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Vol. I.]


[No. 17.

be raised, and that the donor of a water-bottle may


from appearing in the same list with the donor of a diaPRESENTS.

mond bracelet. That aim, however, has not yet been real

ized, and the list of objects is as varied, and as free IT

is a matter of unquestionable notoriety, that all mar- from all connection with each other, as the words which

riages are made in heaven; and it is equally certain that make up a page of Johnson's Dictionary. The company is the beautiful descriptions of them, which we read, must be a medley one; sugar-basins and aneroids, an antique pair due to celestial correspondents. Such choice of words, such of bellows, the Zoological Gardens faithfully represented in felicity of arrangement, such grace of epithets, could not em- ormolu, a musical-box, a sketch mounted as a fan, fifty anate from any inferior source; and the future historian travelling articles to make locomotion impossible, a basket will best gather from these chronicles the condition of the of snowdrops, and nine addresses on vellum, congratulating English language in our day, and the manners and customs the bridegroom on the examples he has to imitate and on of those who spoke it. We shall not, perhaps, be accused the wisdom of his choice, quite unreadable from the magof unnecessary repetition, if we call attention to the subject. nificent flourishes with which the initial letters abound, The sun is shining, and peculiar interest is excited. The and signed by the schoolmaster and schoolmistress in bebridegroom is accompanied by his friend, who is officiating half of the scholars. Were the bride and bridegroom enas groomsman, and who is qualified by frequent service for dowed with ostrich-like digestions, they might find some use the efficient discharge of the multifarious duties which are for these articles. As it is, they often prove the most unattached to the position. At precisely thirteen minutes and mitigated nuisance, a misery alike to him who gives and to a half past eleven they alight at the church, saluted by the him or her who receives. It occasionally happens that the acclamations of the crowd, the excitement of the bystanders, announcement of an engagement, instead of recalling the and the symphony of bells. When the door is opened, four fact that two people are perfectly certain of being happy and twenty perpetual curates and prebendaries, deans and for life, that the cares of this world are over for them, and archdeacons, begin to assist one another. The scene increases that a beautiful account of their marriage will appear in the in interest, until the climax is reached, when the bride newspapers and enrich the literature of the country, only enters, leaning on somebody's arm, and supported by her suggests the painful thought that a present must be given, bridesmaids, supplied with jewelry by a neighboring firm, and, in order to be given, must be bought. To explain the which thus has the good fortune to secure eight advertise- grounds for this impression would be impossible ; a slight ments of its goods. The religious ceremony is performed relationship exists between the victim and one or other of with peculiar solemnity, unbroken, save by the fidgeting of the engaged pair, and the persons about to marry are going the groomsman; the benediction is pronounced, and on re- to live in London, possibly in a large house ; it may be pairing to the vestry, the formalities of registration are gone that the intending giver received at some former period a through, a part of the ceremony which is often described perfectly useless and now blackened object, too dirty to in language worthy of Burke. After this, the party repair make its appearance again in the world of rubbish, and again to a mansion or residence, where a sumptuous déjell- that he feels bound to reciprocate the attention. “Human ner is prepared, and numerous covers are laid; a mysteri- nature,” says a great authoress, “is so well disposed ous but interesting process. It is here that English oratory towards those who are in interesting situations, that a is displayed to its best advantage; and graceful tributes young person who either marries or dies is sure of being are paid on all sides, characterized by good taste, by brev- kindly spoken of.”. Whatever may be the cause, the diity, and fluency. The peer forgets his pomposity, and the

lemma remains the same. Much mental agony is underfact that nobody listens to him elsewhere; the groomsman gone, increasing as the interval before the marriage becomes feels that the lightest part of his duties has come, and all shorter. Some prudent persons have a stock of objects regret the close of his remarks. At precisely four minutes always on hand, one of which they forward upon receipt of past two the bride and bridegroom take leave of their the intelligence; and thus they may have the good fortune friends, and seek the seclusion of a country-seat.

to send the first of the fifteen inkstands which follow. She Meantime, the “ friends” separate, and the correspondent who hesitates is lost; now helplessly bemoaning her condiis enabled to furnish those advertisements which all read tion, now peering uneasily into shop-windows, and finding with interest, if not with excitement. The enumeration of that every thing costs seven pounds, when she is prepared to the

presents and of the names, both of their eminent manu- spend only four. Her sense of her unfortunate position facturers and of their donors, fills columns, and affords in- daily grows in intensity, and she may next be seen sitvaluable opportunities for fine writing. The “ members of ting in a shop, with a choice selection in front of her, the domestic household,” called sometimes by profane and amongst which are a blotting-book covered with excresilliterate people servants, contribute soinething difficult to cences of brass like a portmanteau, a miniature helmet, carry, and impossible to pack. It is interesting to know two shepherdesses of modern Meissen, a silver-gilt machine that the flowers were not the production of nature, but were for brushing away crumbs after breakfasting in bed, a genexpressly supplied for the occasion by the floral manufac- tleman in ormolu looking into a windwill about the same turer; nor is the name of the pastry-cook wanting, who size as himself and of the same material, both containing made the indigestible compound termed a “bride-cake.” cavities in their insides for matches, the discovery of which A few years more, and we shall be told the incomes of the

would occupy a lifetime. What a choice is here! The guests, their ages, and the construction of the ladies' petti- biggest fool of her acquaintance has just ordered the silvercoats. It may be that publicity is thus ostentatiously given gilt machine, which costs thirty pounds, so she takes the windto the names of those who contribute towards the future will with a sigh of relief, and sends it as a little object to reménage of the happy couple, in order that the standard may mind her friend of the happy hours they have spent together.



Her friend sends in return a little note, assuring her that large sum would still remain to be distributed as marriage she will always value it, reflecting that it is a just requital portions. The present inequality would be remedied; for, for the ormoiù porcupine stuffed with pins which she had as it is, those who never marry at all (and their number is presented on a previous occasion. But the donor and the daily increasing) receive no return for their original outlay; windmill are not destined to lose sight of one another just but on the institution of the tax this need no longer be the yet. It is bad enough to see the rubbish in the shop, but case. Single women, on attaining the age of forty-five, there is some excuse for the production of these costly and might, on condition of subscribing a declaration setting worthless trifles. What the dogs are in the East to the forth the extreme improbability of their marrying, and streets, the givers of modern wedding presents are to the their aversion to that condition, receive the sum to which trade, - the scavengers of refuse ; what is too dirty, too they would have been entitled on marriage. Widows, on useless, too ugly for other purposes, they absorb; but it is the other hand, would get nothing under any circumstances, too hard to be called upon to look at it again when exposed being exhorted to remain contented with the ormolu of the to view in the drawing-room of the unfortunate girl whose first marriage. During the interval before the adoption of future life is to be spent, or supposed to be spent, in its this plan we have but one remedy to propose. Surely the contemplation. There are entertainments of divers kinds old shoes which are now so lavishly thrown away at the and degrees of dulness; but the entertainment which is departure of the bride and bridegroom, are capable of congiven for the display of the objects we have described is version into some valuable substance; which cannot be without an equal. Neatly arranged upon the tables in predicated of wedding presents. Let, therefore, the next symmetrical order lie these specimens of English taste, groomsman" set a bright example, and deserve well of v several hundreds in number,” slips of paper being, at- society and the oppressed; as the carriage starts, let a tached to them recording the names of the givers. Here shower of aneroids, barometers, bellows, candlesticks, vases, the lady and the windmill meet once more, regretfully per- mosaics, and antiques, gracefully fall and flutter around it. haps, for some kind friend announces that she only gave Thus we feel sure that a " peculiar interest would be extwo pounds for the candlesticks opposite ; another has cited,” while the struggles of the crowd to possess objects picked up something for thirty shillings, which produces a which to their inexperienced eyes might seem capable of sublime effect, and the name of the shop where similar ob- being exchanged for a shilling would give additional anijects can be procured is whispered in secret. There is a mation to the scene. The prevalence of this custom might pleasing equality evinced in the display; her Grace and be expected to modify to some extent the present fashion, the housemaid think the same thing “beautiful,” and prob- the chief compensation for which must be found in the ably spend the same amount of money upon the object of advantages which result from a study of the pages of the their admiration.

Court Journal. The custom of giving wedding presents, as it now exists, is a social tax which, though paid by every one, is only paid grudgingly and on compulsion. It represents neither affection nor interest, and is not productive of the smallest

THE PRIZE-FIGHTERS AT HOME. profit to any save the tradesmen whose wares are sold for the purpose. Its counterpart can only be found in the cus- The recent "gallant fight in the London district,” which tom which existed a short time ago of giving leaving-books has resulted in the death of one of the boxers, reminds one at Eton. The fashion was exactly analogous ; little boys of the details of a few visits paid within the last six months gave them to big boys, to whom they always had been, and to a well-known haunt of the Fancy. This establishment to wh·m they continued in after life, complete strangers, was constantly advertised in certain sporting journals. subscribing themselves their “ sincere friends on their leav- The proprietor had been in the ring himself

, before he ing Eton.” The head-master submitted to the custom at a sought the dignified retirement of a public-house in a back smaller cost; wise in his generation, and being an elegant alley. The manner in which the special attractions of the classic, he had published, or privately printed, a quarto edi- tavern were announced was quite artful in its open-hearted tion of some Latin author, which, it is needless to say, hospitable terms. There was a promise of unlimiied glove nobody ever wanted, and no one ever bought. This pecu- battles between the “ Bermondsey Slasher," the “Tedding. liarly useless volume was exchanged for the sum of ten ton Tiler," and other well-known practitioners of the noble pounds, deposited in some corner of the room by the boy science. Add to this, the attraction of music, in the shape who was bidding good-by, whence it was generally sup- of “Mr. Horner, of mandolin celebrity,” and surely there posed that the head-master ultimately took it. This pleas- was every thing to be had at “ The Blue Goat" that a ant mode of escaping the tax was, unfortunately, not open gentleman of sporting tendencies could desire, in order to to those who paid for the leaving-books presented by their pass an agreeable evening. The bar of “ The Blue Goat” is sons to their sincere friends, and who not unnaturally con- very unpretending in its furniture. You see no wonderful sidered that the annual expenditure of fifteen or twenty wigs there, no stately waitresses, no lavish display of goldpounds was hardly compensated by the possession of some en cordials and colored glasses. The lady behind the scores of soiled copies bound in yellow calf. What these counter of “ The Blue Goat," is rather rough in style and vigbooks are to the library, wedding presents are to the ordi- orous in air; she draws the beer with a muscular tug, she nary furniture of a house. What is to be done with the administers the gin with a business-like haste, which gives windmill ? Should the first opportunity be seized for get- no encouragement to her customers to converse with her. ting rid of it, there is the risk that its donor will tenderly Passing by the bar, you enter the drinking and musical inquire after it. It cannot be given away after the lapse of salon of the “ Goat.” If you have arrived early, say eight six months ; for its color is gone, and it looks as if it might o'clock, the place is comparatively deserted, save by mine have been present at Hilpah's wedding to Shalum. The host, who sits, not at the top, but at the side of the rooin, poor thing eventually finds a shelter and a home in some in a chair resembling the retreat into which a ball-porter spare bedroom of a country house, where damp and dust retires when not on active duty. Mine host does not strike hasten its decay. Sometimes it is destined to a harder you as having much of the bull-dog look about him. On the fate. One swallow does not make a summer, and the gift contrary, he wears his nose like ordinary people, nor is of a wedding present does not insure the celebration of a his forehead villanous, or his jaw square. He is conversmarriage; the engagement may very possibly be broken ing in a low tone to a very red-eyed, spindled man, who off, and one of the consequences is the return of the wind- never misses an evening here, and who is a bootmaker, mill to its unhappy and original possessor, whose feelings chiropodist, and admirer generally of the Ring profession. on its re-appearance we forbear from commenting on. If It is only common courtesy for you to exchange a greeting the State would include wedding presents among the with mine host, and to invite him to drink. You glance at assessed taxes, and fix a definite sum to be paid at the the decorations of the apartment. It is a perfect Valhalla beginning of each year, great relief would be experienced ; of defunct dogs, who have been famous for killing rats. the government would, of course, realize a profit, and a They are hideous creatures, for the most part, and are not




improved by the glare of the gas upon their fierce, promi- | sionally described in the papers as possessing an “ Amerinent glass eyes.

can appearance," repeated, or rather delivered, a dozen The door opens, and a man enters with a half apologetic, verses in the Southern States interest, with a correctness' sneaking gait, taking off his hat, and slinking into a corner. of elocution that was indeed remarkable. This gentleman Mine host glances at him, and beckons him up.

" You

was an emissary, I understood, from the New-York Ring to may have a pot, Jack,” he says: “there'll be a job for you the London Centre. to-night; whereupon Jack is silently and respectfully “ Now, sir, if you follow me up stairs, we'll have a few grateful; and when the drawer brings the pewter measure, games with the gloves," -- and accepting the invitation at he retires with it again, in the meekest fashion, to the end once, we walk after the host or president, whose chair is of the room.

“Good man, sir, is Jack," remarks the ex- occupied by the man of “ American appearance.". Up bruiser : “he's gettin' a little stiff now, but he's handy stairs, one was ushered into a part of a chamber divided enough for the most of them yet.” A question elicits the from the main apartment by a large bench. Inside the information that Jack is of the Ring, but can very seldom bench were two men stripped to the waist, with boxinghave a chance now in consequence of the expletive police, gloves on their hands, attended by the fighting cobbler and the expletive difficulty of getting gentlemen, as they and Tom Nobble. I was supposed to occupy a state box; used, to come forward to back him. He made his living by for before business commenced, five or six rather fast visparring, mostly, and “doing housework by the odd job.” veurs about town entered the enclosure, which was so placed Jack - in full, let us say, they call him Jack the Slogger; as not to be visible to the gallery or pit attached to the for by an analogous titie is he at this moment distinguished narrow arena into which we looked. The men with the

-didn't seem to be a person who would command a house- gloves were Jack the Slorger and the Guardsman. They holder's confidence to the extent of being intrusted with shook han.ls, or rather gloves, with each other; “ time odd jobs on the premises; but that he might engage volun- was called by Jack, and the bout commenced. At first it tarily in a little night-work on a back-kitchen window of consisted in little more than dodging and feinting; but the a suburban villa, appeared highly probable. He was ex- Slogger having managed to plant a very neat blow on the ceeding clean, and shorn and shaven with a completeness jaw of his antagonist, the latter warmed to his work, and that imparted to his cheek the look of the jowl or a pig on both “ got together," and had so vicious a tussle of it that a hook in a shop. His eyes were ferrety and furtive, his there was tremendous applause from the spectators. This ears small and pointed; he had huge hands, and a big trame; went on for four or five rounds; and at the fifih or sixth, at but there was the drayman's pudiness in his frame, the the word, “ Finish this time, my lads,” from the experipuffiness brought on by scanty food and plentiful beer. enced Mr. Nobble, there was a tremendous display of The next arrival was a gigantic soldier of the Guards, a energy indeed, both combatants snorting and snarling like superb specimen of an animal, with a pair of eyes as soft angry inastiffs, and looking as if they would wish to try and innocent as those of a cow. Then fonows Prot. conclusions in another place. At the conclusion of the Brown (Professor of Physical Culture), and a whole string performance the fight was won by the soldier — the winof good company. “You see that gentleman, sir,” remarks ner threw his hat or cap on the floor first, and his late the host in a solemn whisper to me: that gentleman is adversary followed suit. The “swells” cast to the gladiaProf. Jones, the cleverest man with his dadules that ever tors shillings and florins or sixpences, and a thin drizzle of stood in the ropes.” The professor did not strike me as a copper descended froin the region of the vulgar. The Hercules : he was rather dwarfeu iu stature, indeed, and money was gathered up by the soldier; and going down to limp and narrow-shouldered in build; but his hands were the lower room immediately afterwards, I saw him amicaas long as the hands of a gorilla, and the professor had bly dividing the spoil with his adversary, though the good won his repute by his faculty for “ painting a face,” as an faith of the encounter was evident enough in the putfed lips operation of the Ring is playfully terined, - the said opera- and swollen eyes of the late combatants.

There were tion implying a power in the artist to slash and score his seven or eight sets of similar exhibitions, with little or no adversaries' visages, while his own length of reach pre- variety except the excitement caused by the constant“ slipvents reprisals. Soon after the entrance of the professor, ping down” (falling when he had no right to fall) of a the "mandolin celebrity,” who had been drinking stout black boxer, and the awkwardness of a tyro who caught a with the soldier, began a prelude upon his instrument, dreadful glove-pummelling from a dexterous youth. The which he twanged with some skili and considerable empha- sufferer was constantly advised “ to stop the next ’un with sis. He was called upon by the chairman for a song, and his head” by the outside spectators. It could not be said, struck up at once a Christy Minstrel ballad, which was on the whole, that there w«s any thing absolutely bad or loudly applau led. It was thưu, it would seem, the custom vicious in the quality or conduct of the eveniny's enterfor any one to offer to oblive; and Tom Nobile, tacing the tainment, from first to last. But we must bear in mind president of the evening, volunteered. Tom was as like that it is in such places that the fights are started and proan illustration out of a book of the typical fighter, espe- moted, and it is to be regretted that “gentlemen ” should cially the illustration of the “ Chicken," in Dumbey and

frequent them, and be induced perhaps to subscribe for a Sun," as any thing could be like another. Betore he com- sum to enable a couple of the Fancy to contend with menced he was asked by the pujilistic cobbler what he clenched fists. Indeed, the personages present at the diswould wet it with; and having decided upon wetting it play here shortly described were just of the type and class with gin and water, of all songs in the worlu, he chose for of Connor and Callis. What greatly tends to support the pertormance “Let ine kiss him for his Mother.” There was

Ring, even as it is supported on its last legs, is the recognisomething half ludicrous, half pathetic, in the countenance tion of it still as a sport or pastime. In a weekly journal, of Mr. Nobble, his eyes squinting aloft at a sentimental for example, I read the following, under the inscription of angle, his voice harsh and hard, as he asked to be permitted “ Gallant fight in the London district, between Tom Callis to kiss him for his inother, to touch his youthful brow, etcet- and Jack Connor, for fifty pounds :"

The audience were respectful, attentive, and evidently pleased with the text of the ditty. Now, this is

Round 18. Conior, determine:l not to let his opponent a curious fact, and may be stated for what it is worth, in

have any peace, set about him viciously, and quickly fought him mitigating our contempt and disgust for the boxers and

down with boh hands 19. Callis was getting weak; and seeAbout a dozen songs were suug in the

ing this, Conor rushed at him, and delivering, some stingers

with boch hands, sent his adversary to grass in doublcquick course of the evening, and every one of them was of a

timu. perfectly harmless and innocent kind. The comic ballads of the music-hall were evidently not in vogue or in favor This is a part of a spirited and animated record of the with the Ring. “ The Wearing of the Green” was given in first act of the prize-fight; the second instalment of which excellent voice and point by an Irish railway porter, who is concluded by the cat istrophe which recalled to my mind a sparring notoriety; and an individual of that class, octa- an evening at “ The Blue Goat.”



their calling

alliance with these officials there are said to be judges and THE PORTUGUESE IN AFRICA.

magistrates for the due administration of law, and a sufli

cient military force to protect the colonists from the incurThe knowledge which the ancients had of Southern sions of the tribes of the interior. The instructions which Africa was soon Post to the world; and up to the time of the governors, major and minor, receive from Portugal, exthe conquest of Northern Africa by the Saracens, its eastern press in high-flown language the most exalted sentiments. shores had not been visited by Europeans beyond the Never were the blessings of civilization and Christianity Straits of Babelmandeb, and on the west they had sent no more eloquently set forth; never was the duty of extending ship farther south than the limits of Mauritania. For six such blessings to the barbarous heathens more urgently centuries after the occupation of North Africa by the Sara- enforced. The laws are faultless. True, they recognize cens, naval enterprise was almost unknown to Europe ; but the right of the Portuguese to enslave the Africans, when during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Portuguese moved thereto by the necessity of the colony; yet the proand the Spaniards made themselves famous by maritime visions which regulate the conduct of the master towards adventures. It was Prince Henry of Portugal, a nephew the slave are so admirably framed with reference to the of our own Henry IV., who stimulated and directed this well-being of the slave, that by them the slaves are shown spirit of daring in his countrymen. At the beginning of to be far better off in all things than their brethren who the fifteenth century, this prince, while engaged with his are not in bondage. Theoretically, nothing can be better father in an expedition against the Moors of Barbary, than the position, the policy, and character of the Portuobtained information which led him to think, first, that the guese in Africa. Take the account which they give of boundaries of the Portuguese dominions might be greatly themselves, and you could but say of them, Here is a enlarged by the acquisition of territory in Western Africa; highly-civilized and Christian people; the worthy possessors and, second, that a new way to India might be found by of a glorious heritage, potent for good, great in that spirit sailing round Africa, and so might be secured for Portugal of enterprise which makes light of difficulty and overcomes the vast stores of wealth which had hitherto been at the danger, using their grand capacity to develop the resources exclusive command of Genoa and Venice. And, in 1415, of the land, and to raise in the scale of humanity the barhe sent out an expedition consisting of two small ships to barous races that have been brought under their power or western Africa, and thus inaugurated that wonderful series within the scope of their influence. of geographical enterprises which terminated in the explora- And now for my experience of them. tion of the whole coast-line of Africa, and the discovery of When Livingstone brought the River Zambezi, and its the long-sought passage to India. The prince did not live suitability as a commercial highway to the interior, before to see these great deeds accomplished: he died in 1463, the world, the Portuguese promptly declared that they were and it was not until 1498 that Vasco de Gama reached the its legitimate guardians; and that they had established at coast of Malabar, and thus won a reputation amongst navi- its mouth a military force, a custom-house, and all other gators only second to that of Columbus.

appliances of civilization, for the protection of their rights By the achievements of De Gama and his predecessors and the encouragement of commerce. When I entered the in this «

great drama of discovery,” and by the conquests Zambezi this is what I saw: a flag-staff, from which of Alberquerque, and others who succeeded him, the Portu- flaunted the flag of Portugal; a rectangular house, that guese obtained vast possessions, both in Western and Eastern would have been dignified by the mistaking it for an Eng, Africa. The southern portion of the continent they did lish cow-shed; and a few huts, such as the natives build. Of not occupy; for then, as now, it was eminently an agricul- | buildings, domestic or governmental, nothing more. The tural country, peopled by tribes of rude hardihood; and it house was for the officer in command; the huts for the comoffered, therefore, but few temptations to men who were mon soldiers, and such other people, male or female, as urged by a desire to obtain power, and to make wealth belonged to the settlement. The military consisted of speedily; but in the east and the west they were supreme. Senhor A., the officer in question, a Portuguese sergeant, Nor were their possessions confined to the coasts. By and six natives, who were dressed in blue cotton uniforms, degrees, they obtained much land and important positions and armed with old muskets. I did not at first meet with in the interior, partly by pushing forward their military Senhor A.; but when I made his acquaintance, he did honor establishments as opportunities offered, but chiefly through to himself and his government by donning his uniform and the instrumentality of their missionary priests, whose patri- parading his troops. The display was so amusingly absurd otic ardor was not less than their religious enthusiasm, and that I could scarcely refrain from laughter. The Senhor's who, while striving for the conversion of the natives, were perceptive faculties were large : he saw my difficulty, he equally zealous for the aggrandizement of the Portuguese divined its cause, and instead of resenting it, he sympathrone and nation. And for a time, it seemed as though thized; for after he had dismissed his soldiers, he held out Portugal would rise to the height of her grand opportunity, his hand, and said, “ You are amused at what you see. and build up in Eastern and Western Africa great colonial Well you may be. If I were not what I am, I should be empires. But the present position of the Portuguese in amused too. The position is very absurd.” Before I left Africa affords an illustration of the sad results of opportu- the country, I saw much of this man. He was a gentleman nities neglected and power abused, perhaps without a par- by birth, and had been well educated. He knew something allel in the world.

of Latin and Greek, spoke English, French, and Italian Of the Portuguese in Western Africa I have no personal fluently, and was a fair mathematician. But he was a rutknowledge : but from information which I have received fian according to common report. In Portugal, by his from Dr. Livingstone, and others who knew them, I am very reckless disregard of the conventionalities of lite, I beard sure I do them no wrong by saying, that in no respect do that he gained for himself an evil reputation; and to escape they differ from their countrymen on the other side of the more unpleasant consequences had been obliged to migraie continent; and their personal acquaintance I have been to Africa, where he was hated and shunned. I have, howprivileged to make.

ever, no reason to think that he was worse than many in In Eastern Africa, the Portuguese profess to hold the Portugal, who, with more discretion, managed to keep whole coast from Delagoa Bay to Cape Delgado, and impor- position; and in most things I found him infinitely the suje tant establishments and towns which exteni for hundreds rior of the majority of his countrymen in Airica. His of miles inland along the course of the River Zambezi. great offence with them was that he spoke of things as he Theoretically, their form of government is excellent. There knew them to be. We prided himseli upon this, and on is a governor-gereral of Mozambique, having under bim one occasion said to me, “ I am a blackguard, it is true; the governors of Quillimane and Inhambane, on the coast, but in that I do not differ from my countrymen in this vile and Sena, Tete, and Zumbo, on the Zambezi; and subor- land ; we are all blackguards together. But in one thing I dinate to them are lesser notabilities,

Commandos they do differ from them : they pretend to be better than they are called,

occupy positions as rulers of districts that

are; they are humbugs, hypocrites, all you like that is have not yet been raised to the diguity of provinces. In I am not with them there. I hate humbug, and it



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is natural that humbugs should hate me. I care not. I Of course, it is only in such a land as that, and where take their hate as a compliment to my greater integrity.”. slavery had thoroughly demoralized the people, white and From this man I obtained much information upon the black, that such a state of things could exist

. Inordinate position which his countrymen now occupy in Africa. In self-will, and all the worst vices which can infest humanity, reply to my inquiry as to what hold they had upon the almost invariably are manifested in men who dare to regard land, he said, “Upon the land we have no hold. We their fellow-men as property, in the same sense that we do have a few important positions on the coast, and a few un

a horse or a cow. I can quite imagine, however, that at no important places on the Zambezi ; beyond that, nothing. time was slavery in our own colonies, or in the Southern Mozambique is our capital; in itself it is strong: for defence, States of America, so utterly brutalizing in its effects as in it is impregnable against all assaults from natives; and it the Portuguese African colonies; for, of all the forms of might be as powerful for offence, but it is not. We are slavery which have cursed mankind, that which is constipowerless beyond the precincts of the city. We cannot tuted by the Portuguese in Africa, their philanthropic decventure inland twenty miles from Mozambique, without the lamations to the contrary, is the most brutal. And before consent of the natives. They are once more the masters of I left Senhor A., I had a very fair illustration of the truth the soil, and they shut us up at will in our stronghold. of this. One day I saw him superintending the punishQuillimane is better placed : the tribes about are more ment of a slave-boy, whom he kept to wait upon him, and docile, and we are more free to move at our pleasure from who had been guilty of some act of disobedience. The thence. Yet our power is but small; and, were it not for punishment was severe; it was a whipping, inflicted by a the barrier which the Zambezi interposes, Quillimane would strong man, — the Portuguese sergeant, in fact,— with a soon be destroyed by the Landeens (a branch of the Zulu three-thonged whip, each thong consisting of a plait of Kaffir race), who keep all on this the south side of the river three strips of buck-hide. I remonstrated with the Senhor in a state of terror, and impose tribute upon us at will. upon the brutality of this punishment. He took it in good Inhambane is always in peril from the natives : we cannot part, but maintained, as a principle which cannot be set keep a foot of ground beyond it. Sena is in ruins; Tete is aside, that, wherever slavery is, the discipline, even under powerless; and at Zumbo you will but find the site of what the best of masters, must be more or less brutal, and the was, in the days of our prosperity, a considerable town.” results demoralizing both to master and slave, especially in

I inquired of the position of the Commandos, who were countries where the masters form, as with the Portuguese in said to govern the land in those parts that were not imme- Africa, a very small minority. “You cannot,” said he, diately under the cognizance of the more regularly consti- “ treat a slave in this land like a free man; do so, and he tuted authorities; and his reply was, Humbug again! will rise against you or run away. You must keep them There are certain men, it is true, who have made themselves under by the whip, and any other means that suggest thempowerful, here and there; but, with one exception, they are selves, until they are reduced in mind and soul to the conin the position of rebels. There is Senhor V., for instance, dition of dogs, and live only for you. You see that man ? " who inherited from his father some money, and more than a pointing to one of his slaves, a stout-bodied, sturdy-looking thousand slaves. He is a man of enterprise; and, not being fellow, who was at work near the house : “well, that fellow content with the ordinary life of Quillimane, he armed gave me a great deal of trouble when he first became my many of his trustworthy slaves, and made an expedition property. He was brought down here fresh from the hills. towards Angoxa. He had to do some fighting; and, being He is an Achowa, and, like all of his tribe, had some indebetter armed than the natives, he did not fight in vain. He pendence of character. The Achowas make good slaves gained territory, built himself a stockade, and, by force and when they are well broken in ; but, out of five, you are fortuby fraud, has become a great man. His will is law; and his nate if you get one moulded to your will, for the process followers obey him, and only him. But he has no wish to kills them; that is, they will die rather than submit to you break with the government, and the government has no wish as unreservedly as is needful. This fellow at first was to break with him. He has free scope to do as he pleases; sullen and disobedient,- thought of his home on the hills, and the land he may gain is formally secured to him and to his wife and children, may be. Well, that was nothing to his successors for three lives, free from all taxation. This me: he had become, through the operations of a perfectly transaction is recorded in the archives of the government legitimate traffic, my property; for though the law prohibits as another triumph of law and order, as another proof of the exportation of slaves, ii permits slavery, and consethe greatness of Portugal; whereas V. is irresponsible; he quently the buying and selling of slaves amongst ourselves. does as he will; and if he were to die to-morrow, as his influ- So, when he was disobedient, I whipped him ; when he ran ence is purely personal, the old state of things would again away, as he did more than once, I made every effort and prevail; our authority would not be recognized in any way. spared no expense to recover him, as it will never do to let V. is not a rebel, but the others who are said to occupy his a slave escape,- better kill him,- the example of a successoffice are; and they are the centres of a state of things ful runaway is so pernicious to the rest.

At last he gave which realizes hell upon earth. There is Mariano and Bel- me so much trouble, and was the cause of so much excitechioro. (It was Belchioro's marauders who murdered Capt. ment amongst my other slaves, that I ordered him to be Faulkner last year.) They are infamously notorious. beaten in a way that I hoped would kill him; and his punThey live amongst slaves, and the natives whom they have ishment was severe enough to kill any but a bruios-negros. subjected to their will, and who now pander to their desires. You shall see.

Come here you !” called out the SenThey outrage all law, human and divine, unchecked. They hor, to the man in question. The fellow came; and his masplunder the tribes, and they destroy where they are resisted. ter turned down his loin-cloth, which in shame he had careTheir quest is ivory and slaves, by means of which they fully tied over large scars in his loins, and I saw from them procure from their agents in Quillimane and Mozambique, how horribly he must have suffered. Well, that man who are generally government officers, wine and spirits, and would not die,” continued the Senhor. “Life was strong such other things as their vices and wants make necessary. in him, as it is indeed in all of the Africans. But the whip Sometimes they quarrel with one another, when they are had at length cleaned the mucous from his brain. As he near neighbors, or encroach upon each other's preserves; and got well he became cheerful, went to work without a murthen they urge on their fighting-men, as your countrymen, mur; and, having made up his mind to his position, deterI am told, urge on bull-dogs, to tear and destroy one another; mined to get to himself as much pleasure out of life as he and the daily strife of these slave partisans keeps the whole could. So one day he came to me, and said, “ Master, give country in turmoil

, and ultimately depopulates it, - for me a wife : it is bad for a man to have no woman to light both parties plunder and make slaves of the natives. The his fire, cook his food, and make him happy.' I had no fact is, these Commandos are the captains of slaving and spare women at that moment, and this I told him.” robbing hordes. They do incalculable mischief, and they "• Will you give me a woman when you have one ?' asked make havoc of the land. Through them good government

he. is impossible, for they keep the country, far and wide, in a * Certainly: I shall be sending ivory to Quillimane in a continual state of anarchy and bloodshed.”

few days, and I will have women brcucht in return,' said I.

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