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the Royalists and Yorkists, the defeatof Richard's | á chimney excellently wrought in the best cham peridious attempt, is well known. The castle ber, is St. Andrewes Crosse joyned to prince of Ludlow, says Hall, “ was spoyled.” The Arthurs armes in the hall windowe.” The poet king's troops seized on whatever was valualle in also notices the “Chappell most trim and costly it ; and, according to the same chronicler, hither sure:” about which “are armes in colours of " the king sent the dutchess of Yorke with her sondrie kings, but chiefly poblemen.” He then two younger sons to be kept in ward, with the specifies in prose, “that sir Harry Sidney being dutchess of Buckingham her sister, where she lord president, buylt twelve roumes in the sayd contímed a certain space.”.
castle, which goodly buildings doth shewe a The castle was soon afterwards put into the great beautie to the same. He made also a possession of Edward duke of York, afterwards goodly wardrobe underneath the new parlor, and king Edward IV., who at that time resided in repayrd an old tower, called Mortymer's Tower, the neighbouring castle of Wigmore, and who, to keepe the auncient records in the same; and in order to revenge the death of his father, had he repayred a fayre rou!ne under the court collected some troops in the Marches, and had house, to the same entent and purpose, and attached the gartison to his cause. On his ac- made a great wall about the woodyard, and built cession to the throne the castle was repaired by a most brave condit within the inner court : and bim, and a few years after was made the court of all the newe buildings over the gate sir Harry his son, the prince of Wales; who was sent hither Sidney (in his daies and government there) by bim, as Hall relates, “ for justice to be doen made and set out to the honour of the queene, in the Marches of Wales, to the end that by the and glorie of the castle. There are in a goodly authoritie of bis presence, the wild Welshmenne or stately place set out my lord earle of Warwicks and evill disposed personnes should refraine from armes, the earle of Darbie, the earle of Worcestheir accustomed murthers and outrages.” Sir ter, the earle of Pembroke, and sir Harry SidHenry Sidney, some years afterwards, observed, neys armes in like maner: al these stand on the that, since the establishment of the lord presi- left hand of the chamber. On the other side dent and council, the whole country of Wales are the arms of Northwales and Southwales, have been brought from their disobedient aud two red lyons and two golden lyons, prince barbarous incivility, to a civil and obedient con- Arthurs, At the end of the dyning chamber, dition; and the bordering English counties had there is a pretie device how the hedgebog brake been freed from those spoils and felonies, with the chayne, and came from Ireland to Ludlue.” which the Welsh, before this institution, had an- The device is probably an allusion to sir Henry's coyed them. See Sidney State-Papers, vol. i. armorial bearings, of which two porcupines were p. 1. On the death of Edward, his eldest son the Sir Henry Sidney caused also many was here first proclaimed king by the name of salutary regulations to be made in the court. Edward v.
See Sidney State Papers, vol. i. p. 143 and p. In the reign of Henry VII. his eldest son, 170, in which are stated the great sums of money Arthur, prince of Wales, inhabited' the castle ; he had expended, and the indefatigable diligence in which great festivity was observed upon his he had exerted in the discharge of his office. marriage with Catherine of Arragon; an event In 1616, the creation of prince Charles (after, that was soon followed, within the same walls, by wards king Charles I.) to the principality of the untimely and lamented death of that accom- Wales, and earldom of Chester, was celebrate plished prince.
here with uncommon magnificence. It became The castle had now long been the palace of the next distinguished by “one of the most memoprince of Wales annexed to the principality, and rable and honourable circumstances in the was the habitation appointed for his deputies the course of its history," HE REPRESENTATION OF lords presidents of Wales, who beld in it the Comus in 1634, when the earl of Bridgewater court of the Marches. It would therefore hardly was lord president, and inhabited it. A scene in hare been supposed, that its external splendour the Mask presented both the castle and the town should have suffered neglect, if Powel, the Welsh of Ludlow. Afterwards, as I have been informed, historian, had not related, that“ sir Henry Sidney, Charles the first, going to pay a visit at Powis who was made lord president in 1564, repaired castle, was here splendidly received and enterthe castle of Ludlowe which is the cheefest house tained, ou bis journey. Eut“ pomp, and feast, within the Marches, being in great decaie, as the and revelry, with mask, and antique pageantry," chape!l, the court-house, and a faire fountaine." were soon succeeded in Ludlow castle by the din See Mr. Warton's second edit. p. 124, where he of arms. During the unhappy civil war it was quotes D. Powell's Hist. of Cambria, edit. garrisoned for the king; who, in his flight from 158. 410. p. 401. Sir H. Sidney, however, was Wales, staid a night it. See Iler Carolinum in made lord president in the second year of Eli-Gutch's Collect. Cur. vol. ii. 443.
“ Wednx sday zabeth, which was in 1559. See Sidney State Aug.* 6.th 1645, at Old Radnor, supper, a yeoPapers, vol. i. Mémoirs prefixed, p. 86. Sir man's house; the court dispersed. Thursday the Henry's munificence to this stately fabric is 7.th to Ludlow Castle, no dinner, Col. Wodenere particularly recorded by T. Churchyard, house. Friday the 8.th to Bridgnorth, &c.” in his poem called, The Worthines of Wales, The castle was at length delivered up to the par: 40. Lond. 1578. The chapter is entitled the liament in June 1646. Castle of Ludloe,” in which it is related, that A few years after this event, the goods of the “Sir Harry built many things here worthie castle were inventoried and sold. The rev. Mr praise and memorie.” From the same informa- Ayscough, of the British Museum, has oblig. tion we learn the following particulars. “Over ingly directed me to a 'priced calaioguc of the VOL. VII,
furniture, with the names of the purchasers, in | Buck's Antiquities, published in 1774, which ist, Harl. MSS. No. 4898, and No. 7352: from have been written many years before, it is said which I select a few curious articles.
“Many of the royal apartments are yet entire ; “ In the Princes Chamber. One standing bedd- and the sword, with the velvet bangings, and stead, covered with watchet damaske, with all some of the furniture are still preserved.” And the furniture suitable thereunto belonging, &c. Grose in his Antiquities, published about the Sold Mr Bass ye 11.ch of March 1650 for same time, extracting from the Tour through 36. 10s.
Great Britain what be pronounces a rery just “One suit of old tapistry hangings cont.s in and accurate account of this castle, represents
the chapel having abundance of coats of arms all 120 ells at 2 per ell; Sold M* Cleam. ye 18.th January 1650 for 15£.
upon the pannels, and the hall decorated with “In the Governour's Quarter. Two pictures, ye
the same ornaments, together with lances, one of the late king, and the other of his queen, rious appendages to the grandeur of both, little
spears, firelocks, and old armour. Of these cu10. Sold to Me Bass.
perhaps is now known. Of the chapel, a circular
building within the inner court is now all that re“One large old Bible, 6. Sold to M' Bass. mains. Over several of the stable doors, how"One old surplice of holland, 5. Sold to
ever, are still the arms of queen Elizabeth, and Mi Bass.
the earl of Pembroke. Over the inner gate of “Qne dammaske table-cloth in length tenn
the castle, are also some remains of the arms
of the Sidney family, with an inscription yards, 2. Sold to M' Rog.' Humphrey. denoting the date of the queen's reign, and of “ A cupp & cover of plate, weighing 35 03. sir Henry Sidney's residence, in 1581, together £
with the following words, Hominibus ingratis loat 5 per o3. 8. 15. Sold to M' Brown. A pulpitt cloth & a carpett of old crimson this remarkable address. Perhaps sir Heary
quimini lapides. No reason has been assigned for velvett & 7 old cushions, val.d at 8. Sold to Sidney might intend it as an allusion to his preMr Brown.
decessors, who had suffered the stately fabric “ In the Shovell-board Room. Nine peeces of to decay; as a memorial also, which no succesgreen kersey hangings paned wih gilt leather, 8 sör might behold without determining to avoid window curtaines, 5 window peeces, à chimney its application: Nonne ipsAM DOMUM metuet, peece, and curtaine rodds, and three other small ne quam voceM ELICIAT,nonne PARIETES CONCros?" peeces in a presse in ye wardrobe val. togeather who visited the castle in 1768, has acquainted
Mr. Dovaston, of the Nursery, near Oswestry, 25.£. WITH Y PROTECTOR.
" In ye Hall. Two long tables, two square me, that the floors of the great council chamtables with formes, one fire-grate, one side ta- ber were then pretty entire, as was the stair-case. bie, a court cuppboard, two wooden figures of The covered steps leading to the chapel were beasts, 3 candlesticks, & racks for armour, 1. remaining, but the covering of the chapel was Sold to M Bass."
fallen : yet the arms of some of the lords presiNo other remarkable circumstances distinguish dents, painted on the walls, were visible. In the history of this castle, till the court of the the great council chamber was inscribed on the Marches was abolished, and the lords presidents wall a sentence from 1 Sam. xii. 3. All of which were discontinued, in 1688. From that period are now wholly gone. The person, who showed its decay commenced. It has since been gradu- this gentleman the castle, informed him that, by ally stript of its curious and valuable ornaments. tradition, the Mask of Comus was performed in No longer inhabited by its noble guardians, it the council chamber. Among the valuable colHas fallen into neglect; and neglect has encou- lections of the same gentleman is an extensive raged plunder. « It will be no wonder that this account of Ludlow town and castle from the most noble castle is in the very perfection of decay, early times, to the first year of William and Mawhen we acquaint our readers, that the present ry, copied by him from a M9. of the rer. Rich. inhabitants live upon the sale of the materials. Podmore, A. B. rector of Coppenhall in Co. All
the fine courts, the royal apartments, halls, Pal. of Chester, and curate of Cuvdover, Salop, and rooms of state, lie open and abandoned, and collected with great care from ancient and ausome of them falling down." Tour through thentic books. From this interesting compilaGreat Britain, quoted by Grose, art. Ludlow tion I have been informed that the court of the Castle. See also two remarkable instances re
Marches was erected by Edward IV. in bonuar lated by Mr. Hodges in his Account of the Castle, of the earls of March, from whom he was des p. 39. The appointment of a guvernor, or stew cended, as the court of the duchy of Lancaster had ard of the castle, is also at present discontinued. been before by Henry IV. in honour of the house Butler enjoyed the stewardship, which was a lu- of Lancaster: that the household of Ladlow cascrative as well as an honourable post, while the tle was numerous and splendid, and that the principality court existed. And, in an apartment lord president lived in great state. The chaplain over the gateway of the castle, he is said to have had the yearly fee of £.50 with diet for himself written his inimitable Hudibras. The poet had and one servant. The other officers of the court been secretary to the earl of Carbery, who was bad fees and salaries suitable to their several lord president of Wales; and who, in the great ranks. See also Sidney State Papers, vol. i rebellion, had afforded an asylum to the excel- 5, 6, where the “ Fees annually allorded to the lent Jeremy Taylor. In the account of Ludlow castle, prefixed to
" Cicero pro Cælio. sect. 35.
bouensel and commissioners, and the officers | displayed. But at the same time it is a melanwaiges,” An. 3 Edw. VI. are set forth. The choly monument, exhibiting the irreparable efcourt consisted of the lord president, vice-presi- fects of pillage and dilapidation. dent, and council, who were composed of the lord chancellor, lord treasurer, lord keeper of
ORIGIN OF COMUS. the privy seal, lord treasurer of the king's household, chancellor of the exchequer, principal se
By Mr. WARTON. cretary of state, the chief justices of England, IN Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, an Arcaand of the Common Pleas, the chief baron of the dian comedy, recently published, Milton found Exchequer, the justices of Assize for the counties many touches of pastoral and superstitious imaof Salop, Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth, gery, congenial with his own conceptions. Many the justice of the grand Session in Wales, the of these, yet with the highest improvements, he chief justice of Chester, attorney and solicitor has transferred in Comus : together with the general, with many of the neighbouring nobility, general cast and colouring of the piece. He and with various subordinate officers. See Mr. catched also from the lyric rhymes of Fletcher, Hodges's Hist. Acc. of the Castle, p. 67, 68. From that Dorique delicacy, with which sir Henry the inedited tour of a traveller in i 535, communi. Wotton was so much delighted in the songs of cated to me by Joseph Cooper Walker, esq. it ap- Milton's drama. Fletcher's comedy was coldly pears that there was also a secretary to the received the first night of its performance. But court; the office of which was then filled by it had ample revenge in this conspicuous and lord Goring, and said to be worth 3000€. At indisputable mark of Milton's approbation. It the same time, sir John Bridgeman was the chief was afterwards represented as a Mask at court, justice of the court. The traveller adds, that in before the king and queen on twelfth-night, in the absence of the president, the chief justice re- 1633. I know not, indeed, if this was any represented the president's person, and kept “the commendation to Milton ; who, in the Paradise king's house in the castle, which is a prettie lit- Lost, speaks contemptuously of these interludes, tie neate castle, standing high, kept in good re- which had been among the chief diversions of an paire:” and that he was invited by the judge elegant and liberal monarch. B. iv. 767. to dinner, and verye kindly and respectfully entertained.”
court-amours This court was dissolved by act of parliament Mix'd dance, and wanton mask, or midnight in the first year of Williain and Mary, at the
ball, &c.” bumble suit of all the gentlemen and inhabitants of the principality of Wales; by whom it was And in bis Ready and easy way to establish a free. represented as an intolerable grievance. Commonwealth, written in 1660, on the incon
The situation of the castle is delightful, and veniences and dangers of readmitting kingship, romantic. It is built in the north-west angle of and with a view to counteract the noxious huthe town upon a rock, commanding an extensive mour of returning to bondage, he says, “a king and beautifal prospect northward. On the west must be adored as a demigod, with a dissolute it is shaded by a lofty hill, and washed by the and haughty court about him, of vast expense river. It is strongly environed by walls of im- and luxury, masks and revels, to the debauchmense height and thickness, and fortified with ing our prime gentry, both male and female, round and square towers at irregular distances. not in their pastimes only, &c.” Pr. W. i. 590. The walls are said by Grose to have formerly I believe the whole compliment was paid to the been a mile in compass; but Leland in that genius of Fletcher. But in the mean time it measure includes those of the town. The inte should be remembered, toat Miltou bad not yet rior apartments were defended on one side by a contracted an aversion to courts and courte deep ditch, cut out of the rock; on the other, by amusements; and that, in L'Allegro, masks an almost inaccessible precipice overlooking the are among his pleasures. Nor could be now vale of Corve. The castle was divided into two disapprove of a species of entertainment, to separate parts: the castle, properly speaking, in which as a writer he was giving encouragement. which were the palace and lodgings; and the The royal masks, however, did not, like Comus, green, or ontwork, which Dr. Stukely supposes always abound with Platonic recommendations of to have been called the Barbican. See his Iti- the doctrine of chastity. nerary, Iter iv. p. 70. The green takes in a Tire ingenious and accurate Mr. Reed has large compass of ground, in which were the pointed out a rude out-line, from which Milton court of judicature and records, the stables, gar- seems partly to have sketched the plan of the den, bowling-green, and other offices. In the fable of Conius. See Biograph. l'ramat. ii. front of the castle, a spacious plain or lawn for- p. 441. It is an old play, with this title, The merly extended two miles. În 1772 a public old Wives Tale, a pleasant conceited Comedie, walk round the castle was planted with trees, plaied by the Queens Majesties players. Writ. and laid out with much taste, by the munificence ten by G. P. [i. e. Geurge Peele.] Printed at of the countess of Powis. See Mr. Hodges's Hist. London by John Danter, and are to be sold by Acc. p. 54.
Ralph Hancocke and John Hardie, 1595. In The exterior appearance of this apcient edi-quarto. This very scarce and curious piece exfice bespeaks, in some degree, what it once has hibits, among other parallel incidents, two bro. been. Its mutilated towers and walls still afford thers wandering in quest of their sister, wbom an an idea of the strength and beauty, which so no- enchanter had imprisoned. This magician had ble a specimen of Norizan architectare formerly learned his art from his mother Meroe, as Co., mus had been instructed by his mother Circe. " 1 Br. Vpon these chalkie cliffs of Albion, The Brothers call out on the Lady's name, and We are arriued now with tedious toile, &c. Echo replies. The enchanter had given her To seeke our sister, &c.". a potion which suspends the powers of reason, and superinduces oblivion of herself. The Bro- A soothsayer enters, with whom they converse thers afterwards meet with an old man who is about the lost lady. “ Sooths. Was she fayre? also skilled in magic; and, by listening to his 2 Br. The fayrest for white and the purest soothsaying, they recover their lost sister. But for redde, as the blood of the deare or the drinot till the enchanter's wreath had been torn ven snowe, &c." In their search, Ecbo replies from his head, his sword wrested from his hand, to their call. They find too late that their sis. a glass broken, and a light extinguished. The ter is under the captivity of a wicked magician, names of some of the characters, as Sacrapant, and that she had tasted his cup of oblivion. In Chorebus, and others, are taken from the Orlando the close, after the wreath is torn from the maFurioso. The history of Meroe a witch, may be gician's head, and he is disarmed and killed, by seen in The xi Bookes of the Golden Asse, a Spirit in the shape and character of a beautiful containing the Metamorphosie of Lucius Apuleius, page of fifteen years old, she still remains subinterlaced with sundrie pleasant and delectable ject to the magician's enchantment. But in a Tales, &c. Translated out of the Latin into subsequent scene the Spirit enters, and declares, English by William Adlington, Lond. 1566. that the sister cannot be delivered but by a lady, See Chap. iii. “ How Socrates in his returne who is neither maid, wife, nor widow. The Spifrom Macedony to Larissa was spoyled and rob- rit blows a magical horn, and the lady appears; brd, and how he fell acquainted with one Meroe she dissolves the charm, by breaking a glass, a witch." And Chap. iv. “ How Meroe the ) and extinguishing a light, as I have before rewitch turned divers persons into miserable cited. A curtain is withdrawn, and the sister beasts.” Of this book there were other editions, is seen seated and asleep. She is disencbanted in 1571, 1596, 1600, and 1639. All in quarto and restored to her senses, having been spoken and the black letter. The translator was of to thrice. She then rejoins her two brothers, University College. See also Apuleius in the with whom she returns home; and the Boy-spioriginal. A Meroe is mentioned by Ausonius, rit vanishes under the earth. The magician iş Emgr. xix.
here called “inchanter yile," as in Comus, F. Peele's play opens thus.
907. Anticke, Frolicke, and Fantasticke, three ad- There is apother circumstance in this play, venturers, are lost in a wood, in the night. They taken from the old English Apuleius. It is agree to sing the old song,
where the Old Man every night is transformed
by our magician into a bear, recovering in the “ Three merrie men, and three merrie men, day-time his natural shape. And three merrie men be wee;
Among the inany feats of magic in this play, I in the wood, and thou on the ground, a bride newly married gains a marriage-portion And Jacke sleeps in the tree.”
by dipping a pitcher into a well. As she dips
there is a voice : They hear a dog, and fancy themselves to be near some village. A cottager appears, with a “ Faire maiden, white and red, lantern: on which Frolicke says, “I perceiue Combe me smoothe, and stroke my head, the glimryog of a gloworme, a candle, or a cats- And thou shall have some cockell bread! eye, &c.” They entreat him to show the way: Gently dippe, but not too deepe, otherwise they say, “wee are like to wander For feare thou make the golden beard to weepe!!! among the owlets and hobgoblins of the forest." “ Faire maiden, wbite and redde, He invites them to his cottage; and orders his Combe me smooth, and stroke my head : wife to lay a crab in the fire, to "rost fur lambes- And every haire a sheaue shall be, wool, &c." They sing
And euery sheaue a golden tree!” “ When as the rie reach to the chin,
With this stage-direction, “A head comes op full And chopcherrie, chopcherrie ripe within ; of guld ; she combes it into her lap." Strawberries swimming in the creame,
I must not omit, that Shakespeare seems also And schoole-boyes playing in the streame, &c.” to have had an eye on this play. It is in the scene
where “ The Haruest-men enter with a Song." At length to pass the time trimly, it is pro- Again, “ Enter the Haruest-men singing with sua posed that the wife shall tell “a merry winters men in their handes." Frolicke says, “Who tale," or, “an old wines winters tale,” of which have we here, our amourous haruest starres?" sort of stories she is not without a score. She -They sing, bezius, There was a king, or duke, who had a most beautiful daughter, and she was stolen “ Loe, here we come a reaping a reapinga away by a necromancer, who turning himself
To reape our haruest-fruite; into a dragon, carried her in his mouth to his And thus we passe the yeare so long, castle. The king sent out all his men to find And neuer be we mute." his daughter; "at last, all the king's men went qut so long, that bir two brothers went to seeke Compare the Mask in the Tempeste 4. it, s.ie hir.” Immediately the two brothers epter, and where Iris says, speak.
" You sun-burnt sicklemen, of August weary, Berore the starry threshold of Jove's court
Abore the smoke and stir of this dim spot,
Which men call Earth ; and, with low-thoughted Where is this stage-direction, “ Enter certain Reapers, properly habited: they join with the Confin’d and pester'd in this pin-fold here, nymphs in a graceful dance.” The Tempest pro- Strive to keep up a frail and feverish being, bably did not appear before the year 1612. Unmindful of the crown that Virtue gives,
That Milton had his eye on this ancient dra- After this mortal change,to her true servants, 10 ma, which might have been the favourite of his Amongst the enthron'd gods on sainted seats. early youth, perhaps it may be at least affirm- Yet some there be, that by due steps aspire ed with as much credibility, as that he conceiv- To lay their just hands on that golden key, ed the Paradise Lost, from seeing a Mystery at That opes the palace of Eternity : Florence, written by Andreini a Florentine in To such my errand is; and, but for such, 1617, entitled Adamo.
I would not soil these pure ambrosial weeds In the mean time it must be confessed, that With the rank vapours of this sin-worn mould. Milton's magician Comus, with his cup and But to my task. Neptune, besides the sway wand, is ultimately founded on the fable of Of every salt food, and each ebbing stream, Circe. The effects of both characters are much Took in by lot 'twixt high and nether Jove 20 the same. They are both to be opposed at first Imperial rule of all the sea-girt isles, with force and violence. Circe is subdued by That, like to rich and various gems, inlay the virtues of the herb moly which Mercury The unadorned bosom of the deep : gives to Ulysses, and Comus by the plant hae- Which he, to grace his tributary gods, mony which the Spirit gives to the two Bro- By course commits to several government, thers. About the year 1615, a mask called the And gives them leave to wear their sapphire Inner Temple Masque, written by William
crowns, Browne, author of Britannia's Pastorals, which I And wield their little tridents: but this isle, have frequently cited, was presented by the The greatest and the best of all the main, students of the Inner Temple. See Notes on He quarters to his blue-hair'd deities; Com. v, 252, 636, 659. It has been lately And all this tract that fronts the falling Sun 30 printed from a manuscript in the library of A noble peer of mickle trust and power Emanuel College: but I have been informed, Has in bis charge, with temper'd awe to guide that a few copies were printed soon after the An old and haughty nation, proud in arms : presentation. It was formed on the story of Where his fair offspring, nurs'd in princely lore, Circe, and perhaps might have suggested some Are coming to attend their father's state, few hints to Milton. I will give some proofs of And new-entrusted sceptre: but their way parallelism as we go along.
Lies through the perplex'd paths of this drear The genius of the best poets is often deter
wood, mined, if not directed, by circumstance and ac- The nodding horrour of whose shady brows cident. It is natural, that even so original a Threats the forlorn and wandering passenger; writer as Milton should have been biassed by the And here their tender age might suffer peril, 40 reigning poetry of the day, by the compositioni most But that by quick command from sovran Jove in fashion, and by subjects recently brought for- I was dispatch'd for their defence and guard : ward, but soon giving way to others, and almost And listen why; for I will tell you now as soon totally neglected and forgotten.
What never yet was heard in tale or song,
Bacchus, that first from out the purple grape
Crush'd the sweet poison of misused wine, THE ATTENDANT Spirit, afterwards in the habit | Coasting the Tyrrhene shore, as the winds listed,
After the Tuscan mariners transform'd, of Thyrsis.
On Circe's island fell: (Who knows not Circe,50 Couts, with his crew,
The daughter of the Sun, whose charmed cup THE LADY.
Whoever tasted, lost his upright shape, FIRST BROTHER.
And downward fell into a groveling swine?) SECOND BROTHER.
This nymph, that gaz'd upon his clustering locks SABRINA, the Nymph.
With ivy berries wreath'd, and his blithe youth,
Had by him, ere he parted thence, a son
Much like his father, but his mother more,
Whom therefore she brought up, and Comus
Who, ripe and frolic of his full grown age,
At last betakes him to this ominous wood;
And, in thick shelter of black shades imbower',
Excels his mother at her mighty art, The first Scene discovers a wild wood.
Offering to every weary traveller The Attendant Spirit descends or enters. His orient liquor in a crystal glass,