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erowd, and too much to do. The country-house is the true drawing-room, the place of greetings. 3. As an effect of domestic habits — many children, many servants. well-appointed great house order and a certain reserve are indispensable; the habitual stoicism of characters and manners acts in the same sense. Then, the presence of a stranger does not have the result as among us, of interrupting acquaintanceship, stopping the general impulse, the gayety, the chit-chat, compelling people to be on their guard, to restrain their familiarity and their heedlessness. There is only another chair filled at table, in the drawingroom, nothing more; the tone has not changed. 4. By the arrangement of comfort and of service. The organization is perfect, and the machine in order; the domestics are punctual, the rooms ready, the hours fixed; there is nothing to undo or do over again ; nor, above all, is there any makeshift required to entertain a visitor. 5. By kindliness, humanity, and even by conscience. To be useful is a duty, and a foreigner is so thoroughly lost, so little at his ease in the new country where he has landed! He ought to be helped.


From immemorial times, certain wild tracks through the mountains have served as a highway between the bleak steppes of Tibet and the sunny slopes of the lower ranges of the Himalaya. The wild herdsmen of the dimly-known land beyond the snows, cross to-day, as they did before William the Conqueror landed in England, over the Niti Pass and the wild currents of the Sutlej, through the pretty villages of Nagkunda and Muthana, through the pine-forest of Fagu, and over the Mashobra Hills, to exchange their butter and bear-skins for grain and knives. On a mountain, warmly wrapped in pine and rhododendron, and honey-combed with deep valleys, stands a quaint little red wooden town, wandering up a hillside, and running for some distance along its crest. It stands about fifty miles deep in the mountains from the nearest plains: and to reach it, you have to climb many a hill and cross many a brawling torrent. It must have been the obscurest little city in the world, only known to the eagles and swallows who dance forever over the valleys. One would suppose that a traveller might have looked for it in vain among the thousand hills of the Himalaya, till his hair turned gray; and so, indeed, many a one might; but a different fate awaited it. An Englishman in search of a sanitarium found it, after it had hidden itself successfully for — one does not like to say how many hundred years; ay, found it, and within a few years forced it to take a very prominent place among the pleasant places of the earth. The little town is now one of the capitals of the greatest empire in the world. Subject princes, mighty western les, and travellers from every country, are seen in its narrow bazaars. Long lines of camels, and caravans of oxen-carts, are unceasingly, for six months of every year, pourivg into it the luxuries of Hindostan, ard the magnificent comforts of Europe. A thousanii beautiful villas look down upon it from the surrounding hills; and on the splendid roads which lead from it in every direction may be seen, of a summer evening, a wonderfui show of fashion and beauty — the crême de la crème of England in Asia. Amid all her greatness, however, Simla never forgets her origin, but still, as of old, barters with the simple shepherds of Tibet, supplying all the little luxuries they seek, and absorbing the primitive wares brought in exchange. Wild and unkempt-looking fellows are these Tibetans, with their long hair falling over their shoulders, and thin sheep-skins and woollen jackets hanging down a mass of rags and dirt. Their hairless faces, small squat noses, and upturned eyes, plainly denote their race, and contrast strangely with the delicate Aryan features of the Punjab hillmen. Always smoking long wooden pipes, — like those of the lower classes in Germany, smiling and pleased at every thing, ever ready for any amount of conversation or food, they are great favorites with the mountaineers of the lower ranges; and, indeed, they have many very amiable and lovable qualities.

They are eminently truthful, honest, and chaste, easily amused, easily satisfied, very sociable, and of great physical endurance. The women are not characterized by such strongly-marked Tartır features as the men, and many of them are exceedingly pretty, though sadly dirty always.

A considerable number of these people remain in Simla during the whole summer, finding employment as wood-cutters and coolies. Strings of them are always to be seen carrying in enormous beams from the Fagu forest. They fasten them behind by ropes suspended over their shoulders, and go staggering along almost bowed to the ground with the weight. You sometimes see a slight young girl carrying one of these huge logs, the best part of a young pine-tree, perhaps, – and, though bent double with the ponderous burden, looking quite contented and happy, and carrying in her hand a wooden pipe, to which she occasionally applies for comfort and solace. Or a whole family — papa and mamma, big brothers, little brothers and sisters — are all seen struggling along in single file, with loads proportioned to their respective sizes, all smoking, talking, and looking merry enough. These great pieces of timber not only stretch across the whole breadth of the road, but frequently stretch out far over the side, and sometimes, indeed, are of such length that the unhappy coolie has to sidle along with them the whole way from Fagu to Simla, about eight or ten miles.

When riding quickly along this winding road one sometimes comes very awkwardly upon these great timber barriers, stretching, one behind the other, across the path; and not unfrequently accidents have happened by this means; but, generally, the Tibetans manage, by a twist of the body, to bring their beams in line with the road with astonishing celerity. But enough of the wood-carriers. The reader must come and take a look at the principal bazaar or street of the little town.

A long, narrow, winding road, between wooden houses, stained dull red, and two stories in height, runs up a slight incline on a sharp hill-crest, dividing two valleys. The lower story of every house has neither doors nor windows in front, but is a little cave merely, serving at once as warehouse and workshop. Passing through this busy little street, you see, in turn, every trade and occupation being carried on. There is a shop full of tailors, with hih turbans on, busily at work; one of them is reading in a sing-song voice to the others some ancient tale of Mussulman prowess, or of the miraculous deeds of the prophet. In the little adjoining cell, or shop, as we may call it by courtesy, is an old gray bearded man, brooding over a little earthen stove, and blowing into flame a few lumips of charcoal, through a little brass tube, with all his might. Opposite to him is sitting another old fellow, who is picking and catching at something in the fire with a pair of tiny tongs. One or two large gold nose-rings are lying near on a little tray, beside a silver bangle or two, indicating the manufactory and dépôt of a goldsmith. After every few minutes of exertion, the two old gentlemen cease from their labors, to take a whiff from the tall bookahs standing near, and to exchange a friendly word with the carpenter who works in the little hole on the opposite side of the street. At present, this artisan is bending over a piece of wood he holds between his toes, and into which he is drilling an eyelet with an instrument that looks like a child's bow. Near him, his son, also sitting on his haunches, on the floor, and holding between his toes a half-made comb, is vigorously working with a tool, suggesting the idea of some horrible instrument of torture, but really acting in the capacity of a saw. Strewed about the floor are a plank or two; some unfinished pieces of work; a couple of long pipes; a small, naked, crawling child; and a piece of

From a neighboring shop, sounds of animated conversation strike upon the ear. A grain merchant, surrounded by little bags of corn and boxes of flour, is sitting in a remote corner of his shop, wrapped up closely in a dirtywhite cloth, and without moving his hands, is raising his head to suck the fragrant hookah. Half-a-dozen of his clients are attempting to bargain with him, and sitting in a row on their hams in front, are all talking at once. Proudly




conscious of his monopoly, he does not trouble himself to side, while on the other the view melts away into the disbandy idle words, but, with all the patience of the Oriental, tant plains across which the great Sutlej is seen like a calmly waits till they have made up their minds to pay

his silver band. But to our brown friends such things possess price for whatever they may happen to want. In the no attraction. The bustle, the closeness, the smells, the opposite corner, an enormously obese old man is stretched flies, the pariah dogs, the unowned children of the kennel, out at full length, sound asleep. This is the shopkeeper's and all the other attractions of the bazaar, are to them venerable parent, who has retired from active life, and pen- more pleasing than the majestic tranquillity of mountain sioned himself on his son. But we must peep into a tiny and valley and far-off plain. But we ought not to be too little place about the size of a rabbit-hutch, next door to severe on the bazaar; it has its spectacle and pretty obthe grain-merchant's shop: An aged gentleman, with huge jects now and again. See that long line of horsemen brass-rimmed spectacles, is fingering delicately with a wire coming slowly along with the stout little gentleman riding forceps some hard, gray little particles collected in an iron in front. He is a mountain chieftain, whose home is a dish. Presently, he picks out one, and applies it to a very lonely castle on a hillside, overlooking a great rich valley small grindstone, the handle of which he turns with his which is his own. One cannot help observing how galgreat toe. This is a jeweller, as you can see by the little lantly he is dressed ; in gay, but well-matched colors, and papers


green and yellow stones exposed on a board, lying cloth of the richest material. The horsemen behind are beside him; and he is putting faces on rough garnets which his suite. One is probably his commander-in-chief (for he have been brought to him by some of the neighboring villa- is sure to have an army, however small), another the gers. His grandson, a fat little urchin, in summer costume, keeper of his privy purse, others lords in waiting, and so - a yard of string,- is sitting, gravely in front of him, All fine little gentlemen in their way, and men in reading out of a very ancient-looking book in Hindi charac- authority. Simla is a town to them, the metropolis of ter. It is the whole library of the family, and the old man civilization ; the bazaar is Regent Street and Cheapside in has known it well since the day he first read it to his grand- As they pass, the shopkeepers come to their threshpapa in the same ancestral little shop. But still he ap- olds and make low salaams. The stout little prince who is pears to be interested, and every now and then pauses in passing is the representative of a family which for generahis work to exclaim “Wah! wah!” as an incident of pecu- tions has been to their ancestors and themselves the ideal liar interest is arrived at. To the Eastern mind novelty of greatness, the incarnation of power, the pink of nobility. has no charms; and a book with which the reader is famil- Is it not recorded in their unwritten traditions how his iar is regarded as an old, tried friend, who will not disap- grandfather, at the head of a great army, drove back the point by any unanticipated dulness, or disturb the mind Goorkhas, who were hovering over the town, and then, out by any unlooked-for brilliancy.

of mere light-heartedness, looted it himself, and carried We must visit one more shop in the bazaar, - the largest away its female population, to a woman; and how, when and one of the most important, — the sweetmeat shop. the carpenter and goldsmith and sweetmeat-men went, as a We had better not enter, though, as the floor is honey- deputation from the burghers, to expostulate with him, he combed with numerous little clay ovens, and there would relented, and wept on their necks, and promised to give be no little danger of being precipitated into a caldron of them back one-half of their wives and daughters, on conliquid toffy. Four - dreadfully unclad - men, carefully dition of receiving a sum of tribute-money yearly forever ; oiled, to protect their skin against the great heat, are mov- and how they only got their grandmammas after all. With ing about with long iron spoons, stirring here and mixing such legends living in their memory, how can they help there, or kneading into little fids various compounds of honoring and fearing those of their rajahs who are still coarse sugar and rancid butter. The outcome of their left to them ? labors is exposed to view on a broad board.

Candies, Look at those gayly-dressed, fair, and pretty women; rocks, and toffies of every shape, but all of the same light- they come from the valleys immediately under the snowy brown color, buried in flies and wasps, both dead and range, to buy the nose-rings and bangles which their souls alive, are heaped up in brass dishes or little wooden plat- love. Although some of them have two or three real forms. A stray child, the color of the confections, has got husbands, they are good and happy women, and have mixed up with them, and is languidly sucking a column of pleasant homes among those giant mountains of the Hima“ lump of delight” nearly as big as its leg. Less fortunate saya beyond the Sutlej. Theirs is a cool fruit-growing youngsters are seen hovering about, regaling themselves land, abounding in peaches, strawberries, walnuts, and with the savory smells which issue forth. Now and then, grapes; and their fair, pretty faces, and their merry, wholesome big hill-man purchases for a few little shells a block some laughter, speak of the happy glens from which they off one of the dishes, and straightway goes out into the road, seats himself on his heels, and devours it, to the To all these people, Simla is just what it was before the great entertainment of a swarm of naked little urchins irrepressible English found it. It is their own town still ; and a pariah dog or two.

and if the English left India to-morrow, it would go on All over India, sweetmeats are consumed as a substantial

making its nose-rings and sweetmeats; and, beyond a passarticle of food. A native when travelling seldom eats any ing remark, the simple dwellers among the mountains thing else; and between the two great meals, at all times, would never note the change. he whiles away the long noon of the Indian summer day by sucking lollipops or candy between the whiffs of his hookah. Large dishes of sweetmeats are very common presents to make on religious festivals or domestic red

LIONS AND LION-TAMING. letter days; and when a Hindu wants to be very merry or very dissipated, he never gets drunk, as a Scotchman does, but goes to a “mithai” shop, and makes himself ill with

AND so the beasts have savaged poor Jack Macarthy at Now that we have shopped a little in the bazaar, let us last, have they? I expected it would come some time, sir, take a stroll through it. It is thronged with natives, from as soon as I heard poor Jack had forgotten the way to keep the scarlet and golden messenger of the British govern- his little finger down. It's the drink that plays the misment, to our old friends the wild, dirty Tibetans. Saunter- chief with us fellows, and yet how is a man to keep off it ? ing in a bazaar is the summum bonum of life to a Hindu. He may be as bold and as sober as he pleases, till he gets Standing chatting in the middle of the roadway, or smok- once torn, and then his nerve begins to fail — wouldn't ing a pipe with some friends in a shop, or sitting on the yours, sir, if you had half the flesh peeled off your side, or edge of the gutter, quietly contemplating the passers-by, the side of your head torn off?— and he must have somehe is perfectly happy. Within twenty yards is one of the thing to “ steady himself” before he goes in. One steadier grandest scenes in the world — a splendid panorama of hill brings more, and there are plenty of people always ready and valley, with the eternal snows as a background, on one to treat the daring fellow that plays with the lions as if



candied sugar.


they were kittens; and so he gets reckless, lets the danger- so free in captivity. The tiger is not so sullen in confine ous animal, on which if he were sober he would know ment, but he is more treacherous, and when he once loses he must always keep his eye, get dodging round behind command of hisself, there is not a pin to choose between him him, or hits a beast in which he ought to know that a blow and the lion. I think I would sooner on the whole have rouses the sleeping devil, or makes a stayver and goes truck with the lion than the tiger. Some people will tell down, and then they set upon him. Don't I know the you that there is no vice about either. Then I ask then, whole game from beginning to end ? Look here, sir, and how is it that men who have to do with 'em get so otten here, where the living flesh has been tore off me, till the torn? It is very easy to say that they let their talons out bare bone was visible! I'm an old man now, but my hair sometimes unwittingly into a chap's flesh, and that if he has was gray when I was comparatively young, and it was going presence of mind he will lift the paw and think nothing into the den as did it. I was never meant for a lion-king, about it. But when you feel the claws going into the flesh, for I never had any nerve to speak of, only I was a bic, an inch and more, may I never if you can help dragging the broad-built man, and the management fancied me for the limb away. Then the beast drags his way, and so you get job. Old“ Manchester Jack” had given notice, and there torn, and the blood comes, and the animal, partly throngh were the lions, and nobody to do any thing with them. I the sight of blood, partly through a feeling of desperation was a bill-sticker, out of work, when Bromsgrove spoke to at knowing he has done wrong, lets go anyhow; and the me about the job. Mary Anne was down with twins, and others in the cage with him catch the infection, and then you s'help me, sir, if I had a way to get her a drop of comfort. may say your prayers. The dangerousest time, ordinarily, Rather than see her starve I took the billet; but there to interfere with lions is when they are feeding, especially if never was a day when the time came for me to go in among they are gnawing a bone. It is pretty well certain death the devils that I did not try a rough bit of a prayer, for for a man to go without warning to an old lion or lioness and that seemed somehow, for the first while, to drive away the try to drag a bone away from it. You may switch them away,

Then I found brandy took the shine out of but it is very dangerous. Crockett used to take the most the prayer, leastways such a prayer as I knew how to come, liberties with lions feeding of any man I ever saw. Then, and I used always to have a tidy drop inside me before I there are seasons when if there be a lioness in a cage, bo h ventured in. I knew the risk of the brandy. Didn't I get she and the lions that are with her are well-nigh mad with this tear down the left arm one evening when I had taken savageness, and daren't be interfered with if a man values so much that I could not see that old

of a lioness creep- his life a button. True, tamers have to go among them then, ing round to my back? But I couldn't help it, and that's else business would be at a stand-still; but the chap that all about it. I had the delirium tremens once, and my blood does so takes his life in his hand. I fancy that had someruns cold when I think of that time. Other chaps as have thing to do with the death of poor Jack Macarthy. They had the deliriums have told me as how they saw serpents, ought to have had the irons then; for, indeed, when and black tadpoles, and comical little devils, squatting all lions are like this, is the only time I ever knew irons to about them and making mouths at 'em. As for me, I was be in the fire in case of accidents. haunted by lions and tigers all the time. Sometimes it The lion-tamer likes to get his beasts as young as he can, was the Royal Bengal tiger a standing just over my throat because then they are more easily brought into order, alwith that great paw on my chest, and his hot, strong breath though, no doubt, there are many instances where a fullblowing into my throat fit to choke me. Fancy after I got grown forest lion has been trained to high perfection. up again having to go into the den after such a spell as Whatever is the reason, the forest lions are more intelligent that. And then there was the wife at home, believing and teachable than those bred in confinement. The lionevery night that I would be brought out to her a mangled tamer begins by taking the feeding of them into his own hands, corpse.

and so gets them to know him. He commences feeding I don't say as all the lion-kings funk on it so bad as I did. them from the outside of the den, then ventures inside to one Some of them has more nerve, and take to the work kind- at a time, always carefully keeping his face to the animal lier ; but there arn't ever a man going in the line as hasn't and avoilling any violence, which is a mistake whenever it been torn or worried somehow since he began the game. can be avoided, as it rouses the dormant devil in the beasts. Do I know the history of lion-taming, ask you? I ought to. Getting to handle the lion, the tamer begins by stroking him Having been in the profession so long, I know most of those down the back, gradually working up to the head, which he who were comrades in it with me; and then somehow I begins to scratch, and the lion, which, like the cat, likes friction, took a sort of morbid interest in hearing all the stories begins to rub his head against the hand. When this familiarity about tearing, and pluck, and what not, that might escape is well established, a board is handed in to the trainer, which men who had less on their minds on the subject than I hail. he places across the den and teaches the lion to jump over There are three kinds of lions come to this country. The it, using a whip with a thong, but not for the purpose of greater number are fetched from the Cape; some come from punishment. Gradually this board is heightened, the lion Egypt, but are really Nubian lions, and they are the big jumping over it at every stage; and then come the hoops,&c. gest and dangerousest; and another kind, the nameless sort, held on top of the board to quicken the beast's understandcomes from Senegal. The man that imports nearly all the ing. To teach the animal to jump over the trainer, the lions into this country is Jamrach, down in Ratcliff-highway. latter stoops alongside the board, so that when the lion He has his agents out abroad, and al. o buys from stewards clears one he clears the other; and half a dozen lessons are and captains of ships who bring the animals home on spec, ordinarily about sufficient to teach this. To get a lion to and he sells them to the menageries and the zoological gar- lie down and allow the tamer to stand on him is more dens. You get them from him well-nigh as wild as the day difficult. It is done by flicking the beast over the back they were caught, for I believe he never allows any of his with a sma!! “ tickling ” whip, and at the same time pressing men to go into the cages, and if he wants to shift them he him down with one hand. By raising his head and taking places one cage alongside another and drives the beasts in hold of the nostril with the right hand, and the under lip by setting fire to the straw in the den he wants them to quit, and lower jaw with the left, the lion, by this pressure on the it' no other way will do. But even with these precautions nostril and lip, loses greatly the power of his jaws, so that his men sometimes get torn. I am told he had a man bad- a man can pull them open and put his head inside the ly hurt a short time ago. I reckon that at present there beast's mouth, the feat with which Van Amburg's name was are about fitty lions altogether in England, but of these on- so much associated. The only danger is lest the animal ily a certain number have been imported. You see, they should raise one of his fore-paws and stick his talons in, and breed like cats, — have a litter every eight months if you if he does, the tamer must stand fast for his life till he has will let 'em, - and three, four, five, or six at a litter. The

shifted the paw. Lion-hunting, for which Maccomo was so .confinement-bred lions seldom live very long, and are not famous, is never to be attempted except with young animals. to be compared for looks to the forest-bred beasts; but of When the lion begins to get his

and becomes near course they are cheaper, and that has of late hurt the for- full grown, he will not suffer himself to be so driven and eign market. The tigers come from India, and don't breed bustled about; and so it is that the animals that are put



through this performance are so often changed. But most handed. That was nerve for you.

At that time Crockett men with strong nerves and high courage like an old lion never drank.

Crockett's history was a strange one.

His best for ordinary performances. His training is sure to be mother was the finest woman I ever saw. She was exbetter, and they take their chance of the temper; that hibited for twenty years as “ Miss Cross, the Nottinghamalways grows crustier with age. But there are compara- shire giantess.” She stood six feet nine, and broad in protively few old lions in England. It takes a lion well into portion, with quite a beautiful face. His father was a ten years to come to his full growth; and when this is once musician as used to play the key-bugle, and the pair made a attained, confinement seems to bear uncommon hard upon good deal of money,

The way Crockett came to be a lionthem.

king was curious. He was a fine-looking, imposing man, a Who was the first lion-king in this country? Well, sir, I musician in Sangers' Circus, but with a bad chest, which can tell you all about them, and, in fact, the whole story about playing affected. When Howes and Cushing came over menageries. The first great menagerie proprietor I ever heard from America with their circus about fifteen years ago, they any thing on was old Wombwell, who was originally a shoe- proved to be too many for the home circuses of the day, and maker in the Commercial Road, and who first travelled about in search of novelty, the Sangers determined to try perwith a big serpent. Before ever Van Amburg was heard forming lions from a menagerie. Crockett, being a fineon, old “Mi nchester Jack”

was doing the lion-king in looking man, was offered the billet to perform them. Origione of Wombwell's travelling menageries, well on to fifty nally he was a man of no nerve for lion performing, or any year ago.

The manager, I remember well his name, was other calling requiring determination ; but, after seeing two Bromsgrove. He was a better man — was Manchester Jack or three others go into the den with impunity, he accepted

– than Van Amburg; they were to have had a regular the job, and followed the profession to the day of his death. competition once at Southampton, and lots of money was bet- Howes and Cushing took him to America at £20 a week, to ted over the matter, but before the time came the American perform the animals they had bought from the Sangers, and funked on it, and would not come on. Jack took to hotel- after being in the States for about two years, he fell down keeping in Taunton, with Bromsgrove for head-waiter, and dead as he was “going on,” about midway between the died within the last seven years. Van Amburg, after hav- dressing-room and the circus. This was at Chicago. Crockett ing been killed on paper over and over again, his back was born at Presteign, in Radnorshire, and several times broken twice at least, and his head once swallowed by a Royal was severely torn while performing lions. Bengal tiger, died in his bed within the last three years ; You ask about Maccomo ? I know all about him too. but he must have been fearfully scarred. Some of the old There were two Maccomos - one a duffer, the other the erie stories are funny enough, sir, although there is genuine article.

Some twenty years ago George Hilton's grewsomeness about them all. Long ago two men called Menagerie was at Manchester fair, with®“ Kitty” Lee for Gilbert and Atkins had a joint menagerie, a lioness belong- manager, a brother of the Nelson Lee who died the other ing to which got loose on Salisbury Plain, while the cara- day. Kitty's” real name was Jem, but everybody called vans were halted at a public-house called the Pheasant. him “ Kitty." Newsome, who was the performer of the Springing out of the ditch, she seized by the throat one of lions, had left without an hour's notice, and Lee was aground. the leaders of the mail-coach and tore it very much before But a man named Jemmy Strand, who kept a gingerbreadshe let go her hold, after the guard of the coach had fired a stand, came forward, and volunteered to perform them at a shot into her with his pistol. Two men — one named Mul- moment's notice, and Lee christened him “Maccomo " on ter, the other Reader went after her, and caught her the spot. Strand was an Irishman, like poor Macarthy; cowering under a granary raised from the ground on arches. and his head got so turned by success that nothing could She was brought back, muzzled, and tied with ropes, and be done with him, and his sauce was unbearable. One day the proprietors bought the coach-horse, and drew great au- at Greenwich fair, a musician, playing in front of the diences in Salisbury to see the identical beast as the savage menagerie, came to Mr. Maunders, into whose hands Hilbrute had torn so badly. Did you ever hear of old Wal- ton's business had passed, and told him that there was a lace's fight with the dogs ? George Wombwell was at very black man outside, who said he was a sailor just come low water, and not knowing how to get his head up again, home from sea, and would like to get a job with the wild he thought of a fight between an old lion he had

beasts. Mr. Maunders sent for him, struck a bargain, and times called Wallace, sometimes Nero — and a dozen of sent him into the den at once, and the black man proved to mastiff dogs. Wallace was tame as a sheep, I knew him have a wonderful control over the beasts, so that the “ginwell – I wish all lions were like him. The prices of admis- gerbread king” lost his crown at once, and the black man sion ranged from a guinea up to five guineas, and every seat got his name of Maccomo, which he bore until he died of was taken, and had the menagerie been three times as large consumption about fifteen months ago. Maccomo was the most it would have been full. It was a queer go and no mistake! daring man among lions and tigers I ever saw.

He never Sometimes the old lion would scratch a lump out of a dog, drank any thing stronger than coffee, but he always believed and sometimes the dogs would make as if they were going he would meet a violent death. He was fearfully torn, over to worry the old lion; but neither side showed any serious and over again, but not killed. It was riskier for him than fight, and at length the patience of the audience got ex- for a white man, if it be true, as they say, that the beasts hausted, and they went away in disgust. George's excuse can nose a black man and are mad after the flavor of his was, “ We can't make 'em fight, can we, if they won't ?” flesh. There was no getting over this, and George cleared over These are about the leading lion-kings I remember, but £2000 by the night's work.

there have been many others of less note. As a rule drink In later times Crockett made the greatest name for him- is what plays the devil with them all, and you can hardly self of any lion-tamer, not in England alone but also in France, wonder at it. Ah! so you have heard about lion-queens Germany, and America. I remember well the time when too, have you? Well, I can tell you all about them also. the six lions were loose at one time in Astley's, when old The first lion-queen came out in Joc Hilton's circus, at the Batty bad the place. The Sangers had sent the beasts up suggestion of " Kitty” Lee, to counterbalance the attraction from Edmonton the night before. Nobody to this day of Crockett as a lion-king, and he proposed that Hilton's knows for certain how they got out of their dens, but it was daughter should come out as the lion-queen, as she had thought at the time that some of the grooms — with whom previously been in the den with the lion. He proposed that Batty never was popular, he used to fine them so merci- she should appear under the name of “ Madame Pauline de lessly — had let them loose maliciously that they might get Vere, the Lady of Lions,” and so she did. I remember her at the horses. There they were, anyhow, loose and mad in first appearance quite well. It was at Stepney fair, and the place, smelling the horses and mad to get at them. didn't she cut a dash on the platform in front of the menThey had already killed a man and half eaten him, when agerie before going into the den! At this time Mr. WombCrockett arrived; without halting for an instant he dashed in well's menagerie - as was under Edmonds' managementamong the single-handed, with only a switch in his hand, had an excellent group of wild beasts, and Miss Helen and I'm blest if he didn't manage to den them all single- | Chapman (now Mrs. George Sanger) voluntecred to perform


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