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Staël to impose upon her; she saw that the first understood The world of art and literature was essentially addressed to nothing about German poetry, and could only appreciate the higher orders of society, adopted and cherished by the moral side of her countrymen. His companion seemed them, and partook of other social privileges and “ freedom to her " a phenomenon of vital power, selfishness, and in- from all prejudice." There is much said about the corcessant intellectual activity. Her exterior is transfigured ruption of France under Louis XV., and of England under by her interior, and has great need of it; for there are mo

Charles II. : if we look at things somewhat closer, however, ments, or rather dresses, in which she looks like a sutler, we may detect here, as elsewhere, below a licentious court, and in which, nevertheless, one can quite well imagine her | nobility, and literary coterie, an orderly, steady, and even capable of representing Phædra, in the most elevated tragi- | pious middle-class. Thus beside and below the free cal sense.” No jealousy whatever appears to have dictated society of Berlin and Weimar, an honest, laborious class of this judgment, for Caroline is quite ready to acknowledge citizens existed, who, incapable of comprehending what that Schlegel owes more to the petulant Frenchwoman than was going on above them, were only too ready to look upon she to him. In the midst of this false Catholicism of the all this set as a species of gypsy company devoid of all romantic school, “ Wilhelm remains Protestant under his principles, and to censure its freaks and immorality with a own shield, or rather that of his Pallas, . . . for after all species of equivocal charity only to be found among the he is the purest of them all. . . . Alas! how they have erred virtuous. It would be a great error were we to suppose from the right road, and how they have allowed themselves that the high intellectual culture of Weimar penetrated to to be led astray by destinies which they have prepared for

the nass of the nation or even to the middle-classes. themselves.” This last remark is especially addressed to

An abyss separated the two worlds; and a bourgeoisie which Friedrich Schlegel, just then at Vienna, enjoying Alicante devoutly crossed itself at the bare mention of Wilhelm and biscuits, as, ten years previously, he had appreciated Meister's wild associates and at the thought of the subverliqueurs and sausages at Berlin. He also had gone over to sive principles of the Elective Affinilies, when it did not the house of Austria, and to the Catholic Church at the content itself with the Bible and Gellert's Fables, read the same time, and showed a strong disposition to “become a novels of Auguste Lafontaine. It always has been so: persecutor of heretics. They say he is already as fat, lazy, Raphael and Shakspeare were not more moral, in the and sensual as a monk. . .. I knew them all in better bourgeois sense of the word, than Diderot and Göthe. times, in the age of their innocence. Then came discord and sin. ... How firm he has remained, relying on himself; how good, open, childlike, and entirely dignified that friend (alluding to her husband, Schelling) whom I need

PEEPS AT SPIRITS. not name!”

Let us end with these words, which are the chorus of all THERE can be no doubt that Spiritualism, or Spiritism, Caroline's letters concerning him who, during the time of for we decline entering on a question about which “ eminent her happiness, had “melted all her existence in sweetness." lexicographers," as the Medium_ News tells us, are at vaThis feeling was not to last long. She died almost sud- riance, is really marching on. It is rapidly freeing itself denly on a journey in Würtemberg, where she was going from the baser elements of table-turning, rapping, "tipto pay a visit to Schelling's aged parents. The same dis- ping," and planchette writing, and attaining a far more ease which had carried off her child, nine years before, put direct faculty of converse with the ghostly world. It is an end to her own life on the 7th of September, 1809, at true that some of the lowlier incidents of its early origin the age of forty-six. As she had foreseen and prophesied, still cling to it; that, with a few exceptions, its séances, so she “closed her eyes in peace and serenity of mind." far as London is concerned, seem to be held in queer quar

In the beginning of this essay, I quoted those words of ters, in London Fields, Clerkenwell, or Bethnal Green, grief and passionate admiration which escaped Schelling's - and that its mediums still rejoice in the oddest of all lips a few weeks after losing “this singular being, whose possible names. Since the heroes of Mr. Dickens's later equal will not appear again on earth.” He remained true fictions, we have met with no odder group of designations to this feeling; and more than ten years afterwards, when than those enjoyed by Messrs. Guppy, Mumler, Shorter, the daughter of that Louise Gotter, who had been Caroline's Cogman, and Simkiss. But it must be owned that greater oldest and best friend, again gave him pure domestic hap- nanies are dropping in. “ The People's Poet,” and “ The piness, he evidently still had before him the image of the Discoverer of Thallium,” titles which certainly throw a wife of his youth, when he exclaims in his Platonic dialogue, halo of grandeur round the rather commonplace personages “ Clara," “ Let me recall to mind the transfigured friend who of Mr. Crookes and Mr. Gerald Massey, are at the head of was my life's guardian angel ; let me remember how, at the the movement. It has been formally announced by the approach of the shadow of death, celestial radiance spirits themselves that all criticism on their and illuminated her whole being to such a degree that I sayings is simply the result of “weak blood and a struthought I had never seen her more beautiful than at the mous temperament." The movement is widening its borvery moment when she was about to breathe her last, ders beyond Clerkenwell and Bethnal Green: there is “ a nor even imagined that death could present so much grace. respectable church" of Spiritualists at Melbourne, in Let me remember how her accents, at all times melodious, which we are glad to remark the new peculiarity of “a became divine music, spiritual sounds which even now marked predominance of intellectual physiognomy;” and resound in the depths of my heart."

there is a circle at Cairo where “Madame Blawatsky” is

willing, for a consideration, to reproduce the plague of Caroline was not the only superior woman of those times, frogs, or any similar incident of Pharaonic life, at a mowhose life presents a tissue of romantic vicissitudes, errors

, ment's notice. Spiritualism has at last a worship, which and grand sides. · On her track we have already met is described as consisting of “invocations, the singing of with the daughters of Heyne and Moses Mendelssohn. suitable hymns, and the delivery of addresses without any If we wished to widen our range, how many others besides, ceremony or ritual.To conduct worship without ceremony such as Charlotte von Kalb, Caroline von Wolzogen, or ritual of any sort is an achievement which even QuaSophie Méreau, Emilie von Berlepsch, Frau von Knorring, kers despair of, and of which Spiritualism may be justly and Madame de Kriidner, would have to be placed within proud; though we are bound to say that the accounts of it, as forming inherent parts of the literary society of such services as we have seen have the familiar twang of that memorable period. Yet we should be mistaken were the conventicle, and little besides, to recommend them. we to judge of the general morality of their age by The address of the “Medium in a Trance," which closes their example; for, in this

, Germany presents an analogous the proceedings, reads wonderfully like the ordinary disspectacle to France, England, and Italy, during their course of our friend Mr. Stiggins out of it. But this is of greatest literary periods. The higher classes sought little consequence, when, as the Spiritualist organ triumpheagerly to free themselves from the trammels of a social antly observes, “ Science is on our side, and the spirit of order, to which the middle ranks still scrupulously adhered. the age is with us.” It is of still less importance when the

spirits themselves, after a good deal of ghostly coquetry, ghostly hands. It is a little trying to faith to remark bow have been at last wheedled into coming fairly to the front; easily the whole thing could be imitated with a common when these ghostly visitants are no more like Wordsworth's white pocket-handkerchief and an ordinary sheet. We cuckoo, “ a wandering voice,” but are good enough to take have not had the privilege of seeing any spiritual repre material form, and to allow themselves to be seen of mor- sentations in which the ghostly sitter appeared in a more tal eyes and photographed in common cartes-de-visite. distinctive garb, though we are led to hope that such may

The first photographic manifestation took place, of soon be vouchsafed. Mr. John Jones has, indeed, succeeded course, in America ; but the Yankee seer experienced the in inducing spirits to appear in a more earthly guise. usual prophetic fate, and the discovery had to be made In the photograph of his daughters, “one of the spirits has over again, in less sceptical climes. It is only fair to Mr. on a dark shawl, is stooping, and reading a book; the other, Samuel Guppy that he should tell his own story. He had standing and thinking.” Of course, when one can photo accompanied his wife, with conjugal solicitude, to a photo graph a spirit, it is easy to photograph thought into the graphic studio ; and, “after the sitting was finished, I | bargain. But the greatest success was achieved in a set asked her to try an experiment to see if I could get a ond attempt, where “ a spirit seems to have come in with spirit photograph. I arranged the drapery, sitting myself bonnet and lace fall on, as if a visitor, to see the group of in front of a screen of black cloth, my wife being behind three taken by the camera.” It may have been a little it. While so sitting, waiting for Mr. Hudson to bring the jealousy of the “lace fall ” which induced "the spirit prepared plate, a wreath of artificial flowers was placed on Katey" to dispense, after Mr. Guppy's interviews, with my head. Mr. Hudson brought the plate, took and devel- photographs altogether. Mr. Smith gives us an account oped the picture, which showed a draped figure in white, before which that of Mr. Jones fades into insignificance standing behind me." We see the result in a copy of the At the séance which he describes, “ Katey came over to the carte-de-visite which is now before us. The world knows side where Mr. Harrison and myself were sitting, and nothing of its greatest men; and we were a little startled at showed two brilliant lights, one in each hand, the fingers first sight of the venerable person with whom spirits take of which could be seen as though grasping light. She said such affectionate liberties. If we may trust the photo to Mr. H., .Now, Willie, can you see me?' and as she graph, Mr. Guppy is a rather short and podgy person, with spoke, she turned the light upon her countenance, which an extremely ill-fitting coat, and leaning back in a chair could be seen distinctly, the taper moving as she spoke. with that air of attempted serenity which is common in He then illuminated part of her dress, which she said was photographic studios. His head appears to be bald, and is such as she wore in India, referring to me at the time for certainly covered by a wreath of flowers, which, as big confirmation. Now can you understand ? This is the cabbage-roses of this sort hardly bloom in the month of way we show ourselves in the photographs. Mr. H. re March, we may presume to be artificial. Behind Mr.

quested and was permitted to touch the figure which we Guppy is a white erection, which might be a spirit, and saw.” Katey only disappeared to make way for a dear which might be a pump, but which to mortal eyes would friend, every feature of whose face was distinctly to be resrather suggest a couple of broomsticks, draped in a white ognized. “ Yes, Cliff,” said the spirit, — Mr. Smith's sheet. Altogether, let us frankly own, this first spiritual name, we may remark, is “ Clifford;” but spirits have their photograph is a little destructive of reverence. The mind little familiarities,- you recognize me, you recognize me!" instinctively quits the veiled broomsticks, to fasten itself After manifestations of this kind, we must own that the on Mr. Guppy; and that comfortable face, the face of a more ordinary spiritual demonstrations pall a little on our cosey tallow-chandler, when crowned with paper roses, be- taste. We don't think we can be rallied into vivid intercomes absolutely irresistible. We should tremble for the est, even when the spirits ram our strong-minded friend, domestic happiness of Mrs. Guppy, if Mrs. Guppy had not Mrs. Guppy, headlong through the stout brick wall of ber claimed her share in these spiritual interviews. “I will go bed-room, and leave her in a light and airy déshabille to with Tommy,” said Mrs. Guppy, in words which throw a be picked up by the policeman, or other kind friends on certain subdued light on the inner life of the Guppy cir- the pavement. A flower-pot, it is pathetically added, acle, -“I will go with Tommy to get a spirit photograph; companied her in her flight, and stood uninjured beside but I must have my own way entirely. I am always inter- her. We doubt whether our curiosity will be greatly fered with, and told to do this or that; but this time I will raised, even should Miss Lottie Fowler be transported a have my own way!” The result of this spirited conduct second time out of an omnibus, without notice (or, we fear, shall be told in her husband's words: “We went at three payment) to the conductor, and brought into a séance o'clock, to Mr. Hudson's. A snow-storm came on. How- through the keyhole, although it may be interesting to ever, she placed herself kneeling with the child in front. know that “the conductor has been sought for, but not as She desired me to look at her through the cloth screen all yet discovered.” Mr. “ Punch" will, no doubt, learn with the while. . . . Though I say it as shouldn't say it, I think interest that “the liquor-bottle with silver top and stopit is the most beautiful photograph I have ever seen, and per," which mysteriously disappeared at a séance which he worthy of copying by a first-rate painter." We may

fair- was good enough to comment upon, has returned in answer ly pardon this little outburst of Mr. Guppy's artistic en- to his remonstrances. It fell suddenly from the ceiling, in thusiasm, as we have pardoned his little irrelevance about the presence of the two mediums who assisted at its disapthe snow and the exquisite “ however” which follows it; pearance, and to whose honesty the “ silver top and stopbut to ordinary eyes the photograph is a very inferior pho- per bear convincing witness, though, by an accident, tograph indeed. Our natural curiosity about the spirited nothing is said about the liquor. After all, liquor-bottles wife who “ will have her own way,” is disappointed by so are only liquor-bottles, and spirits are spirits. The appearterribly blurred a face that not a feature can be made out. rance of “ Katey” in her Indian shawl, and of Mr. Jones's Such as she is, however, Mrs. Guppy kneels in the fore- anonymous friend in her“ lace fall,” puts all other wonders ground, holding “ Tommy,” whose hair does not appear to out of court. We cannot help, however, feeling a certain have seen a brush for some months, in her arms, while a anxiety as to the ultimate issue of these spiritual appearvery unmistakable spirit towers high behind them. Un

When the spirit of “ John King ” flings sofa cushluckily, the countenance of “the spirit Katey” — for Mr. ions about the room, and puts his medium, Mr. Williams, Guppy is good enough to supply us with her name - is less through the roof, as a punishment of disobedience, we see distinct than Mrs. Guppy's own. She is got up in the usual that we have some spiritual rough customers to deal with. stage ghost fashion, - indeed, we think it reflects credit on And our comfort is by no means increased when we are inour dramatic managers that they should for so many years troduced to Mr. “ Jack Todd,” a Liverpool spirit, who have known how a ghost would be clothed when it was amuses himself with tearing a table to pieces, and flinging actually good enough to appear on earth. A fillet is tied the legs of it at the heads of his visitors. As he turns out over the brow, and a loose white drapery is thrown loosely to be the spirit of a highwayman, we are hardly consoled and vaguely over the rest of the figure, leaving a little hole by the assurance that “ he will, no doubt, improve in time." for the face, and two smaller apertures for a couple of But if Mr. King is to appear in person for the purpose of



hurling us through the roof, and Mr. Todd in visible shape exalted notions of the inherent dignity of his species, the is to re-appear with his highwayman's pistols, it is clear we historical relations of the subject are not by any means shall be driven to ask for the institution of a Spiritual po- assuring. In all ages, hallucination has been closely allied lice. There is no need, however, to anticipate dangers ; to superstition, sometimes in the way of cause, and someand meanwhile these visible apparitions afford a timely times of effect. As illustrative of this, we need only point check to the merely “sensual” critics, who, out of sheer to the presence of this element in the moral epidemics “ weak blood and strumous temperament,” are forever in- which have prevailed in Europe. Mr. Lecky has shown sisting on the test of utility. Ås to utility, we have Mr. that it was hallucination which prompted the early ancho Sharpe's confession that “ the Sharpe rifle was wholly in- rites to endure the horrors of their desert life; it was this vented for him by the spirits, and that he merely obeyed that gave rise to the hideous forms of epidemic degradatheir injunctions." Detectives, too, would become at once tion called lycanthropy, vampyrism, and the dancing maunnecessary, if our present criminal code were only re- nias of the Middle Ages; and it forms a chief feature in that formed. “Tracing murders and other criminal occur- outbreak of so-called witchcraft, which for nearly two rences is quite practicable, and will be common to mediums centuries pressed like a nightmare on the peoples of whenever society is enlightened enough to make a proper Europe, and followed the Pilgrim Fathers to America. The use of the information thus obtained. All clairvoyants subject is also invested with a weird, unearthly interest, and mediums, with hardly an exception, decline to give from the resemblance of ocular hallucinations to the popuinformation in such cases, because of the very un- lar ideal of the class of disembodied spirits, which, for pleasant moral relations that it subjects them to." The reasons of their own, are supposed to "revisit the glimpses spirit world will have nothing to do with our present

of the moon." system of criminal punishment, or it would not be honored But apart from these melancholy associations, the subwith the patronage of Mr. Jack Todd. But, setting asideject is one of considerable intrinsic interest, and not de all merely practical results, we may clearly expect some void of some bearing on questions of practical every-day remarkable changes in the spirit-conduct, should spirits be life. Hallucinations occur only in certain abnormal, though good enough to come face to face with us. The sentimental not necessarily morbid states of the body. They may tone which unhappily pervades all the communications we described as a class of sensations in which the impression, have ever seen from the spirit world will, no doubt, pass into while appearing to be made by an external object, is really a tone more common among persons of average intelligence.

due to some internal cause. An hallucination, then, is sim“ Ellen,” for instance, when consulted about the health of ply a counterfeit sensation ; an impostor, whose "get-up a living friend, will hardly reply in a rhapsody of this sort : is so admirable as to enable it successfully to personate an “ Ellen sees her friend's wasting form is nearly extinct. impression by a real subject. Hallucination may occur She may reach the first cheerful warbling of the birds, within the province of any of the senses.

Those of smell which invite her to the bright shores of that ever-blissful are occasionally met with in connection with disease. Burland of happy angels, who are standing to aid her to as- ton, in his “ Anatomy of Melancholy” mentions the case of a cend those beautiful regions of ever-reigning harmony, French poet who was ordered by his physician to anoint where the angels of bliss are singing their welcome chants his temples with a certain unguent to act as a soporific: of melody, ringing through the groves of the most luxuri- but he so detested the smell of it, that for many years after ant plants and trees, whose fragrance perfumes the air. all that came near him he imagined to scent of it, and As you glide through, scarcely touching the soil, you feel would let no man walk with him, nor wear any new clothes, to soar the air like the things of winged creation; but because he thought they smelled of it; in all other things pride does not exist among the dear angel spirits.” If wise and discreet, he would talk sensibly.” « Ellen” would only allow “ Cliff” to recognize her, or Hallucinations of touch rarely occur, unless in connec“ H.” to touch her, she might allow some less intimate tion with those of the other senses. Those pertaining to friend to suggest that a "form" can be hardly “extinct," the auditory nerve are, however, not unfrequent. Mr. and that “ascending a region” is almost as difficult as Lewis mentions that Charles Dickens once declared to him “ soaring the air.” It is, perhaps, hardly safe to entertain that every word said by his characters was distinctly heard the more ambitious hope that an Ecumenical council of by him. 'An eminent living English physiologist says of visible spirits might settle some of the difficulties which himself: “In reading books written by persons with whom seem to exist in the Spiritualist Church itself. There is a I am acquainted, I am sometimes tormented by hearing the schism on the subject of vaccination; there is another words pronounced in the exact way in which these persons schism on the subject of Christianity. Mr. Jones still would utter them; any trick or peculiarity of voice or gesseems to cling to the Christian tradition; while the freer ture being also very accurately reproduced.” Dr. Johnson Spiritualists call up the spirit of Tom Paine, and declare was greatly impressed by hearing, on one occasion, his “there are vast asylums in the spirit world, where the vic- mother distinctly calling his name, “ Samuel,” though at tims of dogma are placed until they are able to perceive the time she was many miles distant. Dr. Ortigue, the truth independently." There is a schism as to "psychic French musician, states that the songs of birds in the counforce,” where the followers of Mr. Hume find no words too try have so vividly re-awakened in him the impression of emphatic for Mr. Sergt. Cox. Unhappily, the spirits seem Beethoven's Pastoral, that he heard that symphony execuas divided as their followers. Those who look for theo ted with a precision and justness of intonation perfectly logic peace in the after world have still to learn that marvellous. Unitarian and Trinitarian spirits carry on their dogmatic But the most striking examples of hallucinations are controversies as busily as if they were on earth, though, those connected with visual impressions. Here it is almost as it seems to the "strumous” critic, with even less intelli- impossible, for the moment, to resist the conviction that an gence of the subject discussed. But, if we cannot get a impression on the retina similar to that which would be council, we can at least get a photograph; and spirits that made by an object, has actually been made by such an can find no union in theology can find a common ground object. The aphorism “ Seeing is believing,” expresses the of enjoyment in crowning Mr. Guppy with artificial roses, popular idea of this irresistible force of visual sensations. and in gladdening the heart of Mr. Jones with a “lace To discredit the evidence of their own eyes would appear fall.”

to most people a mental feat equally impossible and irra

tional. Yet the ability to exercise the kind of incredulity HALLUCINATIONS.

of which this is a popular description, far from being neces

sarily irrational, is sometimes the very evidence and cruIt must be admitted that the interest attached to the cial test of reason. Accounts of remarkable cases of ocusubject of hallucinations is not of a particularly pleasing lar hallucination are so common, especially in medical or cheerful kind. The mental associations which cohere literature, that it is difficult to select. A lady, Miss Nto it necessarily impart to it something of their own som- was one evening left sole inmate of her house; the rest bre complexion. In the first place, to a person holding of the family, including her infirm mother, being out. A dreadful thunder-storm which came on made her thoughts really putting the blame at the wrong door. If the organs wander anxiously to her father. Happening to visit the of sense are in a healthy condition, they are incapable of room he usually occupied, she was surprised to see him deluding us. No mirror reflects the image of an object seated in his arm-chair. Thinking he had come in without placed before it with more perfect accuracy than do our her having heard him, she went forward to inquire how he

senses the impressions made upon them; but they receive got in. Repeating the word “Father,” she tried to put with impartial fidelity the impression from objects without her hand on his shoulder, when it went down, from having

and those which originate within. In hallucination, the met no resistance. She retired in great alarm. After a

affection of the organs is exactly the same as if it were time, she mustered courage to return to the room, in order

caused by the actual object. The error arises from the to ascertain whether she had not been deceived by some

mind being unconscious of the mode in which the impres peculiar arrangement of the drapery or furniture. The ions are produced. It cannot discriminate between the figure was scated as before: and she now concluded that true and the sham perception. The delusion, then, is it was an hallucination. She looked at it from various chargeable, not to the senses, but to the mind itself. But points of view, rubbed her eyes, but without affecting the

a sane mind always retains the power, by a subsequent appearance. It was still there when she entered the room process of reasoning, to correct the first erroneous judgment. the third or fourth time. It should be added, that the lady

The rectification, however, is not always immediate: somewas convalescent from a recent illness.

times it is not effected till the person has been led into Not unfrequently, in hallucinations, several of the senses some rather awkward predicament. A man subject to are concurrently affected. A student was about to retire

ocular hallucinations was walking along one of the streets to bed after a hard night's work, when the accidental turn

of Edinburgh, when he was very much astonished to see ing up of a letter from an old companion, long dead,

the familiar street divided into two halves, one of which brought up recollections of the deceased. He had just ex

presented a steep ascent, and the other a steep descent. tinguished his candle, when he heard himself addressed by Though utterly bewildered, he concluded that the uphill the well-remembered voice of his former friend, and at the

road was the one he ought to choose; accordingly he began same time felt his arm grasped. Suspecting the nature of

to toil along the level street as if he were going up a hiil

, the visitation, he relighted his canille, and saw standing

to the amusement of the passengers, who appeared to him before him the form of his old friend. It beckoned to the equally to be toiling up and down an ascent. door, and glided out, when he became giddy, and fell down. In chronic cases, the sufferer is often puzzled to deterThough three senses were implicated in this instance, the

mine on the instant whether a doubtful appearance represtudent never had any doubt that he was the subject of

sents a real object or not. An eminent physician in Edinhallucination.

burgh, lately deceased, was assured by a lady, that if she A case remarkably similar in its details is also on record. were summoned as a witness in a court of justice, she could A gentleman who had been engaged in reading during the

not swear whether what she saw was real or illusory. In evening, was about to retire to his bedroom, when he

such circumstances, the victim is driven to invent some chanced to see a letter on a side-table. It proved to be an

ready test by which to discriminate the real from the invitation to attend the funeral of the mother of an old de

apparently real. In the case last mentioned, the lady ceased acquaintance. This led his thoughts to the painful

would never venture to place a glass or plate on a table history of the family and of his friend. Engaged in these without previously feeling if there was a table there, or to reflections, he undressed himself, and extinguished his can

sit down on a chair without satisfying herself that it was dle, when he suddenly felt his arm grasped a little below

not a spectral one. But to verify the information derived the shoulder, and forcibly pressed to his side. He strug

from one sense by an appeal to another, is not always congled to free himself, calling aloud, “ Let go my arm ;

venient or possible. When the tactile test is not available, when he distinctly heard the words, “Don't be afraid,”

others have therefore to be tried; though none of them can uttered in a low tone. He immediately said, “ Allow me

be said to be always reliable. One gentleman was in the to light the candle,” when his arm was released. On light

habit of turning his back on any appearance of which be ing the candle, and turning towards the door, he saw be

had a suspicion; if it was a reality, he lost sight of it; if fore him the figure of his deceased friend. On stepping merely apparitional, he saw it as before. A test suggested towards it, it receded, face towards him. It passed thus by Sir David Brewster is to press one eyeball down with slowly down stairs, but stopped when the lobby was reached.

the finger, and thus change the axis of vision. If the He passed close to the figure, and opened the street-door,

image is real, it will, of course, be doubled ; if merely menwhen he became giddy, sank into a chair, and let fall the

tal, it will remain single. A lady was accustomed, in cases candle. He never for a moment considered the image a

of doubt, to look into a mirror. If the figure had its back real object. In these three cases, the reader will have per

to the mirror, and its face to her, she concluded it was real; ceived the presence of one common mental element, that

if it had its face to the mirror and also to her, that it was of strong emotional feeling.

phantasmal. In the following example, profound concentration of the

Perhaps the most extraordinary fact in regard to the attention on a favorite object seems to have been the ante

subject of ocular spectra remains to be stated. It appears cedent determining condition. M. Baudry, a French engi

that some individuals possess the faculty of evoking them neer, was one day deeply occupied with a canal scheme,

at will. On such persons Hotspur's famous sarcasm, suband had just traced on a map before him the route which stituting “spectres" for "spirits," would fall pointless, for he proposed for it. All at once he saw before him a pam

they do come when called on. Abercrombie mentions the phlet in yellow, with the title, “Project of the Opening of a

case of a gentleman with whom he was acquainted, who Canal in the Plains of Sologne. For several minutes he read

could at any time place before him a phanton, by fixing in it, the ideas being of course confirmatory of his own,

his mind intently on the person whose image he wished to when the phantasmal brochure disappeared. When the

produce. Having once evoked the figure, he had no power hallucination becomes persistent and chronic, the effect

to make it disappear, nor could he say how long it would may be disastrous, even though it is unable to coerce the

remain. At last the phantoms appeared unbidden, and be mind into a belief of its objective reality. This is illus

was never, at first, certain whether any person he met was trated in the well-known case related by Sir Walter Scott,

real or spectral; but after a little attention, he was gener in which an eminent lawyer died from 'mental depression, ally able to distinguish the substantial from the shadowy, being continually haunted by a skeleton, though he was

by the former being usually better defined than the me quite aware of the purely subjective character of his

tal image. He hardly, however, trusted wholly to his eyes, tormentor.

but tested his visual impression by touch, or by hearing the In such cases as these, where does the deception lie?

sound of the footsteps. Though subject to hallucinations Is it the senses that are deluded in hallucination ? This all his life, this man was quite healthy in body and sound is, no doubt, the popular idea; and it is a convenient way

in mind. Dr. Wigan states that he was acquainted with a of stating the matter. But it is not strictly accurate. It is

very amiable and intelligent man, who possessed the power of putting before him his own image. He often laughed tions, that they are not always reproductions of past states heartily at the sight of his eidolon, which to him of consciousness. Bostock, the physiologist, states that on appeared always to laugh. For a long time this was a one occasion he had constantly before him a human figure, source of amusement and pleasantry to him. But the the features and dress of which were as distinctly visible as result was deplorable. Hallucination gradually passed into that of any real existence, and of which, after an interval delusion ; little by little, he persuaded himself that he was of many years, he still retained a lively impression ; yet he haunted by his double; his other self held obstinate discus- had never been able to discover any person whom he had sions with him, and, to his mortification, sometimes van- previously seen who resembled it. A theory which would quished him in argument, at which he prided himself on cover the whole facts must account not only for the renovabeing an adept. Wearied out at last, he resolved not to tion of former mental states, but for the presentation of begin a new year; placed in separate papers his daily new combinations effected by the imagination. Upon the expenses for a week, paid his debts, awaited, pistol in hand, recondite question of the ultimate causation of these illuthe night of 31st December, and, the moment the clock sions, however, we cannot enter. We know the mode by struck midnight, blew out his brains. That this extraordi- which the senses are impressed by objects external to nary faculty is one that cannot long be exercised with them; but the question in hallucination is, in what way impunity is also illustrated by the case of the gifted but they can be affected from within so as to give the effect of eccentric poet-painter and engraver, William Blake. His impressions from without. There is one part of the problem mode of portrait-painting was certainly peculiar. His own which to the popular mind may appear the most inexplicaaccount of it to Wigan was as follows: "When a model ble, if not the only thing needing explanation ; we refer to was presented, I looked at it attentively for half an hour, the apparent objectiveness — outsideness — of the mental sketching occasionally on the canvas. I had no need of a image. How can a mere subjective sensation appear to longer sitting. I put aside the drawing, and passed to have an objective existence ? This difficulty, however, another person. When I wished to continue the first por- vanishes on reflection. The image of a body impressed on trait, I took the subject of it into my mind, I put him in the the retina — no matter in what way that impression has chair, where I perceived him as distinctly as if he had been originated — must, necessarily, in obedience to the laws of there in reality, - I may even add, with form and color more vision, be perceived as an object apparently external. The defined than in the original. I contemplated from time to real difficulty, then, is not to account for the simulation of time the imaginary figure. I suspended my work to exam- reality that is a necessity arising from the very condiine the pose: every time I cast my eye on the chair I saw the tions of sensation ; the puzzle is to explain the production man.” In one year he stated that he had painted three of the sensation itself, a problem for the complete solution hundred portraits, great and small. But the Nemesis of of which we do not possess the necessary data. But what an overstretched imagination inevitably overtook him; by may be called the proximate causes of hallucination — that degrees he lost the power to distinguish between the real is, the physical, mental, and moral condition under which and the imaginary sitters ; his mind became confused and they are generated – lie within the sphere of useful scienunhinged, and he spent thirty years in an asylum.

tific inquiry; and their study is one eminently helpful to a Hyacinthe Langlois, an intimate friend of Talma, relates proper understanding of some of the darker pages of that that celebrated actor informed him that when he came history. on the stage, he was able by force of will to make his large and brilliant auditory disappear, and to substitute skeletons in their place. When his imagination had thus filled the

ANTOINE WIERTZ. theatre with these singular spectators, their re-active power on himself was such as often to give his personations a

“Bien faire — question de temps.” — Motto of Wiertz. most powerful effect. Sir Thomas Browne, Jerome Cardan, and Goethe, also possessed in various degrees this remark- It would, I suppose, be generally admitted that the true able faculty. It implies the possession of great power of ground of veneration for the “old masters ” is the fact that rapid observation, of a memory tenacious even of minute they were masters, not at all that they lived some years details, of the ability to withdraw the attention completely ago; in other words, that not when a man was is the main from the immediate surroundings, and to concentrate it on question, but what he was. Still there prevails an impresthe mental idea, and of great force of imagination. That sion that a certain lost greatness lies behind us; the disthe exercise of such a complex faculty must involve a tance has its wonder; we are, too, used to put that which severe psychical strain, is evident from the frequency with we revere as far away as possible: thus we come to speak which it throws the delicate mental machinery out of gear.

of “other days

as though they were indeed other than It is curious to note the number of men eminent in litera- these that dawn and die for us; as though larger suns illuture or prominent in history, who have been the subjects of mined them, larger hearts of men and women strove in them temporary or persistent hallucinations, or of whom, at all for larger aims; as though philosophy, art, poetry, and events, such an allegation has been made. To mention every beautiful and holy gift, had in them been raised to a only a few: Socrates had warnings from his demon ; Bru- height it were presumption in us to hope to surpass, or even tus saw his evil genius before Philippi; Cromwell is said reach, since the time when there“ were giants in the earth” to have been visited by a woman of gigantic stature, who has passed and gone. assured him he would yet be king; Napoleon believed in Now, this false modesty, like all false things, works pernihis star, at which Gen. Rapp found him on one occasion ciously; not only by lowering the standard men set themgazing in rapture; Joan of Arc heard voices and had reve- selves, and leading them to rest content with mean performlations; Lord Castlereagh saw, on one occasion, a spectral ances, but also by robbing them of the healthful stimulus child; Ben Jonson informed Drummond of Hawthornden the association with greatness gives; so that the success of that he had passed a night in looking at Tartars and their predecessors, far from being a high encouragement, Turks, Romans and Carthaginians, fighting round his great and a proof of what human genius, aided by human energy toe; Malebranche heard the voice of Deity ; Lord Herbert and industry, is capable of, becomes, instead, a depressing of Cherbury heard an agreeable noise in the heavens, and impassable barrier, limiting their aspirations. * So far which he accepted as a favorable response to his prayer


shalt thou go — hardly ; beyond all doubt no farther!” direction in regard to the publication of a book; Pope and A canvas is my battle-field : my Trojans Michael AnByron saw each, on one occasion, a spectre.

The cases

gelo, Raphael, Rubens.” The life of the late Belgian paintof Mohammed, Luther, Pascal, Ignatius Loyola, Col. er who uttered this daring challenge was one long protest Gardiner, and a host of others, will occur to the reader as against the contemptuous estimate, not so much of the artists being probably examples of hallucination, determined by of our day, as of their art. The protest itself is worthy of that most prolific source of illusions, strong religious record, however he may have fared amongst the giarts with feeling.

whom he chose to measure his strength; meanwhile, that It is noteworthy, as bearing on the theory of hallucina- he did not fail utterly, or at least, that his defeat was not so

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