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of trees, is in places the result of the filling up of old of rain ever falling during the months from May to lake-basins with five sediment; but, in the true prairie November. region, more utten the residuum leit after the dissolving It is a fact, therefore, tbat the character of the soil has away of the soft, eas.ly decomposed rocks which underlay a powerful influence on the growth and cbaracter of he the whole region in nearly horizontal beds. This resi- vegetation, as well as temperature and moisture. Wherdonm, which is almost impalpably fine, seems to have ever, for any reason, the soil is of especially fine texture, been sw-pt into the basin in which the rocks were being here grasses will flourish in preference to forests, provided deposited by marine currents coming from a great dis- the rainfall be not entirely insufficient. Hence we see at tance, and therefore bringing only the most finely com- once why plains are more likely than mountain slopes to minuted material.
be treeless. It is toward the plains that the finer materials, On some lines of railroad running west from Chicago, abraded by erosion and denuding agencies from the on which ents of a few feet in depth are quite frequent, so higher regions, are being constantly carried, as they bave that the character of the soil can be easily recognized, and been in former geological ages. The broader the plain, especially within the first few years after the building of the more likely it is that a considerablo portion of it will the roads, the varying character of the vegetation, as one be covered with fine detritus, whether this be of subsërial passed from timbered to grass-covered areas, could easily origin or deposited at the bottom of the sea. be recognized, in almost every instance, as being accompanied by a corresponding change in the texture of the soil. ln a great majority of cases one might tell by simple feeling of the soil, with the eyes shut, whether the
THE EDITOR'S OPERA-GLASS. surface was occupied by forest or by prairie.
The cold Spring, the dense ice-packs, the terrible overThe peculiar position of the prairie belt with reference hanging berg of frozen water which has so grim an outto the treeless region a little further west, where, look of the great ocean steamers, all, all surrender before beyond qnestiun, absence of sufficient moisture is the the fierce heats of later May and early June, and the pheprime canse of the giving out of the trees, has naturally nomenon of an Arctic Spring has been followed by a proled physical geopraphers, not fully acquainted with the fuse sudden Summer. facts, to assert positively that the proiries are but the July, the young imperial month, always has something beginning of the plains, and that the origin of both was of the Cæsars about it. It wears its coronal of fresh sor. due to the same cause. A less reasonable theory even ereignty proudly. The green leaves of that chaplet are than this has been and is still frequently advocated by not yet covered with the dust of the arena. Even the residents of the prairie region, as well as by others, namely, June races have not effaced the perennial freshness, and that the prairies are the result of the burning over of the the conqueror stands "laughing on the misty mountain surface by the aboriginal inhabitants. This theory is tops," in spite of Olympian dust. entirely opposed to all the facts, and it is quite unneces Fashion disintegrates, and is now making up its mind sary to occupy space in refuting it.
where to go. There is no such word as "Town” any The meteorological records which have been kept for a longer. Its denizens babble of green fields. The Conoy considerable term of years at numerous stations in the Island dissipation has been but a whetting of the appetite prairie region, chiefly under the direction of the Smith- for Bar Harbor, and the best dresses have not been resonian Institution, authorize the assertion, with no possi- vealed to the publio eye as yet. They are in reserve for bility of any contradiction based on facts, that the Saratoga and Newport, and Sharon and Richfield, and the prairies are not dependent for their existence on the White Sulphur. There is no such thing as an American absence of snfficient rainfall. On the contrary, the pre- "Spring season." Half the world is off for the London cipitation over some of the very best developed prairie season (if they did not get caught in an ice-pack), the areas is large, much larger, in fact, than it is over the other half has carefully made fractions of itself, and has principal portion of the forest-covered region of the East- dispersed its units and ciphers at West Point, for the unern States.
nual graduation (which was remarkably brilliant this year), The theory advocated of late by some physical geogra- or at the various country houses which open their hospiphers, and especially by Peschel, for the absence of trees table doors, or even on the top of the coaches which now over extensive regions of the earth, is to the effect that it ran daily to convenient points, not to speak of those spois not the want of a sufficient quantity of rain, taking the radio coaching-parties which go from their owner's stablis average for the whole year, but its unequal distribution at out to a friendly house at a near distance for a lunch, witli difterent &easons. In this way the attempt has been made the pretty girls and attendant beaux and chaperons-a de. to account for the existence of the North American lightful expedition. prairies. The most careful examination of the rainfall This is the most sensible feature of our modern dissipa. statistics pr. pes, however, that in the region in question tion-the coaching-party. Our uncertain climato may there is no snch irregularity of precipitation as this theory render the parties on the "Tally ho" somewhat a matter demands. The distribution, throngh the year, of the of lottery ; but the opulent owner of a coach can always rainfall in the prairie States is in no respect different from be ready of a sunny morning to take his lovely freight what it is along the Atlantic border, where forests are of out for a drive. universal vo'urrence. Besides, it is a fatal objection to The open-air am sements of Americans, owing, perhaps, this theory that there are regions most densely covered to the absorption of our men in business, have been very with forest, where the rainfall is as irregular as possible, few up to the last few years. whether ownsidered from the point of view of the annnal Now they arú many. The hunting mania threatens to average or of the distribution by seasons. Thus io Cali- equal that of Great Britain, and the Westchester County fornia, along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, Hunt opened with its usual prestige. Polo and lawn. forests exint which can scarcely be surpassed anywhere in tennis, ball-playing and the races, call the fuir lingerers in the world in density and absolute size of the individnal town ont to the neighborhood of Jerome Park. trees, and put there the precipitation is almost entirely Bnt the great-p exolus has been, and is to be, this limited to two or three months of the year, scarc.ly a drop | Summer to the Adirondacks and to Mount Desert.
It may surprise many a reader to tell what the Opera- , manence and of antiquity which a brand-new American glass saw at Bar Harbor, Mount Desert, on a June day. settlement, only five years old, could scuroely be ex.
For instance-A dining-room at the Rhodick, the largest pected to produce. hotel on the Maine coast, which will seat a thousand The water of Silver Lake has been brought from among people, and also feed them.
the mountains to every hotel, so no one will be poisoned. The St. Sauveur and the Rhodick both putting in Happy the Opera-glass who can ascend Green Mountain steam elevators, to enable their guests to rise to unaccus- and gain a view of the ocean that washes these picturesque tomed heights without fatigue ! The steamer Lewiston, I sbores ! and catch a glimmering of the white sails bound touching at
for another Deer Island,
world. The Sed gewick
highest mounand South
tain summit west Harbor,
in Maine can coming into
also be seen the principal
from this harbor along
unique spot. the coast of
And certain Mount Desert.
other units Bar Harbor
and ciphers affords one a
have been delightful
turning their sail. Boston,
Opera - glasses New York and
opon Santa Philadelphia
Monica, a people have
place in coast with
Southern Calluxurious coto
ifornia, that tages, and the
delightful whole settle
spot in the ment has an
cases of this air TUB EARTA'S TREELESS REGION. - A PRAIRIE FIRE.
“ treadeth out the grapes.” For the unseen future he has gathered the thinker up to the fountain of Thought,
Emerson, our original poet, our first philosopher, our “nugget of wisdom," has gone. It has been a fatal year for men of letters, and in the death of Emerson one phase of American thought seems utterly impoverished. Some one said, happily, of him, that when “Emerson uttered a great truth Nature felt relieved." Oscar Wilde, in one of those remarks which have an air of affectation, but also such a depth of reality in them, said, wisely, “America started early into pbilosophy, and in Emerson outspoke the world.” There was a certain
of fruit and floral beauty. At Santa Monica is a seaside resort of rarest loveliness. There, under the eucalyptustree, with the cactus at one's ieet; with geraniums eight feet high ; with the heliotrope running up to eighteen feet; with the calla making itself at home everywhere ; with that profusion of fruits and flowers which made some careful ob. server say that “the plants of California have no idea of the fitness of things, they always overdo it”- there, turning the Opera-glass upon the Pacific Ocean, unbroken for a thousand miles, one finds Paradise, and can bask in uninterrupted sweetness of air and the perfume of every variety of verbena, pink and
lily, geranium, flowering shrub, and also lie under the shade of a solid wall of roses fifteen feet high by ten wide; lie in the sand on the beach, bathe in water that is tem. pered to a soft heat, and eat grapes from morn till dewy eve without daring to compute how many grapes there must be due from a hundred and twenty thousand vines, with twenty pounds to a vine! which is one man's vineyard only.
But since the last month that the Opera-glass swept the horizon from Maine to California, the choicest grape of literature has been plucked by the great vintner, who
congeniality of intellectual temperament which led people, and by the singing of a grand artist like Materna, assisted to say that Emerson imitad Carlyle, but that fallacy by the noble voices of Galassé and of Remmertz The died out years ago. Mr. Lowell disposed of the matter orchestra, too, was admirable, and the whole festival by saying:
showed knowledge and cleverness. The Walküre scene, "E.'s the clear-eyed Olympian, rapid and slim;
with the five harps, was grand, weird and mysteriousThe one's two-thirds Norseman, the other half Greek; the singers all thoughtful, able and skillful. We heard & Where the one's most abounding, the other's to seek. charming and sympathetio Steglaide, and a Brünn Wilde, C.'s generals require to be seen in the mass;
who could not be surpassed; but with it all, who would E's specialties gain if enlargod by the glass; C. gives Nature and God his own fit of the blues,
have endured the fatigue of hearing it over again ? And rims common sense with mystical hues;
The rudeness of Thomas himself, in bis arbitrary orders E. sits in a mystery, calm and intense,
to shut the doors at two o'clock precisely, not making And slowly looks round with his sharp common sense." allowances for two or three hundred ladies and children
who were kept out in the pouring rain, deserves severe Emerson was highly appreciated in England, and his rebuke. Five minutes should be allowed for difference of visits there afforded him one of his most charming of watches, the incidents of street-cars, etc., etc., and if books. It was he who said that the love of truth, so con people pay forty dollars for a set of tickets, have they not spicuous in all Anglo-Saxon blood, had never a higher, a a right to go in when they please ? No amount of disturbmore suggestive compliment than the common para- ance to those within could compare with the wrong done phrase, “That's the plain English of it."
to those without by the most insolent order. It was one Mr. Bancroft and Victor Hugo are now the literary out- fertile reason for the remark that this festival did not composts. These two great men-one, the historian of his pare for popularity with that of last year. The Italian own country; the other, the vivacious raconteur of every afternoon, at which Miss Cary received a splendid ovation, man's land—are about the same age, both well and strong, was most enjoyable. It is a matter of universal regret and enjoying life and a foretaste of their own immutabil. that this great artist is about to retire, in the plenitude ity abundantly.
of her powers, into private life. Sad it is to read of the end of Madame de Balzac, And in the midst of our Spring emotions came the worried and barried to death by the creditors of the dreadful news of the assassinations in Dublin of Lord great novelist, whose genias had rendered all men his Frederick Cavendish, well known in New York, and of debtors. The beautifal Polish woman, who had been the Mr. Burke. July, the month of Julius Cæsar, can well first inspiration of the earlier days of the great novelist, pause to ask the reason of this crime, died in such poverty that the expenses of her funeral It is an important and pleasant commentary apon the were paid by her sister, Madame Jules Lacroix. The sale strong hold which law and order has over the American of her furniture went on at the Hôtel Drouet during the mind, that with Guiteau, still unhung, Washington, whole of a week, and things brought only ridiculously low through May and June, was so gay and so agreeable prices. The articles associated with Balzao were few. that President Arthur went on scoring social triumphs by Some doubtful pictures, an ivory crucifix and his bust, his dinners and receptions. He has made so acceptable, -which sold for 3,805 francs, were almost the only valuable industrious and useful a chief executive, that only praise remnants of the most famous novelist of his generation. follows him.
Another sale in Paris brought better prices. The little In the line of the drama, we are promised a play from Byzantine Hotel, 32 Rue de Monceau; the "Sumptueux the classic pen of Henry James, Jr. His "Daisy Miller" mobilier artistique, les saperbes tapisseries et tentures, men-|(Shakespearean in its fidelity to the unsophiscated bles de style, garnissant l'hôtel de Madame la Vicomtesse daughter of a half-understood civilization) is to be put on de la Panouse, née Marie Heilbron,” sold better. The the stage. Women who flirt with their couriers, who do noble husband succumbed to the smash of the “Union not comprehend the condenances which govern Europe, Générale,” and Marie Heilbron's hardly earned money will do well to go and see this immortal creation. “I followed Nilsson's. She returns to the operatic stage; the judge everybody now,” said a distinguished lawyer, by Viscount goes to the Cape to find diamonds. Madame their estimate of Daisy Miller. “If they say that Henry Heilbron's furniture was said to present the usual aspect James, Jr., has insulted his American blood by holding of " fouillis of plush, silk and tapestry ; Gothic dresses, her up to ridicnle, then I know that they are fools; but if Renaissance of bahuts and Louis XIV. consoles—an amal- they say that therein he has described a large class of gam of the debris of three or four centuries."
ignorant but not unlovely girls, who are misunderstood, It will be interesting to art-lovers to hear that at the on the continent, because they are ignorant of continental sale of Paul de Saint-Victor's library in Paris, an edition ideas, then I know that they are nice people." of Balzac's “Contes Drolatiqnos," 1855, on India paper, And now onr July days may well be employed in readwith first impressions of Doré illustrations, were sold for ing "John Inglesant," the best and most thoughtful novel 1,500 francs only.
of the period. We do better than that over here. The great musical festival at the Seventh Regiment Armory, introducing, as it did, the Nibelunger Ring, and Madame Materna, the
RECENT PROGRESS IN SCIENCE great interpreter of Wagner, was no doubt interesting, but
ANOTHER ELECTRIC RAILWAY.–The second electric railway somewhat heavy and tiresome. Many people adore constructed by Messrs. Siemens & Halske in Berlin was formany Wagner as a god, and an inspired composer, who at Bay- opened, April 29th. It runs from Lichterfolde station on the
Berlin-Anhalt Railway, to the Military Academy, about one and a reuth rather announced that he was sent a prophet into half English miles. this world, to create a new art. Others think that he
RFBTONING WONN COIN. - Recently while Dr. A. H. Best, of saturned his back upon melody because melody had turned vannah, Ga., was silver-plating a small article with silver cyanide her back upon him, and therefore he created a scientific solution, he used an old Spanish silver coin as anodo. The coin
was worn perfectly smooth and had been hammered to twice its melody, as Pygmalion carved a woman out of marble. original size; yet in a littlo while after it was put in the bath every Bat the interest of a vast audience was certainly en defaced so as to be beyond deciphering with a powerful glass, be
letter and figure became plainly visible. The date, 1800, thougfi chained by the work of a chorus so admirably drilled, came plain.
COPPER IN BREAD.-- Wheat pormally contains copper to the ex A WHITEWASH THAT WILL STICK AND WASH -WA find in a Gertent of eight to ten parts per million. Experiments with grain, the man paper a formula for a wash which can be applied to time walls seed of which had not been "pickled" with sulphate of copper
(us and alterward become waterproof so as to bear washing. liesens. is often done to prevent smuts, show that the copper was not due chek, of Munich, mixes together the powder from ihree j arts silito any impurity in the reagents, or to the gas-pipe and burners, cious rock (quartz), three parts broken marile und sandstone,
also two parts of burned porcelain clay, with two parts freshly A LARGE and costly flint-glass disk has been cast at Paris for slaked lime still warın. In this way a wash is made wbic forms the Lick observatory at Californii. Its diameter is 97 centimetres, a silicate il ofteu wetted, and becomes after a time almost like its thickness 55 centimetres, and its weight 170 kilograms. The stone. The four constitúents mixed together give the groundcasting occupied four days, and consumed eight tons of coal. The color to which any pigment that cau bo used with line is added. cooling of the mass roquired thirty days. The optical tests It is apr lied quite thickly to the wall or other Furface, let dry ono showed that the glass was perfect in all its parts.
day, and the next day frequently covered with water, wbich makes
it waterproof. This wash can be cleansed with water without The celebrated French physician, Dumonlin, on his death-bed, losing any of its
color; on the contrary, each time it gets harder, when surrounded by three of the most distinguished medical men so that it can even be brusbed, while its porosity makes it look ia Paris, who were regretting the loss the profession would
suffer soft. The wash or calcimine can be used for ordinary purposes on his death, said: "My friends, I leave behind mo three phy- as well as for the finest painting. A so-called frosto surface can siclans much better than mysell." Being much pressed to name be prepared with it in the dry way. them (each of the doctors
supposing himself to be one of them) he answered: "Wator, exercise and diet."
A COURSE INDICATOR FOR SNIPI.-Mr. J. H. A. Macdopald, ex
Solicitor-General for Scotland, has just invented, under The desigTO GILD STEEL.–Polished steel may be beautifully gilded by 1 nation of the Holophate Course Indicator, an electric ai paratus, means of the ethereal solution of gold. Dissolve pure gold in tho objeot of which is to diminish the risk of colldrion by night at &qua regia, evaporate gently to dryness, so as to drive off the su
sea. The indicator consists of an elec:ric light witb a reflector, perfluous acid, redissolve in water, and add three times its bulk which is fixed on a movablo arm. When the helm is amidships of ether. Allow to stand for twenty-four hours in a stoppered the reflector throws the light straight al end, Ilie i rm being held bottle, and the ethereal solution of gold will float at top. Polished fost by two pegs, or detents, which are under the control of the steel dipped in this
is at once beautifully ģilded, and, by tracing heim by means of an electric connection. When the belm is patterns on the metal surface with varnish, beautiful devices in ported an electrio current is tormed, by which ube of the detents plain metal gold will be produced. For othor metals the electro holding the arm is depressed, leaving the
reflector hee to move, process is best.
and then the light sweeps round to starboard with an action like THREAD FROM Wood.-A new development of the timber in- number of points to starboard, a screen rises up and shuts
the wave of a hand. When the light has gone round a certain dustries has recently been made near the town of Narkoding, In from view, when the arm coines back to 'mluships. If, on the Middle Sweden. It consists in manufacturing thread for crochet other hand, the helm be put to starboard, the other detent is reand sewing purposes from pine timber. The process is not made moved, when
a movement exactly the converse or that above depublic, but the products are said to be fine in quality, and the price scribed can be performed. Thus the strong beam of the electrle is low. The thread is wound on balls by machinery, and packed light is waved to one side or the other, indicating every alteration in boxes for export. The new business
is likely to be a successful in the course of the vessel to all who may be within si ht, and that one, for the orders from all parts of the country are so numerous at the instant that the course is changed. Under the ordinary already that the new factory is unable to fulfil them.
method of showiog red and green lights on port and starboard, &
ship may swing round several points, while the distance is rape PHOTOGRAPHING FLIGHT.-Mr. Muybridge of San Francisco, id'y diminishing between her
and another vessel, before those on having shown photographers how to take pictures o! a horse at board the latter can have any waruing of the change. full gallop, M. Marey, a French savant, has extended the process to the flight of birds. He has succeeded in analyzing the flight of a bird by the method employed by M. Janssen in observing the relative movement of two stars- that is, by a photographio revolver. This was in the form of a fowling-piece aimed at the bird,
ENTERTAINING COLUMN. and twelve pictures were taken successively in 1-700 of a second each. The plates wore gelatino bromide of silver, which could, if
"TOMMY,” said a mother to her soven-your-old boy, "you must need be, take an impression in 1-1500 of a second. By placing the not interrupt mo when I am talking with laies. You must wait set of pictures in a phenakistiscope of Plateau, the flying of the till we stop, and then you can talk." "But you never stop," rvbird was easily reproduced.
torted the boy. The most practicable method of copying objects magnised in to her partner while dancing a polka one evening. "What would
"80 YOU would not take me to be twenty?" sald a young lady the microscope, as stated by Dr. Beale, is to arrange the paper on you take me for, then ? " For better; for worse," replied he; and a plece of stift cardboard, so that it may be upon the same level as he was accepted. the stage upon which the object is situated on the left side if the right eye is the one used for observation. On now looking steadily A CERTAIN young man walks five-sevenths of a mile for soven at the object with the right eye, the object appears to be thrown, as nights in a week to see his girl, and after putting in 112 nights he it were, upon the paper, and may be clearly seen by the left, and gets the bounce. How many mlles did he hoof it altogether, and its outline
very readily traced, the movement of the pencil being ex- how many weeks did it take him to understand that he wasn't ocuted by the right hand if the observer is not able use the left. wanted ? By far the best course, however, says Dr. Beale, is to acquire the
FC NE: Balcony of lodgings overlooking the sea. German habit of observing with the left ye, in which case the paper can be placed on the right hand of the stage, and the right hand used think I hear strains of music." He: "A most confounded lot of
band strikes up, round the corner. She : "Oh, Edwin, listen. I for drawing
strain and uncommon little music, I should say." And such is EXPERIMENTS to determine the changes of color produced in the want of soul in man. flowers by ammonia have given three results: Over a dish of ammonia was inverted a funnel, in the tube of which were placed the
"HAVE you spoken to papa about that yet ?" anxiously in flowers experimented upon. Blue, violet and purple flowers were
quired the eldest daughter of an indulgent mother, "No, my found to change to blaok, and white to yellow. These changes child, not yet. Your father is too busy with his creditors to think are most striking whon the flowers have several different tints, in of pony-phaetons, and russet harness to match, just now." which the red lines are turned dark; the white, yellow, etc. If the
“Bother the creditors 1" was the snappish reply. ""*That's just flowers thus cbauged are placed in pure water they retain their what your father is doing, my dear. After he has compromised, now colors for several hours, gradually assuming their original you shall have your turn-out." tints after that time. Another observation made in this connection is that the flowers of the aster, which are naturally inodor.
WEDDING EXBIBITION-THINGS NOT EXHIBITED. ous, acquire a very agreeable perfume under the influence of Tar husband's wild oats. ammonia.
The wife s little temper.
The father-in-law s trensured check. THE galvanic properties of carbon have been closely examined
The mother-in-law's seasonable and unseasonable advice. by Dr. Hanichi Muraoka, a Japanese student at Strasburg. He
The bride's eldest sister's commiseration. dotermined the specifio resistance and the change of resistance
The bride's youngest sister's admiration. with increase of temperature of all kinds of hard carbon, includ
I ittle Tommy's appreciation of wedding-cake. Ing Siberian graphite, gas-retort carbon, the artifolal carbons pred
The best man's impatience. for electric lighting by several well-known firms, and even the graphitle compound used in Faber's lead-pencils. The speciflo
The dear friends of the bride who couldn't see what he saw in
her. resistance (at 0° C.) of the last was 952-0, while that of the first was 12-2. The artificially-prepared carbons range from 26-86 to NOTE.-The epitaph below, found in a Vermont graveyard 55:15. In all, however, the resistance decreased with a rise of during a vacation ramble, soems worthy of preservation. 3. B, C, temperature, the coefficient of decrease being greatest for the 1.
How sho'kin to the human mind berian graphite least for a carbon pencil prepared from coke by
The log did him to powder grind; Heilmann of Muhlhausen. This result ontfrely confirms the recent
God did command his soul away, researches of Siemens and Beetz. The thermo-electric powers of
This summings we must all obey. the various samples of carbop were also determined, with respect to that of graphite; their thormo-electromotive force was in every
He was esteomed by all men oase +. to graphite, and varied from 423 miorovolts for the Faber
A tender husband, father, friend; penofl carbon to 9 28 microvolts for the gas-retort carbon (of Par
It grieves us that he is no more, Isian manufacture) used for battery plates.
Ito's lost this darky gloomy shore.