English soldiers, we do not must avert them by timely sacrifices by either making con. wonder that Ireland writbes.
cessions in Italy for advantages to be obtained in Ger. All these mistakes should make Matthew Arnold more many, or else strengthening herself against attacks by Jenient toward America, and yet the author of "Sweetness treaties with other Powers. I believe she will choose the
first alternative, and that she will try to gain Russia's 000- | Belonging to the "Brahmin class," he was always the fidence by a personal change of ministry. Austria will friend of the people, and in the close of his eighty-five only in case of utmost necessity avail bersell of our or of years a noble and a lovely career of anblemished useful. English support. If she should end avor to make us Dess is ended. guarantee her foreign possessions by new treaties, I do not believe she would use such a treaty for any other purpose than to parade it on the diplomatic field to her advantage
RECENT PROGRESS IN SCIENCE, and to our injury. Even supposing that arrogance and RECENT DISCOVERIES IN THE PLANET MARS.--An intended hatred should allow the Vienna Cabinet to ask for English article, of which an announcement appeared in Nature a few assistance, or to have the hereditary imperial provinces second time by Prof. Schiaparelli, at Milan, during the opposition protected by Russia, Austria is, on the other haod, even of 18:9-80, has been anticipated,
and in part superseded by inforstrengthened by an alliance with us and with England, too eries made by him in the beginning of the preseut year. Pending cautious to engage in a serious straggle against France the preparation of a fuiler and more detailed memoir, he has pub
lished a preliminary notice, read before the academia dei Lincei, and Russia if it can be avoided per fas et nefas. She will
on March 5th, and accompanied by a photographed drawing of consider the party of the Teutonio nations too weak for her the plauet's surface. The results are of a very remarkable and to join, and, in my opinion, she will be right in this respect,” unexpected character; and as through the courtesy of this dis
tinguished observer, the notice and photograph have boen placed A concession! Proud Prince Bismarck! The whole in my hands, I am induced to reproduce the latter, which, thuugh European world is thus by the ears, and we see nothing not pretending to minute accuracy (the original. in fact, is only a for any of them, or all of them, but trouble, expense and duplication of the so-called "canals." which, between
191 h and February 24th, in about twenty instances, unfolded itself Tant mieux pour nous. All the singing-birds, disturbed by took place at the late meeting of the astronomical Society, so far conflict, are coming over hure. Nilsson and Patti, and even as my information extends, sabstantiated strongly by independ. Mrs. Langtry, too! and we are to have the first represent- them even in positions where they have not been delineated by ation of Gilbert and Sullivan's new opera on November Schiaparelli: but their duplication by similar and parallel lines 7th. A gay and prosperous Winter seems to be the out of opinion may possibly be expected conceruing these strange aplook for New Yorkers.
pearances; and the consequent enfeebling (to say the least of it) It is to be hoped that we may, before another year, unacceptable; but the established reputation of the observer de
of the long-admitted terrestrial analogy may be to some minds, receive our promised statue of Liberty, by Bartholdi-a mands, at any rate, a respectful attention to his statements. It generous gift from France, asking us only to raise a ceive a full elucidation of the subject in the memoir, of which
we pedestal. It is so enormous that the sculptor asked a possess only a preliminary notice; for the present it may suffice party of friends to dine in the thigh. The banquet was clearer than in 1877, and was thus enabled to recover the markings successful and unique. The guests walked in by the then detected more satisfactorily even than in 1879-80, and to conright toe. One laid himself down comfortably inside frm the general accuracy of his two earlier charts; while the a toe. Ladders conveyed them all the way up the calf, variable brightness of some great regions, the progressive onand finally deposited them where a temporary platform largement on one side, since 1879, of the " Kaleer Sea" (his Syrtis had been constructed. Soon they expect to enjoy a bun- toward the limbs, the confirmed existence of oblique white quet in the head. Those travelers who have been so for streaks, the unfolding of minute labyrinthina detail, and the contunate as to travel up the colossal statue of Carlo Borro-collateral lines which double the so-called - canals," and extend meo, on Lake Maggiore, will remember the vast sensations with them ordinarily along great circles of the sphere all these, enjoyed in that immense figure, and the beautiful pros-wendad and detailed communication. For some of these most repect from the colossal eyes.
markable appearances parallels may be, to a certain extent, proFashion has made a step backward ; all the new gowns present appears, the duplication stands alone. The discoverer is are made to lace down the back. The lovely Princess of disposed to infer a connection between these progressive doWales will wear only long dresses. Her walk is said to be welopments and the seasons of the planet, and on that account more graceful in consequence, “A rapid, gliding step, sition at the opening of 1884, notwithstanding the diminished 80 different from the springy, Dutch doll step that has diameter (only 12"-9). confirmation of his annoncements may be
obtained from other observers. We sincerely trust that a report come in with short dresses.” The Autumn coolness has which has reached us may be verified as to the erection of a much brought back the pretty fashion of white-silk waistcoats larger telescope in the Royal Observatory at Milan, and that the under tweed jackets. Buttons with impressions from rewarded, not only by the confirmation, but the extension of re
extraordinary talent and diligence of the director may be richly antique seal.rings, in graduated sizes, are the most elesults which must so materially influence our conclusions as to gant. Some hunting Dianas wear buttons with foxes, the physical condition of this peculiarly interesting
planet. heads, horses, stirrups, dogs, whip and spur, and jockey SIGNOR BONCELLI, of the Italian Parliament, has devised a cap. The button I always the button, an important con simple and practical method of voting by eloctricity. Each
member of the house has in front of him a metal plate bearing
his pection between he waistcoat and the color of the jacket. name or vumber, on which are three buttons marked respectively Red geraniams and white chrysanthemums—any yell.w Yoa," No" and " Abstain.” The buttons are connected with a
central printing apparatus, which prints in three separate col. flower that can be found -and golden-rol and aster are the umns the yeas, nays and abstentions, according to the button Lashionable bouquets for October,
touched by the mombors, while, with every addition to each
column, the sum of the votos in the column is automatically reThe appointment of W. W. Astor, Esq., for the Roman corded. mission has met with universal favor. Mr. Astor is a The proportion of salt in the water of the ocean varies greatly very good linguist, although scarcaly rivaling the extra. in different localities. M. de la Grye has made a series of obser ordinary capacity of Hon. George P. Mars'ı, his predeces- -- he has found that the
saltness diminishes rapidly as a coast is sor, who spoke twenty-eight dialects ; but Mr. Astor has approached, due, probably, to the freshening by rivers discharge much knowledge of foreign life, has a large fortune, a bergs. These facts would seem to have an important bearing on beautiful wife, and every social consideration in his favor. navigation, as in bad weather tests of the saliness of sea-water New York has had to mourn the loss of a most dis- might enable the mariner to avoid running into unseen coasts or
icebórgs. tinguished, valued and charitable citizen, Frederick de
DR. L. RIOCIARDI bas analyzed six specimens of the lava ejected Peyster, Esq., who died calmly at the advanced age of 85. from Ætna in 1669, takon at different depths of one and the same Mr. de Peyster has held more offices in literary and char- stream, and in the same perpendicular plain. He found the only itable institutions than any man except General Dix. I highest stage of oxidation,
difference to consist in the different proportions of iron in the