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is hard to say whether the Germans display their advance think of what he knows of our chief military offices, or more strikingly in organization, in strategy, or in tactics. of those of France (should he happen to be acquainted The French may also afford us some useful lessons of im- with the working of the military machine as it has been provement. In small arms they were plainly in advance managed there for the last fifteen years of the twice-reof their adversaries. In the introduction of the Mitrailleur vived and twice-destroyed empire), and he will realize for they had taken a bold step on which no other nation had himself one main cause why the German staff-officer is more ventured. Yet, on the whole, it is natural and


that able to act with the full powers of his judgment at critical we should look to the victors for our chief instruction in moments than his compeer in other services. Realizing that great and terrible art of which they have shown such this, he may naturally wish to hear more of the manner in consummate mastery.

which the decentralizing principle has been applied in the In seeking for the causes of their success, not one of the German system, to strip high office of those terrors of toil three great branches of military science can be safely neg- which in other armies oppress it. Now, no one, I think, lected. Without a high organization, the North Germans will assert that English officials are, man for man, inferior could not have put on foot the gigantic armies which they in integrity, diligence, and patriotism, to those of any other actually brought into the field. Without special adapta- nation. The key to such superiority, as is asserted by the tion of the old rules of strategy to new circumstances, they Germans, must lie in their organization, of which it will be could not have moved these forces so as to let their weight well here to speak a little in detail. have its full effect. Without tactical skill, they would inev- All well-read Englishmen know something of the great itably have failed to reap fully the unexampled successes change in Prussian military institutions which occurred which their superior organization and better strategy had after 1859, the stimulus, beyond any doubt, being those prepared. For it is an absolute mistake to suppose that French victories in Italy, which for å time forced Prussia they, on every occasion, displayed overwhelming numbers and Austria to consult for each other's security

as at the in action, in their collision with the Imperial army (no one famous Töplitz interview of 1860 — against the menacing supposes they did in their later contests with the Republi- power of the Second Empire. But comparatively few can levies), there having been at least one great battle of have heard that besides the military revolution accomsupreme importance, where they fought against a preponder- plished in the strengthening of the regular army at the ance of force that of Mars-la-Tour; while at another, expense of the Landwehr, and thrusting the latter altogeththat of Forbach, they were certainly not much, if at all, su- er out of the first line, a change hardly less important was perior in strength to the French corps they there defeated. carried out in the system of mobilization. True, this had We shall now, however, speak chiefly of their organization. already long since been conducted by corps, a corps to It is needless to say, that, during several months of the every province; but whereas until now the corps on its

year spent in close observation of their armies, I saw peace footing had been sent into the field to be made up many things that impressed upon me the readiness, the thereafter to complete war fitness, from the depôts far becompleteness, and the practical nature of that organization hind, it was resolved thenceforth that mobilization should on which is based the greatest empire, as to military in each case be a business completely and wholly carried strength, which the world has ever seen. But the incident out locally by local authority, so that the corps, if required, which struck my imagination most was a visit, partly of should

go forth from its province a perfect machine, and its ordinary ceremony, and partly in search of information, chief - handing over his charge thenceforward to a deputy, made to a certain officer, chief of staff to a general in high who would be responsible for all the further supplies which command, whose name 1 do not repeat here, but merely re-enforce it - might give his undivided attention to his say that it is one which is known throughout Europe as field duties. The change was great, and its effect has been that of a veteran justly distinguished for being a thorough greater even than the authors had hoped. soldier. The colonel of whom I speak particularly, I Being present with the German armies in 1859, and a found to be a fine-looking military man, of pleasant aspect close observer of their proceedings, I was struck with the and open manner, skilled in the theory of his profession, confusion and irregularity with

which the troops arrived at and apparently not the less acquainted with every detail their various quarters on the Rhine. Of course, this was of each arm over which he had to watch, so far as my more noticeable among the contingents of the minor States questions, which were answered with the most perfect than in that of Prussia ; yet it was everywhere visible, frankness, could enable me to judge. He was responsible even to the eye of one who could look no more closely than to his chief for all the daily working of that great machine, an ordinary traveller was allowed to do. We Englishmen, an army corps in its full strength; and this, too, quartered even in an “alarmist" story, could hardly have been in a in a land politically hostile, and yet not governed by mar- more portentous hurry and flutter to put one hundred and tial law - position, perhaps, the most trying which a fifty thousand men into the field. And the reasons of this, soldier of fine qualities can be placed in. His duties which I did not then fully understand, were mainly in the would oblige him to communicate officially, not only with crossing of orders between the different mobilized corps the heads of departments in the corps itself, but with and the various provinces from which they were severally numerous civil functionaries, some of French origin, others hastening, to get their troops equipped and re-enforced to imported from Germany. And yet he could find time to war strength. Solferino came, before the German army converse leisurely with a stranger desirous of picking up was ready, or its masters fully determined to throw its all possible information, to answer specific questions clearly weight into the field against the victorious French. So and in detail, and to avoid the least show of hurrying his the Peace of Villafranca was signed by Napoleon with inquisitive guest away, who left him, therefore, only when Austria alone, and the inevitable contest which Baron pressed by his own natural desire not to trespass unduly on Stoffel was not alone in foretelling, was postponed for ten this genuine courtesy. The secret of this ease of manner

years more. and hospitable bearing was revealed in that which struck But the lessons of 1859 were not lost on the King of his visitor so forcibly, — the moderate nature of his ordi- Prussia and his counsellors; and the great truth was fairly nary day's work. Three letters on his table to answer, grasped, and became part of their military creed, that a and but two registers to look over, formed, with the addi- peace army, scattered through a dozen provinces, can tion of a visitor's book in the passage outside, what may be only be effectively mobilized without difficulty, and used called the whole morning's stock-in-trade of a functionary without delay, by insisting on its being sent, fully whose first duty it was to think for twenty-five thousand equipped, into the field, and by giving its provincial men, instead of going over other people's work who could or corps commanders, in order to attain this object at be trusted to do it for themselves, or taking their duty once, the largest discretion in the matter of organizaaltogether out of the hands of his subordinates to perform tion consistent with their subordination to the central it himself in the hurried manner, which so many here will authority. This principle once fairly grasped, each chief recognize, of an able man overwhelmed with the multitude of a corps is expected to be ready within a certain time of self-imposed details. Let any one of this audience known to be sufficient; and once thus ready, his command

— а

becomes a compact, complete unit for military purposes, its various elements. The division generals exercise much moved by a single word, and hardly more interfered with in more authority than was originally sketched out for them, its interior economy than a battalion would be with us had and but few cases of supply and discipline need go beyond we an army in the field. In no other way could the masses of them. The brigadiers have less of this responsibility, but men be brought to the enemy's frontier which were col- the regimental commander (a functionary not hitherto exlected in 1866 and 1870 to attack Austria and France, with isting in our military system, though his creation seems now the machine-like order which conceals, if it do not to be contemplated) has very great personal control over altogether prevent, nuistakes, and gives to the astonished his three-battalion command. This again leaves the batworld the appearance of an organization that has attained talion commander often in an inferior position of responsi- the unattainable in human asfairs — perfection itself. bility as compared with ours; but, on the other hand, the

I have spoken of my official visit to a high Prussian staff- company-chief is a much more responsible and independent officer, and the astonishment produced on my mind by the person than our captain — as befits, indeed, his larger comabsence of ncarly all detail work from the cabinet where I mand and recognized state as a mounted officer. was received, and of all hurry from the manner of the But even when all this is stated, we have by no means colonel who entertained me. This struck me as a sort of exhausted the process by which the Prussians have rerevelation, and never left my mind; and when I came back lieved the chiefs of their army from the minor cares which to England, before the winter, the first thing I read was a no single man can undertake- as Napoleon attempted in descrip ion in Macmillan's Magazine of the hurry and Russia — for half a million of soldiers, and really perform. worry within and without our War Office, which preluded the For, besides the subdivision for strategical purposes into autumn maneuvres, contrasted by a clever writer with the

army commands,

.80 few in number as to avoid all concalm confidence of the Prussian staff under the sudden ex- fusion and difficulty in the conveyance of orders from headcitement of the battle of Forbach. This article, which I quarters, and under chiefs empowered and competent to met with by chance, seemed to be a sermon on the text read carry these out, by detailing their various corps accordingly, by the absence of petty work from the office of the chief the division of labor has been carried a stride farther by of the staff visited some months before upon the Conti- the establishment of separate Etappen (staff) commands, nent. For how the Prussians have reached this quiet which are organized for the special purposes of keeping up confidence of working, lies not in the individual superiority the supply and communications of the armies in the field. of their officials, but in the system of their employment; Formerly, the greatest anxiety of a generalissimo was under what it is the fashion to call decentralization, but directed to these lines, and his active forces were constantwhich really consists in throwing the proper responsibili- ly being weakened by detachments made to guard them. ty on the proper men. We are obliged to resort to this Now a Prussian commander advancing against the enemy more practical form of government in India, though neg- is relieved from this by the system which gives the custody lecting it at home; but in fact, our Indian Empire would of the line of communication to a special staff, whose one infallibly break down instantly of its own weight, if we business it is to attend to this important duty. A very great applied to it the lumbering and antiquated practices under indirect advantage of this division of labor is, that a vast which departments in London are carried on.

number of the reserve officers, chiefly from the middle The War-office clerks, whom the Macmillan critic classes, civilians in time of peace, but available for war serlaughed at for sitting up all night to muddle the work vice at the country's need, make excellent Etappen officials, which could only be managed properly on the ground at thongh too old, or otherwise unfitted for the harder duties Aldershot, are a type of one system. The Prussian general, of the field. Thus I have heard of a certain Etappen stasitting tranquilly at the window at Saarbruck, who had tion commanded by a veteran reserve officer with the nomnever seen a French soldier under fire, and yet received inal rank of major, seventy-two years old, whose adjutant unmoved the brief reports which told him that he was en- had the ripe experience of sixty-nine summers; and it was gaging in the first pitched battle for sixty years between added that they both performed their simple duties very the Teuton and the Gaul, is a representative of the other. efficiently indeed. Gen. Goeben could afford in that instance to keep his at- Finally, to relieve still more the working-staff of the tention from being absorbed in the details of the skirmishing army during the heat and anxiety of war, each post that it along the Spicheren heights, and to give it to the more im- is of importance to maintain at home is, from the first hour portant question of the support of the corps so suddenly en- that the corps begins to move from its province, filled by a gaged, because he was trained to a method of employing deputy acting with full powers. By these officials the bodies of disciplined men which supposes that all those put whole further business is carried on of keeping up the

supinto places of charge will rise to the level of their responsi- plies of the great machine which has gone forth completed, bilities if fairly left to meet them. He had been brought and thus the strain is taken off those who lead it in the up in the grand school of the corps organization, which field, and who may henceforth give their undivided care to Moreau introduced originally; which Napoleon, though a its active conduct. Even a second-rate man, starting thus great centralizer, adopted for his own, and so struck the lightly-weighted, may well perform such feats of activity most deadly blow at centralization ever felt; but which it as would have worn down any ordinary leader under the was left to King William and his minister to improve into system through which Napoleon and his marshals administhe grandest instrument of war that man has ever disposed tered their commands sixty years since.

Add to the advantages thus gained for the corps comThe advantages of this principle, as applied to the army manders, the still higher freedom from administrative duties corps, have been so fully recognized, both in theory and of every kind which the army commanders enjoy, their only practice, that it has been carried on beyond the corps in care being how best to direct corps by the movements of both directions, above and below it. Hence the formation, the great masses under them, so as to follow out the genfor strategic purposes, of so-called army commands, into eral design issued from head-quarters, and we see at once several of which a great army, composed of numerous corps, that the Germans have reached the practical working of is in time of war distributed, and of which there were five the system of personal trust in personal exertion, wbich the ultimately in France, when the hostilities were closed. Archduke Albert, in his fine essay, “ On Responsibility in Having thus decentralized their corps, and also provided Time of War," has recommended to his own nation for a war system under which the head-quarter staff would not adoption. have the burden of communicating personally even with The idea of a special link in the chain of responsibility the chiefs of all these great units, but only with the inter- between the corps leaders and the chief of the whole army mediate commanders of armies, the Prussian organizers is by no means altogether new. Napoleon was forced to it have of late much further utilized their experience of the by circumstances in 1813, when Ney twice held such an invast advantages gained by divesting the chief agency in termediate command. But it was more systematically war of detail work. They have carried the principle of in- adopted by the American generals in 1863–4, when Sherdividual responsibility downwards within the corps, through man marched upon Atlanta, at the head of two united armies, under Generals Schofield and Thomas, whilst more than a military truce. We may well, therefore, conGrant simultaneously invaded Virginia with two more, gratulate ourselves that the country has found a Minister under Meade and Burnside. As in the late war, when the willing and able to grapple with that important problem of first and second German armies blockaded Metz, and the the organization of our scattered military means which third and fourth united to invest Paris, so the generals of presses on the nation. If the result be but to make real these American armies exercised full powers as command- the force of reserves we have hitherto reckoned only on ers-in-chief, except in subordinating the general disposi- paper, it will be a splendid achievement indeed. I took tion of their forces to the orders of the supreme head, thus occasion some years since to urge on the Volunteers the releasing Sherman and Grant from all care of details, and necessity of bringing their discipline up to a proper standleaving them free to give their whole minds to the higher ard, and pointed out the besetting sins of that description functions of command. The advantage was just that with of force as illustrated in the American armies, and set. which the Emperor-king, or Von Moltke for him, enjoyed forth by a distinguished American volunteer. Merely to when controlling the whole theatre of war in 1870, from a wish to be an army, it was then affirmed, is not to be one. single chamber at some wayside inn or obscure château. But the power to reform the force, it is now evident, must


This system may possibly have its disadvantages. It come from above; and the task is one that needs a stateshas been especially pointed out that when two armies man, for the Volunteers have scarcely at present the power, under different heads unite on the battle-field, as did those if they had the will, to do what other friendly advisers, of Steinmetz and Prince Frederick Charles at Forbach, besides myself, have long since urged on them; and not and those of the Crown Prince and the Prince of Saxony merely to wish to be, but to be, disciplined and trained up at Sedan, the conjunction might very possibly lead to the to that necessary standard which would make the existence crossing of orders, through jealousy or accident, and the of the force a defence, rather than, as hitherto, a snare to result be peril or disaster. The case of the Austrians at our country. Then, indeed, might the nation write on its Solferino, where their army acted in two great wings, gates the noble text of Gustavus Adolphus, "God hath not under Schlick and Wimpffen, and these two generals, as given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of

, and à sound mind.” Surely, better do this than accept the

one gamester-like advice of such dangerous writers as Mr. Vernot show itself in

nay, the very the Prussian operations in either of the instances already life — of the empire on a single throw of the die with our cited, nor in the still more critical case of Mars-la-Tour, fleet. where Prince Frederick Charles, beginning the battle entirely with his own command, received most effective support in the course of the day from Barnekow's division VICTOR HUGO'S “L'ANNEE TERRIBLE.” of the Eighth corps, which belonged to the army of Steinmetz. Possibly the perfect discipline of the Prussians may Till now, since the publication of “Les Châtiments” M. account for this; but the fact that royal blood was in each

Hugo has done nothing, quite worthy of his early reputacase united to high command, could hardly have been tion. “Les Misérables,” « Les Travailleurs de la Mer,’’and without some influence in so loyal an army. At any rate, “L'Homme qui Rit,” were productions of undoubted merit, the advantages of this new sub-division - checking, as it although but too often open to ridicule; but while we does, through intermediate hands, the movements of the admired the many magnificent passages that are to be corps far more effectually than the old Napoleonic plan of found in those works, we failed to discover in them the sending each its orders daily - are held in Germany to highest qualities of the author of "Notre Dame de Paris.” outweigh any such theoretical defect. The confusion that

It appeared as if an unfortunate propensity for metaphysiensued on Lebæuf's trying to cover the French frontier at cal considerations robbed the reader of M. Victor Hugo's the outset of the war with eight disseminated corps, each principal fascinations. Antitheses became hopelessly ludireceiving its orders from head-quarters, is hardly likely to crous by their obscurity, and for the last ten years the justify the contrary view to disinterested critics.

public has been fain to accept an enigmatic style, which, The new arrangements for the more complete division

at times, is utterly incomprehensible, and waited in vain of responsibility, just described, facilitate greatly, whilst for something that would bring back in his full vigor the greatly influencing, strategy. A careful review of the lead- Hugo of old days. Circumstances have belped the poet; ing features of the war of 1870-71 would plainly illustrate the political misfortunes of France could not but awake in the advance of strategic science made by Von Moltke, him the feu sacré which inspired “ Les Châtiments." He aided by this distribution of his invading force into several has worked indefatigably during the terrible events of 1870 armies operating on different lines, a principle adhered -71. We have now before us the results of his labor — a to up to the last, - whilst the chief staff-officers in the field

volume of poems filling no less than four hundred and were kept from the harassing cares of supply, by the system

thiry pages.

This time we have, indeed, no reason for of Etappen lines, and of deputies in their offices at home.

discontent nor disappointment; for no production ever It will be enough here — since we have not space for offered such a wonderful variety of subjects, together with more - to cite the masterly movements by which the

perfect ensemble, as “ L'Année Terrible. French force round Metz was detained there by the First The title tells clearly enough the subject of the volume : and Second Armies, whilst the Crown Prince, with the it is a series of powerful poems on the principal events Third, constantly turned its flank, ready at any moment to which occurred between the capitulation of Sedan and the wheel northward, and strike the fatal blow which Mars-la

insurrection of the Commune. It relates the hopes, sufferTour and Gravelotte made needless; or the still granderings, and disasters of Paris during its two sieges, the horoperations which United the Third and Fourth Armies rors of civil war, the unwonted cruelty of both parties, and round their doomed prey at Sedan; in order to show the the consequences of grievous political mistakes committed power of combination exercised with such tremendous by those who successively ruled the destinies of the nation instruments, acting under the will of a clear and far- during a year of revolution. “L'Annee Terrible” partakes of sighted chief. Time would altogether fail us did we turn the character of “ Les Châtiments” “and “La Légende des to strategical details now, much more to the interesting Siècles :" it links, as it were, the two works together, and tactical lessons which the new system of war affords, and forms with them a lyric poem on the largest scale. The which it was my privilege a year since to be the first to romantique poet has divided his work into twelve parts,— expound to English officers. To-day we must be content just like a classique,— corresponding to the twelve months with our brief review of the most modern and most

between August, 1870, and July, 1871. We find on the improved organization — the highest example of its kind first page a dedication to Paris, followed by a short note, ever offered to the world's study.

which informs us that the poem included among its various We live in an age of which it has just been said by Lord subjects pieces on the state of siege, which the author has Hobart, Cobden's professed expounder, that peace is no deemed it prudent to keep back, although their publication

is to take place as soon as circumstances will permit. The poem has a prologue, “The 7,500,000 Ayes,” which was originally printed in the Rappel. Although rather obscure at times, it is a powerful protest against the empire, and demands pity for those whose ignorance maintained it during a quarter of a century. We do not think that M. Victor Hugo was ever particularly happy when discoursing on certain political subjects; his splendid imagination is so far from at home on such occasions, that the reader must allow the poet the almost unlimited indulgence to which such a mind has a claim. Yet it is impossible to be blind to the sombre energy which is the principal characteristic of this prologue. The month of August includes only one poem, entitled, “ Sédan," which may be taken as the sequel of “ L'Expiation” of “Les Châtiments.” Never did the poet aim harder blows at the empire: there is throughout a tone of calm indignation, together with a pitiless hatred that is really terrible. This piece is commendably free from the slight triviality in which M. Hugo occasionally indulges, and forms a fit opening of the book. September is more extensive, and contains several short poems, which are a striking instance of M. Victor Hugo's marvellous power; in the one entitled “ Prince à Prince-et-demi,” patriotism shows itself in passionate outbursts, to which the exquisite address, “A Petite Jeanne,” stands in vivid contrast by its graoe and sweetness.

In the following months, the principal events of the siege are told; and the poem in this place has the appearance of an epic record. Every thing that was remarkable during that painful period is commemorated in “L'Année Terrible.” We notice here “ Choix entre deux Nations," “Nos Morts,” and especially “ Le Pigeon,” where M. Hugo devotes a score of touching verses to the bird which (as he says)“ bore under its wing the destinies of France." There are also one or two bombastic addresses to the Germans, which would be considerably the better for sobriety of expression. Then we come to the light and charming “Lettre à une femme par Ballon monté,” in which the daily incidents of the siege, the novel fare of the population, the appearance of the dark streets, deprived of gas, are dwelt on with a dignified gayety and pleasing familiarity.

The poet speaks again here of his two grandchildren, George and Jane, for whom he seems to have all the love which he felt for his deceased son Charles. In January and February we have the capitulation of Paris and the conclusion of the peace. M. Victor Hugo expresses in the strongest terms his indignation at the conduct of the Gov. ernment of National Defence. The verses on the Treaty of Peace are by no means the best in the book.

In March, a family misfortune struck the poet : Charles Hugo died; of his premature end, the father speaks in the same pathetic strain in which, in the pages of the “ Contemplations,” he lamented his unfortunate daughter, Madame Vacquerie, who was drowned at Havre with her husband.

The seventh canto treats of a critical period; the insurrection of the Commune engrosses M. Victor Hugo's attention. From this point, in fact, the work becomes exclusively political. “ Paris Incendié” is a masterpiece of energy and versification : "Les deux Trophées” is a plea for the Vendôme Column and the Arc de Triomphe — the one on the eve of destruction, the other furiously battered by the Versailles shells. M. Hugo defends the conquered. While he deprecates the excesses of the insurrection, he deplores the cruelty of the Versailles troops, and says that vengeance must breed vengeance and hatch new cataclysms for the future. “ A Ceux qu'on Foule aux Pieds” is perhaps the most striking portion of “ L'Année Terrible:” M. Victor Hugo certainly never expressed finer sentiments in finer language. From recent publications, it was to be expected that the readers would be entertained with personal accounts of M. Hugo's expulsion from Belgium, after the raid which was made on his residence in Brussels ; indeed, the French poet has always more or less identified his person with his works, and put himself conspicuously forward. In this particular case, however, he does so modestly, betrays no anger, hatred, or passion. His language is throughout remarkable for its dignity and modera

tion when the writer alludes to himself; but in this canto we notice a relapse into a bellicose patriotism which many will be inclined to think calculated to produce the worst results on the masses. M. Hugo clamors for la Revanche," by all means and at any price; and he does so in verses which must inflame Frenchmen in the highest degree, because of the passion, eloquence, and evident sincerity of the writer. We are glad, however, not to find in this, or any other part of “L'Année Terrible,” the name of Napoleon the First, for whom M. Victor Hugo so illogically pro fesses the greatest admiration. It is obvious that if he has not eschewed his idol, he has, anyhow, reconsidered some of his views.

The eleventh canto contains, besides miscellaneous pieces, a satire of intense and hardly justifiable bitterness on Gen. Trochu. M. Victor Hugo is not accustomed to make such direct personal attacks; but it appears that the late Governor of Paris ventured on a lively criticism of M. Victor Hugo as a National Guard, in a legislative speech. This insures him a place in “ L'Année Terrible, not a very enviable one, whatever may be the justice of the writer's attack; for M. Victor Hugo's sarcasms are cutting in the extreme.. This is his conclusion :

“L'amère histoire un jour dira ceci de toi :
La France, grâce à lui, ne battit que d'une aile.
| Dans ces grands jours, pendant l'angoisse solennelle,
Ce fier pays, saignant, blessé, jamais déchu,

Marcha par Gambetta mais boita par Trochu.”
The principal feature of the twelfth canto is “ Les
Innocents,” a poem which, from its extent and quality,
might form a separate volume.

Lastly, the book closes with a fine dialogue between “ The old World and the Tide,” supposed to be the explanation of the author's object. We ought also to mention, as a curiosity, an address to Henry the Fifth. The republican poet congratulates the crownless offspring of the Bourbons on having refused to abandon his flag.

To sum up, “ L'Année Terrible” may be classed among the most powerful works — if it be not the most powerful of M. Victor Hugo. The whole constitutes an ardent appeal to patriotism, concord, and mutual indulgence, an appeal to the better sentiments of the writer's fellow. countrymen. The book is a continual protest against via lence; and, with one exception, an invitation to internal and external fraternity. We have detected not a single word against those who directed the defence of Paris until the war is at an end. The poet betrays indomitable, and at times injudicious, patriotism ; but is strictly faithful to his policy of conciliation, at any price, in presence of a foreign enemy:

This new book must ever remain a record of a fatal period in French history, and as one of the triumphs of French modern literature, whatever may be thought of the writer's political or theological opinions.


In early summer, the rhythm of the railway-train from Calais to Lille beats pleasant music, though somewhat monotonous, - a pastorale in A flat, imbued throughout with quiet sweetness, to be marked “dolce” if arranged for the piano. To my mind, it nearly marked the measure of Haydn's “ With verdure clad the fields appear, Delightful to the ravish'd sight,” which I involuntarily kept humming to myself, as when one is haunted by the ghost of a tune. But it really is a well-sustained movement, allegro moderato, with ever-recurring themes (almost amounting to a refrain) of emerald pastures, lowing herds, slow-creeping streams, tufted pollards, tall elms, sometimes clustered into clumps, sometimes ranged in rectilinear rows, hedgeless fields of corn coming into ear, and market-gardens outspread before the towns and villages. Such is the burden of the song, – the hymn of labor which man addresses to a bountiful Providence. The occasional fic

ture interspersed along its current, are patches of lilac- Doth not Maria retail eatables by platefuls, to be consumed Howered popies (grown to make salad-oil from their seed), subterraneously on the premises, if such be the true intersweet-scented areas of blossomed beans, and white lilies pretation of " A la Cave Marie on donne à manger par floating in every pool and river. The farther you advance, portion"? Perhaps even this Maria, like Sterne's, may the more cheerfully you find the earth to be singing with whisper to some favored customer, “ Thou shalt not leave gladness. On quitting the main line of rail, in order to me, Sylvio." take that which leads into the city, the locomotive makes a The Grande Place of Lille is the small but sightly heart long ad libitum cadenza, the train, meanwhile, counting a and centre, which gives the impulse to a wide-spread circupause.

The gap in the fortifications by which it enters lation reaching extremities far beyond the circle of fortifiLille is the double bar which closes the passage. The cations. On market-days it used to be crowded; but the whole strain has not been long enough to tire, but quite erection of spacious covered markets in different parts of long enough to make you glad to listen to something new. the town, has relieved it of all inconvenient plethora or

Many people are likely to pass through Lille this season, congestion. Walk from the Grande Place up the Rue on their holiday trip; for Lille is on the way to the Rhine, Nap - no, Nationale, and you will come to a public garden, and divers other pleasant places. If fond of gardening, to the right, which is a sort of preface to the other gardens. they may halt there with advantage for half a day or so. Enter; look round; and criticise. Lille can show gardens untouched by the ruin which has The place is nicely kept, in respect to neatness ; some of devastated those of Paris. Even supposing the poor Parc the combinations may be taken as experimental in point of Moneçaux put to rights again, who can forget that on that taste, as all gardening must be, more or less. There is a velvet sward, so many men were fusillés, beneath that bed of white-leaved centaury, with a broad border of Harother smooth turf so many more were buried, and though it ry Hieover, a dwarf geranium, much in fashion in Paris is said they were taken away, they may be there still; that,

before the wa',

with flowers approaching the orange nasturon the edge of that flower-border, the wicked old woman tium in color. Mem. I am trying as a substitute for this sat down, refusing to budge farther, saying that if she was centaury, both in masses and as a border, a native seaside to be shot, she might as well be shot there? —and she was plant, the horned poppy, Glaucium flavum or luteum, which shot, together with her lame husband, who begged her, by has white, downy, deep-cut leaves, canary-yellow flowers, letting him hobble to the Place Vendôme, to prolong his and a curious long seed-vessel, which gives it its name. life by the length of that halting pilgrimnage. No: the This horned poppy, being perfectly hardy, deserves the patgardens of Paris must still be haunted ; their flowers, for a ronage of amateurs, and all whom it may concern. Collect time, ist owe their brightness to having been manured the seed during your seaside strolls; sow in the open with human blood.

ground, and prick out the young plants where they are to Poor Parc Monceaux! once the trimmest of trim Parisian remain. gardens; perhaps the most highly-finished horticultural There is a bed of double geraniums — scarlet Gloire de gem in Europe ; over-finished even, with the smooth, elabor- Nancy, and pink-faced Mme. Lemoinne; but they don't tell as ate hardness of a Flemish still-life picture, or a bouquet of bedding plants. In wet weather, the faded heads of flowers, porcelain flowers. One looked at it with the same sort brown and mouldy, remain upheld by the withered stalks, of wondering curiosity as is excited by Chinese carvings in like used-up quids that had been tossed aside after exhausivory, or other efforts of patience that have taken years to tion by some brave militaire. The only remedy for this is accomplish. Give me rather a broad, effective sketch by hand-picking, as soon as the flowers have lost their freshone of our landscape-gardeners, from Capability Brown downwards. But there it was, comparatively small, as one There you behold a bed of pansies, whose flowers, singly, of the public walks in the centre of civilization; which are good for little or nothing, ill-shaped, ill-marked, measmallness tempted its managers, instead of making it pictur- gre, though of a clear, honest blue, – but which are pleasesque, to polish it up to the highest possible pitch, with ingly effective, as a whole, because they are all the same grass-plots bright as any in the Emerald Isle, the result of variety, and of the same identical tint. Compare this with perpetual watering with artificial dew, and with expensive any collection of pansies (in which the object is to have the plants lavished with a profusion which was called reckless, flowers as varied as possible), as seen from a distance, which until it was discovered that the public money might be you may remember beholding, and you will learn — though even more recklessly spent. What say you, for instance, perhaps you knew it before — that mixed and parti-colored to a bed of caladiums, an oval guessed to be ten yards pansies (that is, either of diverse colors in each flower, or long by five yards across, at the middle, costing, to fill it a mixture of different self-colored flowers in the same bed), from the most reasonable nursery-man’s, not much less than produce no effect beyond that of a dingy patch upon the fitty pounds? All that was. Fuit. It is only now begin- grass. To obtain from them any satisfactory result, in - ning to to try hard to be once more its former self.

masses, you must combine, either in beds or in ribbons, selfs A change, too, has come over Lille and its gardens; but of the same identical hue. happily it is a change only in name, showing the transitory In fact, one object in visiting gardens like this, is to study nature of all things French. Lille, like most important the effects of experimental combinations of vegetable hues, towns, towards the close of the Second Empire, has been and to glean bints respecting horticultural contrasts; to considerably demolished, rebuilt, and enlarged. The re- learn what low, trailing plant will make a suitable carpet sult, as it stands at present, is a happy combination of the and undergrowth beneath taller specimens; what foliagenew with the old, still in the way of farther completion. border will best become what middle of flowers. Those Meanwhile, the Rue Napoléon, really a noble street, has broad patches of gray produce their effect; so do those become the Rue Nationale, the Boulevard de l'Impératrice, tufts of variegated-leaved dahlias; so does that combination is re-christened the Boulevard de la Liberté — O Liberty, of india-rubber shrubs and golden-feather pyrethrum, the what things have men done in thy name! The Jardin de one above, and the other below. How do you like that oval l’Impératrice is now the Jardin de Vauban ; and the Jardin mound of glaucous-green echeveria rosettes, bordered with de la Reine Hortense well, I am not quite sure that the alternanthera, whose leaves are beginning to assume the Queen Hortense has been pushed aside to make way for hue of badly-pickled red cabbage? It is a foral salmagundi any citoyen or citoyenne. The really old streets and places and decidedly curious. What do you think of that fringe retain their original names; and towns in this part of of begonias, on the shady side of a clump of shrubs ? How France bave often droll ones. Lille has a Rue des Chats do you approve of the employment of rhubarb as an ornaBossus, a street of hump-backed cats, while St. Omer has mental plant? Is it not too suggestive of pudding and a Rue de l'Ane Aveugle, a blind ass street. Lille also tart, to be made conspicuous in a place like this? But as coincides with St. Omer and Dunkerque (though not for that, you will see, in the town, angelica, grown in boxes quite to so great an extent) in lodging work-people in as a window plant — and a plant of dignified presence it is. cellar dwellings.

There are cellar shops, even cellar At the very entrance of the prefatory garden, you may Power-shops, cellar restaurants, and cellar tippling-places. remark both the economy and the appropriateness of doing


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