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a loft above. Ropes and pulleys connected with elevators in a rafter over the head of the bed, and from another a and derricks filled up the space near the huge windows, small, beautifal silver crucifix attached to a holy-water or, rather, openings, with solid wooden screens or shutters vessel of the same metal. Nevertheless, the hunchback" sliding across them when needed, and the tops of some of protégé had never been sent to the Sunday catechism-class, these machines protruded oddly over the rude banisters nor had be been known to have made his first commuthat protected the platform just above the ladder. On the nion. But then this might have taken place when he was platform, lighted by a window on the upper part of the at a distant boarding-school,

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FOLIOS, WERE ALSO PRESENT. THE YOUNG MAN KEAD HIS UNCLE'S PAPER HIMSELF." sharp gable, and surrounded by a solid wooden parapet Besides the bed, there was one chair, strong and new, a three feet high, lived the hunchback, Hyppolite. His bed common table with many ink-stains and two huge, deep was a large clean bag filled with fresh straw, bat above it drawers, an iron washstand, and a large old coffer, much was a quilt of eider-down-the covering cashmere in large like a meal-chest, as it had four compartments, but sugbrown and yellow squares—and over this two down pil- gestive of more romantic things, as each compartment hud lows with canvas bags for pillow-cases.

a huge lock of antique and intricate make, each key-ward A villainous little colored print of a hypothetical martyr, being different; while one compartment had two locks, with the name "S. Hyppolite" beneath, hung from a nail ! and seemed divided longitudinally. This chest was

riveted to the floor and also made fast from above to a | I knew now that I was impish and crabbed, and provoked heavy chain that reached the dim confusion of cobwebbed my schoolfellows, but I thought then that all the fault rafters overhead.

was on their side. I began early to wonder why I bad a Hyppolite gravely averred that one of the four com. hump, and why I grew broad instead of growing tall. My partments had some secret communication with the belfry father made money and was elected mayor, and my eldest of the cathedral, and that if thieves should happen to sister married a rich merchant's son from the south of touch this coffer, one of the bells of Notre Dame would France, while the rest of my brothers and sisters went to ring of itself.

fashionable boarding-schools. When I was thirteen I ran He found a great many believers in this assertion, away, and have never been home or communicated with though, of course, thieves bad tried more than once to my family since. They think, doabtless, that I died long rifle the contents of the coffer. Popular accounts said ago. My father died only three years ago. I kept myself that they had been baffled each time by the crowd of informed through the police of all that befell my relativos, people in the building, and suspicious noises near them, "I went to Algeria first, on board of a French ship, while the only time any one had been known to get one of where I was cabin-boy. After knocking along among the the lids open, a blank and open space appeared as the only soldiers, who were kinder to me than my own people had reward of the useless labor,

been, and for whom I did odd jobs, an old Turk took a During the war of 1870 the hunchback's nephew fought fancy to me, and bought me of myself that is, he promised as a Garde National, and it was understood that during me a certain sam, half down, and half when my engagethe Commune Hyppolite had bidden away an unlucky in- ment should be over, if I would live with him and do all dividu:1 in his loft, and conveyed bim to safety by night he wanted me to, for three years. through his friends on the river, but the familiar figure “I consented, having already in my mind's eye the was seldom seen during the chaotic time.

making of a moderate fortune. My master made me a sort When order was re-established, he took np his old stand of jester in bis house—that is, as far as an Oriental can be Again on the bridge, and begged more undisguisedly than said to appreciate a jester. I iuterpreted for him, too, as over, especially from the swarms of curious foreigners he often had dealings with Europeans, and now and then who came to contrast the rains of Paris with its former I was allowed to amuse his wives. If I had not been brilliancy.

stunted and deformed, of course, this would not have been One day, in the year of the exhbition, he was missing allowed. from his place, and all thought he had gone on a journey. "He wanted me to be a spy on his youngest wife, and I But five days after his nephew came to take away the small refused, expecting to be at least dismissed; but no, he only possessions he had left on the sidewalk of the bridge, and laughed grimly, and said no more. Nothing romantic told the bystanders that the old man was dead.

bappened ; his wife did not run away, nor did I ever help He had died the day previous, rather suddenly, from in any intrigue between Frenchmen and Algerian women, the obstinate effects of a cold caught by sitting in sonking either in my master's or any other household. clothes after a violent shower of rain.

"I staid out my three years and got my money, and my A priest had been with him at the last, and he had died master offered to renew the engagement for another three orthodoxly, though leaving a surprisingly moderate sum years at a rather higher rate of payment. I was tired of for Vasses for bis soul's repose-moderate by comparison the service and wanted a change, so I left him, worked my with the reputation for immense wealth which he had left passage back to Marseilles, and there set up a stall of a few behind him.

cheap Algerian baubles, all gifts to me from my friends in His nephew alone seemed ceither surprised, disap- Africa, and some cheap eatables, pointed, nor uneasy. The old man had told him all his "I never spent a sou except to buy food; I slept in my secrets. The larger part of the money Hyppolite pos- stall. More and more I wondered why I bad chanced to gegsed had gone to educate this boy, and fit bim for be a hunchback, and the kind of infidelity which crept making his own fortune.

upon me was not that blasphemous, frivolous atheism When the few legal formalities were over, the young common to my countrymen, especially the uneducated or man asked several of his uncle's friends to meet him in imperfectly tunglat, but a serious inquiring, dreaming anthe loft and hear a manuscript read, which Hyppolite had belief. desired to make publio after his death.

"I grew to have a morbid curiosity about bumps, and Two famous surgeons, and personally known to the dead the history of hunchbacks, and some old prints I saw at man, and three odd-looking men, suggestive of libraries a book-stall-medieval illustrations of various diseases and and ancient folios, wore also present. The young man deformities, called “The Strokes of God”—finished my read his uncle's papers himself. It was not very long, and fascination. to all intents and purposes it was more his will than the “Buying these was my first unnecessary investment. formal document thus pamed, which one of the lawyers Since then I have bought tons of matter, printed and enpresent had under lock and key at his office. The sub. graved, on the subject of humps, and the personal history stance of the paper ran thus :

of hunchbacks-gome famous, some obscuro. I have

searched church registers in France, Germany, Switzer. "I was born in Morlain, Department de la Somme, and land, the north of Italy, and the north of Spain, for was the youngest of a family of five. My brothers and descriptions of deformed infants ; I have read all the sisters are all alive and well-to-do. I was a hunchback medical and surgical books I could find or buy on tho from my birth. My mother died when I was born, and my subject; I have paid money to great surgeons in various father always rather disliked me. Most deformed persons countries to follow their public lectures on humps, or can guess my experienos, and I found no relief at home listened to private information and explanations from them; from the jeers and insults I received out of doors.

I have witnessed the dissection of the bodies of hunch“My foster-mother was the only one who ever showed backs, and especially the examination of their humps. me love, but her husband and older sons disliked and “I have gone through bospitals, searching for hunchmocked at me. At school it was much the same. I learned backed cripples, old or young, male or female ; and it was faster than some of the boys, and they hated me for it. I while on one of these visits that I found my nephew, the


little son of a bunch backed woman who had just died. If at the absence of any sensational incident in the narrative, took him home and brought him up as my own, having or hint of a large forrun: hoarded in a romantic manner, ascertained thut beyond his mother no one was likely to Real life has many phases, each extraordinary in itsell, claim the baby boy.

but they seldom fit into each other so as to produce the "This was not Paris, but in a large city in the west of coincidences necessary to a novelist. The history of HipFrance, where I lived some time, because the public polite might have been twisted into several novels, each library possessed records of a medieval hunchback, whose different in its plot and treatment, according to the differhistory I was studying. I could only see the books at the ent stages of the real history at which the imagination of library, so I took notes and copied pages, and left the the writer should have branched out into appropriate dechild all day at the crèche, or infant-school, kept by some tails. The most unlikely part of the tale, to those who Sisters of Charity.

know only the conventional phases of current literature, "I found begging, on the whole, rather a better way of is the behavior of the hunchbuck's nephew, who is steady making money than selling anything; but I often alter and grave, rising in his profession-civil engineering nated one mode of life with the other, as suited my studies and occupying his spare hours in editing Hyppolite's cubest. On Sundays I always took care to be at the door of rious collection of papers conjointly with one of the librasome crowded church, and I never failed to make a har. rians of the Natioval Library, in Paris, and one of the vest, generally of silver.

three most famous surgeons of France. “Once or twice I was robbed, and after that I took the precaution of keeping my money in a bank in Paris. I never went there on foot, but dressed well and took a

IN VAIN. coupé. My banker never knew who or what I was. I consalted him on the choice of a school for my nephew,

CLASP closer arms, press closer lips,

In last and vain caressing! and he furnished to the school authorities the necessary

For never more that pallid cheek references concerning myself and the boy ; that was all

Will crimson 'neath your pressing. the intercourse we had.

For those vain words and vainer tears "I made one or two friends in Paris, chiefly foreigners.

She waited yester oven; All who knew me will ask if I ever bad any love affairs,

She waits you now-but in the far and, perhaps, will not believe me when I say that I never

Resplendent halls of heaven. spoke of love to a woman, or held communication with

With patient eyes fixed on the door any woman, save as a matter of business. I was in love,

She waited, hoping aver, however, and since I began I have never left off. I shall

Till death's dark wall rose cold between die loving one woman as strongly as I have for nearly half

Her gaze and you for ever. my lifetime. She was sixteen when I first saw her

She heard your footsteps in the breeze, coming out of church, and she gave me money. I saw

And in the wild bee's humming; her married two years after in the same church, and every

The Inst breath that sho shaped to words

Snid softly, "Is he coming ?" time we met she gave me alms; we never spoke. I was twice as old as she.

Now silenoed lies the gentlest heart “She is living still, and has a circle of grandehildren

That ever beat 'peath cover; round her. I went every year to the town where she

Safe-nover to be wrung again lives, and stood as I had stood when I first saw her-on

By you, a fickle lover!

Your wrongs to her knew never end, the churcb-steps. She always gave me silver, and I kept all

Till earth's last bonds were riven; she gave me; part of it I had made into a plain ring, with

Your memory rose cold between which I shall be buried, the rest made the silver bénitier"

Her parting soul and heaven. -holy water vessel -" which hangs over my bed, and which I beg of my nephew to send her, anonymously, as

Now vain your false and tardy grief,

Vain your remorseful weeping; a souvenir of one who admired her piety and charity.

For she, whom only you deceived, Her address I leave in a sealed packet, the contents of

Lies hushed in dreamless sleeping. which are for my nephew's eyes alone.

Go-not beside that peaceful form "The strong box in my granary loft contains my

Should lying words be spokenpapers, books, notes, etc. ; material for a work on “Humps

Go, pray to God, "Be merciful and Hunchbacks,' which I have begun-or, rather,

As she whose heart I've broken." mapped out. I leave money enough to pay the expenses of publication, besides a sum to endow one bed for a humpbacked cripple in the bospital at Morlain, my birth

THE MARINER'S COMPASS. place. My nephew has the rest, and the entire control of

BY WILLIAM DURHAM, F.R.S.E. all arrangements. I wish him to send a copy of this short account of my life to each of my brothers and sisters. The early knowledge of elementary scientific facts, and

“During the Commune I became a Christian, through the slow progress of their investigation and practical seeing the devoted conduct of those whom the mob de application to the wants of civilized life, are well illustrated nounced as scorpions. I die in a happy belief in God in the history of the compass. and trust in His providence.

The ancient Greeks and Romans were quite aware of "I am glad to believe in the same God as the true and the attracting power of native iron magnets, or loadstones," gentle woman whom I have loved so many years. My and also that this power could be communicated to iron, nephew has my blessing and my thanks for having re. and maintained by it for a length of time. No one warded me by his steady behavior for all I have done for amongst them, however, had ever noticed the behavior him. I sign my real name, MATHIEN VILLETTE." of an elongated bar of magnetized iron suspended by a

cord or floated in water, and to this oversight must be The comrany gathero 1 in this singular chamber to hear attributed the lateness of the discovery of "terrestrial the reading of this singular will were rather disappointed' magnetism, and the long period that elapsed before the

compass was used by Europeans as a guide over the track A magnetic needle is attached to the underside of a less paths of ocean.

circular card of some semi-transparent substance, such as That remarkable people, the Chinese, seem, however, at talc. On this card is engraved a radiating. diagram, a very early date, to have used the directive power of the dividing the circle into thirty-two parts, called points. compass to guide them in their journeys over the vast The needle, with the card attached, is delicately balanced plains of Tartary. They made little images, whose arm, on a central pivot, round which it is free to move in a moved by a freely suspended magnet, pointed continually horizontal plane. The position of the card, of course, intoward the south, An apparatus of this kind, called dicates the position of the needle below. f'senan, or "indicator of the south,” was presented to The needle and its support are inclosed in a small ambassadors from Cochin China, to guide them in their metallic box, which is hung so as to preserve its horizontal homeward journey, 1,100 years before our era. The position notwithstanding the rolling or pitching of the knowledge the Chinese thus possessed seems to have ship. This is accomplished by means of gimbals, which gradually traveled westward by means of the Arabs and are two metallic rings one within the other; the compassCrusaders, but it was fully 2,000 years afterward before box is swung on the inner ring by two small supports


TWIN TEACHING THE BOYS TO BOX THE COMPAS8. it was fairly applied among the nations of Western diametrically opposite, and the inner ring is, in its turn, Europe.

supported on the outer one in a similar manner, but the Since then, owing to its practical value and scientific points of support are at right angles to those of the box, interest, terrestrial magnetism has formed one of the most as shown on next page, where a A are the supports of the attractive and, at the same time, most difficult subjects of compass, and B B those of the inner ring. scientific investigation, and promises to lead to results of The whole is fixed in the top of a strong case, called the the highest importance in our knowledge of the arrange- binnacle, firmly secured to the deck of the ship. The binments of nature.

nacle has a pane of glass in front by which light may be The immense stimulus which the application of the admitted at night to illuminate the interior. The whole compass gave to navigation, and consequently to inter is shown on succeeding page, á being the glass in front course between distant lands, may be appreciated when we In the practical use of the compass it is necessary that remember that, before that, sailors having only the posi- we should know and guard against certain disturbing tions of the sun and stars to guide them, were completely influences on its direction, lest the very means the unwary bewildered when they were hid by clouds or storms, and takes to insure his safety may lead to his shipwreck and consequently were afraid to venture upon the open sea. death. One or two experiments will make these plain.

In a seafaring nation like our own, the "mariner’s com. (1) If another suspended magnetic needle is brought pass” is an object familiar to almost every one, and may near the compass, we shall find that the ends of the two be very briefly described,

needles which point northward will repel one another,

while the end of one needle which points sonth will attract ship, which can, therefore, be allowed for when observa the end of the other which points north.

tions are made at sea. The correction for temporarily in(2) If any piece of iron or steel is brought near either end duced magnetism is a much more difficult problem, as that of the compass-needle, the latter will be attracted out of is continually changing in amount and direction, accordits proper direction. This we know to be due to what is ing to the relative position of the ship, its cargo.(which called the inductive power of the magnet acting on the iron, and endowing it with temporary magnetic power, when mutual attraction is set up.

These actions between magnets and iron are exactly analogous to those between electrified bodies.

(4) If any piece of hard iron or steel is allowed to remain in contact with a magnet for some time, it will acquire the properties of a permanent magnet, and be capable of attracting or repelling the poles of the compassneedle as described above.

These three experiments point out at once the manner in which the earth acts on the direction of the compass, and the source of those disturbing influences to which we have referred. As the compass-needle always swinge round to the north and south direction when it is free to move,

COMPASS IN THE BINNACLE. it is evident that the northern part of the earth possesses may be composed of magnetic material), and the magnetio the properties of the south-pointing pole of the needle, as lines of force of the earth. The principle employed, howe it attracts the north pole, and also that the southern part ever, may be explained as follows. The variation of the of the earth possesses the properties of the north pole of compass caused by the influence of the vessel and its the needle : that it is, in fact, just a large magnet with cargo having been determined in the manner just the pole turned in opposite directions to those of the described, the compass is taken on shore and placed upon compass, or, to use a common expression, "turned end a wooden pillar capable of being turned round in a for end."

horizontal plane in the same manner as the ship ; pieces The earth, therefore, is capable of inducing temporary or of iron are inserted in this pillar in such a way that their

permanent magnetism on effects on the compass, when the pillar is turned round on

iron or steel, as described its axis, is exactly the same as that produced by the ship, А

in experiments (2) and (3). eto. The pillar, and the compass on it, are now both

As many of our ships transferred to the ship, and if the latter is now turned are entirely built of iron, as before, it is evident the effect on the compass will bo

and all of them contain doubled. To know, therefore, the amount of correction B

more or less of that metal requisite at any time, it is only necessary to note the posiin their structure, it be- tion of the compass, and then remove the iron from the comes a question of great pillar, when, of course, the needle will go back toward its importance to know how proper direction. The amount it goes buck just requires

to avoid the danger of any to be doubled to give its true position. Thus if it goes A

magnetism, temporary or back 2°, its true position is 40 from that observed before TAE MAGNETIC NEEDLE AND permanent, induced by the iron of the pillar was removed. the earth's action, so dis

Having pointed out the precautions necessary to be tarbing the direction of the compags so as to mislead the taken in the use of a compass as a guide, we now come to Davigator.

the consideration of “terrestrial magnetism," on a correct The inductive action of the compass-needle itself can be knowledge of which the value of that instrument depends. pretty well guarded against by having it small and placed If the earth were a regular magnet, like a symmetrical at such a distance from any ironwork that its effects may bar of magnetized steel, the compass would everywhere be practically of no moment.

be directed due north and south ; the magnetic and The earth's action, however, cannot be so easily disposed of, and various methods are adopted for correcting the compass so as to know the true direction due to the earth's magnetism acting directly on the needle. To correct for any permanent magnetism, the ship is brought into such a position that the needle points to the true magnetic north and south, or is in the magnetic meridian of the place of observation ; the ship is then turned

IN gradually round on its centre as a pivot, turning, say, from north to west; if there be any permanent magnetism in its iron the compass will be moved gradually away from its position toward the one side or other of the meridan. As the vessel gradually turns towards the south, the needle also will gradually regain its first position ; again, as the

INDICATING THE DIRECTION OF THE DIPPING-NEEDLE. vessel continues turning towards the east, the needle will deviate in the opposite direction to its former movement, geographical meridians would coincide, and there would again returning to the magnetic meridian as the ship re. be po declination. It was early discovered, however, that turns to its first position. The arc which the end of the no such simple arrangement obtained, but that the comneedle describes to the one and the other side of the pass almost everywhere deviated more or less from tha magnetic meridian is a measure of the magnetism of the It ne orth and south directions. In England it points



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