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THE EDITOR'S OPERA-GLASS.

MANY are the Congressmen and Senators who sighed that the thermometer might reach 1002, in order that those bodies should be compelled to adjourn. For the great councils of the nation grew very draggy, and tired were the men who had to sit in that glass house, the Senate Chamber, where they had not even the privilege of throwing stones.

Still the American politician had the pleasure of thinking that he was not as badly off as the Khédive, nor was he to be as much abused as is Mr. Gladstone.

It is something upon which Americans can all congratulate themselves, that in the humiliating position of England, face to face with that pestilent rebel Arabi Bey, her own politicians advise Mr. Gladstone to take copy of “American decision.” “Letting things drilt” has brought about the Egyptian crisis. “Letting things drift " brought about the terrible state of things in Ireland. “Letting things drift” has brought about that unpleasant state of things in our own court-houses and public

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buildings, when elevators did not run or fires burn, or anything go, from want of appropriations from Washington. It will be a sad lookout for the Opera-glass if this policy should permanently affect American statesmanship. That and the business of making appropriations which simply please individual Congressmen, and which do no good to the nation, such seem to be our great national sins. But the Opera-glass may have staid too long in town; may have grown bilious; may have heard much of the stagnation of Wall Street, and may have need of the reviving breezes of Narragansett. Certainly, since the Summer of 1879, no such dreary echoes have come from the marts of the money-makers as of late. The experienced brokers have prophesied stag. nation for a long time, but a cold Spring, an agitated Europe, the season of assassinations along the Nile, trouble in Ireland, strikes at home, that foolish fight between Labor and Capital (two people who should be firm friends), and we have a set of gloomy faces in Wall Street, and consequently no end of talk of retrenchment and reform ;

articles against our foolish, overwhelming Roman luxury begin to appear in the influential papers, but the old story,

“When the Devil was sick, the Devil a monk would be, When the Devil got well, the devil a monk was he,”

was re-enacted.

But the world rolled off to Newport and Narragansett and the Elberon and to Saratoga just as if Wall Street were

lively instead of depressed. It takes a great deal of ruin to crush the American woman. To her the races are a perpetual “Grand Prix,” which she must win, and her progress is from Jerome Park to the Coney Island course, from Long Branch to Saratoga. Her toilet, will it be a success 2 Her appearance on top of a coach, will it tell? Shall she wear for color amorous frog, lilas défleuri, rose amour naissant, neige rosée. peneuche mouillée, cuisse de nymphe émue, vert mourant, vin de Tokay, Céladin, chromatelle, comète flamme de Bengale or mandarine 2 All these colors are fashionable and new. Or shall she drive en postillion, or on a mail coach. with pigueras in pink 2 Shall she wear diamonds in her ears, or are they vulgar 2 Shall she carry a walking-stick at Newport, one like Mr. Whistler's, as large as her forefinger, gilded and headed with a silver crane 2 Yes, she shall, and it must be taller than she. She must hold it by the middle, stiffly, arms akimbo. Her eventail must be of feathers, and large, and then she may take her place in front of the Casino, where harness chains are clinking, amidst the rumbling and grating of innumerable wheels, horses curveting, women smiling, men complimenting. Danmonts are prancing by, village carts are totooing, pretty women are driving pony carriages, tilburys tool away. Barouches drive by, a coach and four passes on its way to the picnic at the Glen, and all pause to look at the pretty

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growing opulence, the staffs covered with immense bouquets. The days of Regency have returned, and the pensive Opera-glass sees again the hats of those dangerous moments of history—Regence, Directoire, Marie Antoinette. It is said that the female petticoat never will stay still ; from the “pantaloon tightness” it now expands to the hoop, from the hoop to the “divided skirt,” from that to the flowing and the elegant train. It is a revolution, an émeute, a coup d'état in itself, is the female petticoat. And yet, in all our luxury we pause and turn pale as we read of the marriage of Zoe Lucy Betsey de Rothschild, daughter of Baron Gustave, of Paris, to her cousin, Leon Lambert, of Brussels. Her dot was only three thousand millions of francs. Her presents were exhibited in the Hotel of the Avenue de Marigny, on the occasion of the signature of the contract. There were ricueres of diamonds, pearl necklaces, sapphires, emeralds and rubies, silver, gold and objets d'art enough to stock Tiffany's. The young bride, who is eighteen years old, tall, dark, handsome, brings also a diploma, a brevet d'institutrice, which she obtained at the Hotel de Ville, that she can earn her own living. This all the Rothschilds insist upon. It is a bequest from the old madame, of Frankfort. Art-lovers have had some watering of the mouth in reading of the dispersion of the art-treasures of the great gallery at Hamilton Palace, where Wandykes, Holbeins, Rubenses and Rembrandts have been offered to the Rothschilds, Roseberrys and Wanderbilts of the present day. The great library of Beckford, author of “Wathek,” has been also sold—a fact which a London correspondent says has destroyed sleep for all book-collectors. It is amazing that even a profligate Duke of Hamilton, ruined on the turf, could dare to disperse such a collection as that at Hamilton Palace, a spot shown to Americans ten years ago with almost reverential awe. The presents given to Princess Marie, of Baden, by her royal relative, Louis Napoleon and his Empress, were always pointed out. She was the mother of the present graceless duke, and also of that pretty Mary Hamilton, who was divorced from the Prince of Monaco a few years ago. The family bad luck seems to follow this distinguished blood, and they will be remembered for their extravagant vices and their eccentric disdain of appearances, so long as titles and palaces endure. But to turn to Puritan New England for a moment from all this “guilty splendor” (as Gilbert says in the “Bab Ballads”), we find Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. entertaining all friends of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and all the contributors to the Atlantic Monthly, at a garden-party given at the splendid country seat of Governor Claflin, at Newtonville, Mass., on Mrs. Stowe's seventieth birthday. It is a good thing to celebrate the birthdays of distinguished people. It makes one willing to be seventy, and it also has this beneficial effect: the world pauses to examine the account and to acknowledge its indebtedness to genius. A garden-party such as this was also is a tribute to the guild of literature. It brings authors together. There was Mrs. I'. Hodgson Bennett, a bright-eyed, pretty woman with a shock of red hair, dressed in a real festhetic costume of flounced chintz and a broad hat ; there was Miss Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, dark-eyed, mysterious, silent and spirituelle, like one who tends the “gates ajar”; there was Mrs. Adaline Train Whitney, pale, refined, as Triscilla Mullins; there was Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton, robust and handsome; Judge Tourgée, dark and distinguished; Dr. Holmes, playful, brilliant; Mr. Alcott, silent and old, looking like Emerson; and Henry Ward Beecher, rosy, well-fed, cleerful, like the Abbot of Mel

rose, full of fun and of pathos; there, above all, was the little Puritan lady of seventy, Harriet Beecher Stowe, receiving compliments from the whole world which would have turned a less steady head, and which will never turn hers. That she was helped by time and circumstance no one doubts. But that Mrs. Stowe produced a living work of great merit in “Uncle Tom's Cabin" no one can doubt. She excited much animosity; she was unpopular for years. Now the world, looking dispassionately, sees that she brought the message for which the time was waiting, and she also had laid the world under great contribution for her purely local New England novels, which keep the tradition of a time, fast p \ssing away; also for those charming works, “Agnes of Sorrento,” and the “Pearl of Orr's Island,” works which, as do all her works, give us the idea that Mrs. Stowe's mind had a strong affinity with the French genius. She has the realism, the dramatic power, the love of contrast, and the strong coloring of a Dumas, a Sue, a George Sand and a Balzac added to her strongly critical and religious nature, which forbids her opening doors and drawing aside vails, which they delighted in doing. Mrs. Stowe is a Puritan and a Presbyterian through everything. The seventy years which this remarkable life has bridged has seen all that is most individual in American literature. We shall not have another Harriet Beecher Stowe, or Bret Harte, or Mark Twain, or Joaquin Miller, or Walt Whitman, or Artemus Ward. We shall not have another Ann S. Stephens, who, in her earlier novels, started all humane reform which has blossomed into the Charities' Aid Association. These original and strong minds were born of the soil, like the Catawba grape; but they also had the great good fortune to be amongst the pioneers. The conditions which have followed them are not favorable to the development of originality. We congratulate Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. on the invention of a literary festivity. Their breakfast to Dr. Holmes, and their garden-party to Mrs. Stowe were alike successes. But must one wait to be seventy 2 Why do they not celebrate the forties and the fifties 2 Why not a dinner to Mr. Howells, and a garden-party to Mrs. Julia C. R. Dorr 2 Mr. Francis Marion Crawford, a son of the eminent sculptor and a nephew of Uncle Sam Ward, writes a very indignant protest against the false taste in art which is now prevailing in our redundant internal decoration. That inconsistent and superfluous taste, he thinks, is detrimental to the painter and the sculptor. “Honses are now built,” he says, “which out Saracen the Alhambra, whose gargoyles and flying buttresses seem to belong no more to them than the great statue of Memnon belongs to the Cathedral of Cologne. These ideas seem to point to a practical misconception of what art is.” Mr. Crawford must remember, however, that there was a day in Venice, in Genoa, and in Nuremberg when men built fine houses, and that every community blessed with a sudden efflorescence of wealth builds a fine house first and foremost. He should have heard some rather uneducated but opulent art-students talk in a railway carriage of their new houses, thus—this is verbatim. “Ah,” said one lady, “I’ve got a tile fireplace.” “Oh,” said the other, “tiles is gone out! I've got a carved wood one, with a motter, and flowers, and fruits.” “Well,” said the other, “I’ve got porters at all my doors, and one's embroidered with a whole litter of little pigs. Perfectly lovely 1"

THERE is more fatigue in laziness than in a life of labor.

RECENT PROGRESS IN SCIENCE,

method is to paint the statue, at intervals of a few weeks, repeat.

edly with a solation of twenty parts of anhydrous vinegar in one GUM FROM ALGE.-A new method of utilizing marine plants thus produced form first a thin green layer, which hinders the at

hundred parts of bune oil. The acotate and oleale of oopi er walts has been dovised in France. The plants used are various forms tachment of dirt and dust, and occasions further patina-formation. of Atlantic and Pacific alge, and the product obtained is a gum ruid to be variously useful in the arts, particularly in the manu. By means of a specially devised arrangement for the purpose, trioture of leather substitate. The plants are first washed with the elasticity of wire has been definitely determined. In the case of warm or cold water, or both, the water either being pure or con- very soft iron-wire, prepared expressly for the experiment, it was talning ten per cent. of alcohol, or any of the following sub found that with a weight of forty-one pounds gradually applied stances: Lime-water, carbonate of soda, potash, carbonate of in 6-4 minutes, the wire stretched by 21-4 per cent of its original magnesia, or baryta, according to their smaller or larger quantity length, and broke 18 minutes after the weight was put on; with of cellulose, or salts contained in the algæ, which has to be pre- the same weight applied in 64 minutes the wire stretched 22°1 per cipitated. Before the extraction of the gum the plants may be cent., and broke in 24 minutes; with this weight, however, ap. uried, ground, broken, eto., according to their nature and accord-plied in 724 minutes, the wire stretched 18 per cent., and did not ing to the requirements. For the extraction of the gum hot water break. The latter result

, therefore, with that weight, was applied 13 preferred io cold, and steam to hot water. The extraction takes to a great number of wires for different lengths of time for the place in a conical vessel, the plants being placed on a false purpose of hardening them. The wires seemed purmanently ser bottom, through which steam or water is made to pass througtr | in about forty minutes from th“ time of applying the hardening the mass. The quantity of water or steam used varies with the stres"; they did not alter in leugth until just before they broke, quality of the plants - Afteen to twenty times the weight of the wbou they generally stretched 0s to Os inch on a length of about plants will be the best proportion. To facilitate the action of the 7v.8 inches. water for the extraction the plants are subjected to maceration. In order to obtain pure and transparent algw gum this must be diluted with much water, then it is left to settle, the temperature b sing kept at 50° to 60° 0. The gum gelatinizes by cooling.

ENTERTAINING COLUMN. PHOSPHORESCENT ROCK.-Some time since D. B. Huntley, of the derly to him at parting, shall I hold you in those arms agam

GOOD REASON.-"Ah," he exclaimed, as he pressed her ten. brought to the State Mining Bureau a mineral, with the statement to-morrow, and paint our future with

the bright pigments of the that it had shown certain peculiarities, which led the miners to

imagination ? "10," she said, calmly, "not to-morrow; to-morcall it by the rather startling name of "Hellfire Rook." The prop

row's washing-day." crty known to mineralogists as phosphorescence is not contined “TRAY, sir," said a judge, angrily, to a blunt old Quaker, from to any mineral species, nor is it very uncommon. But in th s whom no direct answer

could be obtained," dosyou know what we specimen it is so strongly marked that there is some excuse for sit here for ?" "Yes, verily I do," said the Quaker; " three of the refusal on the part of some of the miners to work in the mine. you for four dollars euch a day, and the fat one in the middle for When striking their picks into this formation flashes of light

were four thousand a year." teen, which they regarded with superstitious alarm. The locality 11 detail is Shenandoah rine, Snake Creek District, Wasatch the

midst of a crowd, snatched a man's hat from under his arm.

A SPARPER who had pawned his hat, going out of church in County, Utah. A chemical examination shows this mineral to be an impure dolomite. It is interesting not only from its remark

"The poor fellow, feeling his bat gone, cried : " I hey have stolen able phosphorescence when rubbed with any hard substance in

my hat." The sharper, immediately putting the hat on his head, the dark, but from its beautiful crystalline appearance under the defy them to take mino!''

and covering it with both his hands, exclaimed, "Have they? 1. microscope, and the onse with which it can be reduced to a crys. talline powder, even by crushing between the flagors. In Clove ANECOOTES OF SYDNEY SMITH.--Speaking of a well-known land's Mineralogy we find it stated that some varieties of dolomite character, he said that he was so fond of contradicting that he are phosphorescent in the dark, either by friction or when thrown would throw up, the window in the middle of the night and conon a shovel which has been allowed to cool just below the point of tradict the wati hman who was calling the hour. When his phy. relness.

sician advised him to take & walk upon an empty stomach." HEATING BY SUNSTINE.- Professor E. S. Morso, of the Essex

Smith asked, “Upon whose ?" Institute, has devised an ingenious arrangement for utilizing the A RATHER verdant young man, conceited and consorious, while heat in the sun's rays in warming our houses. His invention con- talking to a young Indy at a party, pointed toward a couple that sists of a surface of blackened slate under glass fixed to the sunny he supposed to be in an adjoining room, and said, "Just look at side or sides of a house, with vents in the walls so arrang.d that that conceited young sprig! Isn't it perfectly absurd for such the cold air of a room is let out at the bottom of the slate, and boys to go into society?". "Why,” exclaimed his companion, forced in again at the top by the ascending heated column be *that isn't a door; it's a mirror !" tween the slate and the glass. The indoor air can be admitted,

A YANKEE, whose observations have been lately recorded, was also, if desirable. The thing is so simple and apparently self-evi evidently an indifferent judge of cause and effect. As he walked dent, that one only wonders that it has not alwavs been in use. along

the road one day he noticed a negro smoking a new meer Its entire practicalness is demonstrated in the heating of tho pro- schaum-pipe of the purest hue, and it at once occurred to him fessor's study in his cottage at salem. The value of the improve that there was something wrong. At last he hit on a solution of ment for daily warming buildings like churches and schoolhouses,

the mystery. "By thunder," he exclaimed, “the pipe's coloring which, when allowed to get cold between using, consumo im- the man!" mense quantities of heat before they are fairly warmod again, is evident. Of course some other means of heating must be avail

SOAPSUDS REFORM.-Little boy has been swearing, and mamma, able when the sun does not shine. But in the colder regions, say

to punish him, washed thoroughly the inside of his mouth with in the far Northwest, the sun shines a greater part of the time, soap suds, "to,” as she explains to him. “clean away the naughty and hence the saving of artificial heat would be very large if the words.” A few days later, while passing the bathroom. she sees sun heat could be "turned on " for eight or ten hours out of tho

the youngster with his face one mass of suds, and his mouth

so full that she barely understands his spluttering exclamations: twenty-four.

“Getting them all out, mammal Swore five times yesterday!" The impression entertained by many, during the inquirv into the great explosion at Seaham colleries, England, in September, A PACKMAN, having paid some fruitless visits to one of his cus1880, that coal-dust might have had much to do with the accident, tomers, called a few days ago for an installment of his debt. But and that the explosion was possibly even entirely due to the igni: the customer, expecting him, told her son, a lad of five years, to tion of coal-dust by a blown-out shot, in the absence of any flre- say that she was in the toon." Accordingly, when the packman damp, led to Mr. Abel's being requested by the Home Secretary to called and asked, "Where is your mother to-day ?" the boy make experiments with samples of dust collected in the mina, and promptly replied, “In the toon." "What toon p asked the to an extension of these experiments to dust collected from col. peddler. The boy, having no further instructions from his lieries in difterent parts of the kingdom where the explosions had mother, went to the next room and shouted, "Mithor, what toon occurred. The results of experiments conducted with great care are ye at ? He wants to ken!" and on an extensive scale at a colliery in Lancashire, where a constant supply of fire-damp was brought to the pit's mouth from a

The following obituary notice appeared in a late number of 80-called blower, confirmed the fact demonstrated by M. Vital and the Bungalore Advertiser : “ With this issue the Bungalore AdrerMr Galloway, that the propagation of fire by coal-dust,

when tiser will cease

to oxist. The paper does not pay-in fact, it never thickly suspended in air, is established or greatly promoted by did: and the fabulous number of subscribers it was said to have the existence, in the air, of a proportion of fire-damp, which

may shows how easy it is to be the reverse of George Washington, who be so small as to escape detection by the means ordinarily em never told a lie. The present publisher

bad no idea ibat it was ploved (such, for example, as exists in the return-air of a well such an unprontable speculation until after looking into matters, ventilated mine).

and as there was no possible chance of making a small fortune out

of it, could not just now afford to lose one." BRONZE STATUES.-The objectional dark coating which most bronze statues soon acquire, with the look of cast-iron, does not “What is a cold ?" asks Chambers's Journal Well, sir, suppose consist, according to Herr Bruhl, of sulphuride of copper, as com yon begin by sneezing so hard that you nearly break your neck, monly supposed, but of a mixture of coal-dust, sand, etc., with and bite your tonguo terribly. Then your nose gets stuffed up, oxides of the bronze-metals. It is not removable, either mechan- and you need about fourteen handkerchiefs a day, and the end of ically or by treatment with dilute sulphuric arid; but, on the other your nose gets too watery, and you begin to cough so the folks hand, it may be very quickly and completely washed off by means across the way can't sleep, and you feel lamo all over, as though of a concentrated solution of carbonate of ammonia, applied with you'd been under a fire-engine, and you're ugly, and kick the dog brushes. Thereupon a layer of patina is formed, which guards and chase the cat with a bootjack, tell your wife she

can't cook, the state against fresh formation of the dark coat. The work and make the household a gebenna for ten days. Then you're sbould, of course, bo intrusted only to skilled men. Another 'got a cold.

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POPULAR MONTHLY

VOL. XIV.- No. 3.

SEPTEMBER, 1882.

$3.00

PER ANNUM

THE FEDERAL CITIES AND CAPITOLS OF THE UNITED STATES.

By J. BARNITZ Bacon. To most of the present generation Waslıington is the only | during the next three or four years, and in 1614 the seat of government our country ever had. No other city Dutch built the first fort on an island below the present or place is associated with the idea of the Government of city, which is hence called Castle Island. the United States. And yet there was a period, in the The place was called by the Dutch New Orange, and redays of struggle for nationhood, and even after it, when the tained that name until the whole province passed into the Congress that governed the Union and the Chief Magis- hands of the English, in 1664, when New Orange was trate had no fixed city or residence. The United States changed to Albany, in honor of the Duke of York and had a succession of seats of governments, and many differ- Albany, afterward James II. In 1686 Albany City was inent buildings were in turn the temporary Capitols of the corporated by patent. Peter Schuyler was its first mayor. nation.

The Schuyler family possessed the good-will of the In. Local tradition has treasured these memories of the dians to such a degree, that while other settlements were past, and the visitor to some quiet town is rather astonished desolated by Indian forays, Albany was never attacked by to find some time-worn structure pointed out as the spot 'them. In addition to its ancient importance as a centre where laws

of the Indian were once

trade, Albany made that

afterward be. found hearty

came the obedience

point where through the

the great mili. length and

tary expedi. the breadth of

tions against the land.

Canada were The earliest

fitted out. It attempt at a

was fortified anion of the

at an early British -Amer.

period, and, ican colonies

althoughoften was made at

threatened Albany, in

with invasion, 1754. Albany

no hostile is the oldest

army ever settlement in

reached the the original

city. thirteen colo

Here assemnies, except

bled the first Jamestown,

convention for Va. Henry

the union of Hudson, in

the colonies. the yacht Half

It was held Moon, moored,

in 1754, and in September,

Benjamin 1609, at a

Franklin was point which

its presiding is now Broad

officer. The way, Albany.

ostensible Several Dutch

object of the navigators

convention ascended the

was the deriver to the

fense of the same place STATE HOUSB, PAILADELPHIA, THE FIRST NATIONAL CAPITOL.

colonies Vol. XIV., No. 3-17.

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