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In the same weight prudence and innocence take,
Let mirth and freedom make thy table good.
MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xcvi.
Sæpe loquar nimium gentes, &c.
ME, who have liv'd so long among the great,
Where happiness a moderate rate does bear,
The ground about the house maintains it,
EPITAPHIUM VIVI AUCTORIS.
Hic, o viator, sub lare parvulo
Non indecorâ pauperie nitens,
Divitiis auimosus hostis.
Possis ut illum dicere mortuum;
Terra sit illa levis, precare.
| Hic sparge flores, sparge breves rosas
Vatis adhuc cinerem calentem.
A PROPOSITION FOR THE AD-
THAT the philosophical college be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of London; and, if it be possible to find that convenience upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this college amount to four thousand pounds a year.
That the company received into it be as follows: 1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Sixteen young scholars, servants to the professors. 3. A chaplain. 4. A bailiff for the revenue. 5. A manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master-cook. 8. An under-cook. 9. A butler. 10. An underbutler. 11. A surgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chymical servants. likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper 13. A library-keeper, who is of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c. kept by the college. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. A messenger, to send up and down for all uses of the college. 17. Four old women, to tend the chambers, keep the house clean, and such-like services.
That the annual allowance for this company be as follows: 1. To every professor, and to the chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. 2 To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds apiece; ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their entertainment. 3. To the bailiff, thirty pounds,
besides allowance for his journies. 4. To the purveyor, or mauciple, thirty pounds. 5. To each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master-cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the under-cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten pounds. 9. To the under-butler, four pounds. 10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper
Ingenious men delight in dreams of reformation. In comparing this Proposition of Cowley, with that of Mi ton, addressed to Mr. Hartlib, we find that these great poets had amused themselves with some exalted, and, in the main, congenial fancies, on the subject of education: that, of the two plans proposed, this of Mr. Cowley was better digested, and is the less fanciful; if a preference, in this respect, can be given to either, when both are manifestly Utopian: and that our universities, in their present form, are well enough calculated to answer all the reasonable ends of such institutions; provided we allow for the un
$ See a translation of this Epitaph among the avoidable defects of them, when drawn out into poems of Mr. Addisop.
that in the middle there be a parterre of flowers and a fountain.
of the beasts, six pounds, 14. To the groom, five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all the servants of the house are to eat, exccpt the scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For three horses for the service of the college, thirty pounds.
All which amounts to three thousand two hundred eighty-five pounds. So that there remains for keeping of the house and gardens, and operatories, and instruments, and animals, and experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses, seven hundred and fifteen pounds.
That the second quadrangle, just behind the first, be so contrived, as to contain these parts: 1. A chapel. 2. A hall, with two long tables on each side, for the scholars and officers of the house to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleasant dining-room within the hall, for the professors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and 4. A public school-house. 5. A conferences. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned library. with the pictures or statues of all the inventors of any thing useful to human life; as printing, guns, America, &c. and of late in anatomy, the circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and such like discoveries in any art, with short elogies,
Which were a very inconsiderable sum for the great uses to which it is designed, but that 1 conceive the industry of the college will in a short time so enrich itself, as to get a far bet-under the portraitures: as likewise the figures of all sorts of creatures, and the stuft skins of as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. An anatomy-chamber adorned with skeletons and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all conveniences for dissection. 8. A chamber for all manner of drugs, and apothecaries' materials. 9. A mathematical chamber, furnished with all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper, and purveyor, near the chapel, anatomy-chamber, library, and hall.
ter stock for the advance and enlargement of the work when it is once begun: neither is the continuance of particular men's liberality to be despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the sight of that public benefit which will accrue to all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this foundation. Something likewise will arise from leases and other casualties; that nothing of which may be diverted to the private gain of the professors, or any other use besides that of the search of nature, and by it the general good of the world; and that care may be taken for the certain performance of all things ordained by the institution, as likewise for the protection and encouragement of the company, it is proposed: That some person, of eminent quality, a lover of solid learning, and no stranger in it, be chosen chancellor or president of the college, and that eight governors more, men qualified in the like manner, be joined with him, two of which shall yearly be appointed visitors of the college, and receive an exact account of all expenses, even to the smallest, and of the true estate of their pub-pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of lic treasure, under the hands and oaths of the professors resident.
trees cut out into walks.
That the choice of professors in any vacancy belong to the chancellor and the governors; but that the professors (who are likeliest to know what men of the nation are most proper for the duties of their society) direct their choice, by recommending two or three persons to them at every election: and that, if any learned person within his majesty's dominions discover, or emi-nient neutly improve, any useful kind of knowledge, he may upon that ground, for his reward and the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he pretend to the place before any body else.
That the governors have power to turn out any professor, who shall be proved to be either scandalous or unprofitable to the society.
That the third court be on one side of these, very large but meanly built, being designed only for use, and not for beauty too, as the others. That it contain the kitchen,butteries, brew-house, bake-house, dairy, lardry, stables, &c. and especially great laboratories for chymical operations and lodgings for the under servants.
That behind the second court be placed the garden, containing all sorts of plants that our soil will bear; and at the end a little house of
That the second enclosed ground be a garden, destined only to the trial of all manner of experiments concerning plants, as their melioration, acceleration, retardation, conservation, composition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever else can be produced by art, either for use or curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener. That the third ground be employed in convereceptacles for all sorts of creatures which the professors shall judge necessary for their more exact search into the nature of animals, and the improvement of their uses to us.
That there be likewise built, in some place of the college where it may serve most for ornament of the whole, a very high tower for observation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts of dials, and such like curiosities; and that there be very deep vaults made under ground, for experiments most proper to such places, which will be undoubtedly very many.
Much might be added, but truly I am afraid this is too much already for the charity or generosity of this age to extend to; and we do not design this after the model of Solomon's house in my lord Bacon, (which is a project for expe
That the college be built after this, or some such manner: That it consist of three fair quadrangular courts, and three large grounds, enThat the closed with good walls behind them. first court be built with a fair cloister; and the professors' lodgings, or rather little houses, four on each side, at some distance from one another, and with little gardens behind them, just after the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That the inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel-riments that can never be experimented), but walk, and that walk with a row of trees; and propose it within such bounds of expense as have
often been exceeded by the buildings of private an extraordinary), after consent of the other citizens.
That all the professors shall sup together in the parlour within the hall every night, and shall
OF THE PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN, dine there twice a week (to wit, Sundays and
AND OTHER OFFICERS,
THAT of the twenty professors four be always travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always resident, unless by permission upon extraordi-ling nary occasions; and every one so absent, leaving a deputy behind him to supply his duties.
Thursdays) at two round tables, for the convenience of discourse; which shall be for the most part of such matters as may improve their studies and professions; and to keep them from falinto loose or unprofitable talk, shall be the duty of the two arbitri mensarum, who may likewise command any of the servant-scholars to read them what he shall think fit, whilst they are at table; that it shall belong likewise to the said arbitri mensarum only, to invite strangers, which they shall rarely do, unless they be men of learnor great parts, and shall not invite above two at a time to one table, nothing being more vain and unfruitful than numerous meetings of ac
That the four professors itinerant be assigned to the four parts of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, there to reside three years at least; and to give a constant account of all things that belong to the learning, and especiallying natural experimental philosophy, of those parts. That the expense of all dispatches, and all books, simples, animals, stones, metals, mine-quaintance. rals, &c. and all curiosities whatsoever, natu- That the professors resident shall allow the ral or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall college twenty pounds a year for their diet, be defrayed out of the treasury, and an addition-whether they continue there all the time or not. al allowance (above the 120/.) made to them as soon as the college's revenue shall be improved. That at their going abroad, they shall take a solemn oath, never to write any thing to the col-losophy. lege, but what, after very diligent examination, they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess and recant it as soon as they find themselves in
That they shall have once a week an assembly, or conference, concerning the affairs of the college, and the progress of their experimental phi
That, if any one find out any thing which he conceives to be of consequence, he shall commu nicate it to the assembly, to be examined, experimented, approved, or rejected.
That, if any one be author of an invention that may bring in profit, the third part of it shall ma-belong to the inventor, and the two other to the society; and besides, if the thing be very considerable, his statue or picture, with an elogy under it, shall be placed in the gallery, and made a denison of that corporation of famous
That the sixteen professors resident shall be bound to study and teach all sorts of natural experimental philosophy, to consist of the thematics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chymistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, elements, &c.; agriculture, architecture, art military, navigation, gardening; the mysteries of all trades, and improvement of them; the facture of all merchandizes; all natural magic of divination; and briefly all things contained in the catalogue of natural histories annexed to my lord Bacon's Organon.
That once a day, from Easter till Michaelmas, and twice a week, from Michaelmas to Easter, at the hours in the afternoon most convenient for auditors from London, according to the time of the year, there shall be a lecture read in the hall, upon such parts of natural experimental philosophy, as the professors shall agree on among themselves, and as each of them shall be able to perform usefully and honourably.
That two of the professors, by daily, weekly, or monthly turns, shall teach the public schools, according to the rules hereafter prescribed.
That all the professors shall be always assigned to some particular inquisition (besides the ordinary course of their studies), of which they hall give an account to the assembly: so that by this means there may be every day some operation or other made in all the arts, as chymistry, anatomy, mechanics, and the like; and that the college shall furnish for the charge of the operation.
That there shall be kept a register under lock and key, and not to be seen but by the professors, of all the experiments that succeed, signed by the persons who made the trial.
That the popular and received errours in expe rimental philosophy (with which, like weeds in a neglected garden, it is now almost all over-grown) shall be evinced by trial and taken notice of in the public lectures, that they may no longer abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by consequence or similitude.
That all the professors shall be equal in all respects (except precedency, choice of lodging, and such-like privileges, which shall belong to seniority in the college); and that all shall be masters and treasurers by annual turns; which That every third year (after the full settletwo officers, for the time being, shall take placement of the foundation) the college shall give an of all the rest, and shall be arbitri duarum
That the master shall command all the officers of the college, appoint assemblies or conferences upon occasion, and preside in them with a double voice; and in his absence the treasurer, whose business is to receive and disburse all momics by the master's order in writing (if it be
account in print, in proper and ancient Latin of the fruits of their triennial industry.
That every professor resident shall have his scholar to wait upon him in his chamber and at table; whom he should be obliged to breed up in natural philosophy, and render an account of his progress to the assembly, from whose election he received him, and therefore is responsible to it,
schools, employing or rather casting away six or seven years in the learning of words only, and that too very inperfectly :
That a method be here established, for the infusing knowledge and language at the same time into them; and that this may be their apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, we conceive, may be done, by breeding them up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat of some parts of nature, and who may be un
That no professor shall be a maried man, or divine, or lawyer in practice; only physie hederstood with as much ease and pleasure, as may be allowed to prescribe, because the study of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, and the duty of that is so great, that it will not suffer him to lose much time in mercenary practice.
those which are commonly taught; such are, in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part of Celsus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, Virgil's Georgies, Grotius, Nemesianus, Manilius: And the truth is,because we want good poets
That the professors shall, in the college, wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the│(I mean we have but few), who have purposely universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so. That they shall all keep an inviolable and exemplary friendship with one another; and that the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary mulet upon any one who shall be proved to have entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil language to his brother-professor; and that the perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the governors with expulsion.
That the chaplain shall eat at the master's table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the others do); and that he shall read prayers once a day at least, a little before supper-time; that he shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morning, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars and the school-boys: that he shall every mouth administer the holy sacrament; that he shall not trouble himself and his auditors with the Controversies of divinity, but only teach God in bis just commandments, and in his wonderful
THAT the school may be built so as to contain about two hundred boys.
treated of solid and learned, that is, natural matters (the most part indulging to the weakness of the world, and feeding it either with the follies of love or with the fables of gods and heroes), we conceive that one book ought to be compiled of all the scattered little parcels among the ancient poets that might serve for the advancement of natural science, and which would make no small or unuseful or un d'easant volume. To this we would have added the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the institutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, from whom almost all that necessary part of common discourse, and all the most intimate proprieties of the language, are drawn, we conceive, the boys may be made masters of them, as a part of their recreation, and not of their task, if once a month, or at least once in two, they act one of Terence's Comedies, and afterwards (the most advanced) some of Plautus's; and this is for many reasons one of the best exercises they can be enjoined, and most innocent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the Greek authors, they may study Nicander, Opianus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prefer above Homer himself, and place next to his adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals, and other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of plants, and a collection made out of several of both poets and other Grecian writers. For the morals and rhetoric, Aristo le may suffice, or Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the latter. With the history of animals they should be showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made to know the figures and natures of those creatures which are not common among us, disabusing them at the same time of those errours which are universally admitted concerning many. The saine method should be used to make them acquainted with all plants; and to this must be added a little of the ancient and modern geography, the understanding of the globes, and the principles of geometry and astronomy. They should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, and in all this travail be rather led on by familiarity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon festivals and play-times, they should exercise And, because it is deplorable to consider the themselves in the fields, by riding, leaping, fenekas which children make of their time at mosting, mustering, and training, after the manner
That it be divided into four classes, not as others are ordinarily into six or seven; because we suppose that the children sent hither, to be initiated in things as well as words, ought to have past the two or three first, and to have attained the age of about thirteen years, being already well advanced in the Latin grammar, and some authors.
That none, though never so rich, shall pay any thing for their teaching; and that, if any professor shall be convicted to have taken any inoney in consideration of his pains in the school, he shall be expelled with ignominy by the governors; but if any persons of great estate and quality, finding their sons much better proficients in learning here, than boys of the same age commonly are at other schools, shall not think fit to receive an obligation of so near concernment without returning some marks of acknowledgment, they may, if they please, (for nothing is to be demanded) bestow some little rarity or curiosity upon the society, in recompense of their trouble.
of soldiers, &c. And, to prevent all dangers and all disorder, there should always be two of the scholars with them, to be as witnesses and directors of their actions; in foul weather, it would not be amiss for them to learn to dance, that is, to learn just so much (for all beyond is superfluous, if not worse) as may give them a graceful comportment of their bodies.
Upon Sundays, and all days of devotion, they are to be a part of the chaplain's province.
That, for all these ends, the college so order it, as that there may be some convenient and pleasant houses thereabouts, kept by religious, discreet, and careful persons, for the lodging and boarding of young scholars; that they have a constant eye over them, to see that they be bred up there piously, cleanly, and plentifully, according to the proportion of the parents' expenses.
And that the college, when it shall please God, either by their own industry and success, or by the benevolence of patrons, to enrich them so far, as that it may come to their turn and duty to be charitable to others, shall, at their own charges, erect and maintain some house or houses for the entertainment of such poor men's sons, whose good natural parts may promise either use or ornament to the commonwealth, during the time of their abode at school; and shall take care that it shall he done with the same conveniences as are enjoyed even by rich men's children (though they maintain the fewer for that cause), there being nothing of eminent and illustrious to be expected from a low, sordid, and hospital-like education.
IF I be not much abused by a natural fondness to my own conceptions (that cogy of the Greeks, which no other language has a proper word for), there was never any project thought upon, which
deserves to meet with so few adversaries as this; for who can without impudent folly oppose the establishment of twenty well-selected persons in such a condition of life, that their whole business and sole profession may be to study the improvement and advantage of all other professions, from that of the highest general even to the lowest artisan? who shall be obliged to employ their whole time, wit, learning, and industry, to these four, the most useful that can be imagined, and to no other ends; first, to weigh, examine, and prove, all things of nature delivered to us by former ages; to detect, explode, and strike a censure through, all false monies with which the world has been paid and cheated so long; and (as I may say) to set the mark of the college upon all true coins, that they may pass hereafter without any farther trial: secendly, to recover the lost inventions, and, as it were, drowned lands of the ancients: thirdly, to improve all arts which we now have; and lastly, to discover others which we have not and who shall besides all this (as a be nefit by the by), give the best education in the world (purely gratis) to as many men's children as shall think fit to make use of the obligation? Neither does it at all check or interfere with any parties in a state or religion; but is indifferently to be embraced by all differences in opinion, and can hardly be conceived capable (as many good institutions have done) even of degeneration into any thing harmful. So that, all things considered, I will suppose this Proposition shall encounter with no enemies: the only question is, whether it will find friends enough to carry it on from discourse and design to reality and effect; the necessary expenses of the beginning (for it will maintain itself well enough afterwards) being so great (though I have set them as low as is possible, in order to so vast a work), that it may seem hopeless to raise such a sum out of those few dead relics of human charity and public generosity which are yet remaining in the world.