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As far up towards Heaven the branches grow, absolute tyrant of three kingdoms, which was So far the root sinks down to Hell below. the third, and almost touched the Heaven which
be affected, is believed to have died with grief and Another horrible disgrace to greatness is, that discontent, because he could not attain to the it is for the most par: in pitiful want and distress : honest name of a king, and the old formality of what a wonderful thing is this ! Unless it degene- a crown, though he had before exceeded the rate into avarice, and so cease to be greatness, it power by a wicked usurpation. If he could have falls perpetually into such necessities, as drive it compassed that, he would perhaps have wanted into all the meanest and most sordid ways of bor something else that is necessary to felicity, and rowing, cozenage, and robbery:
pined away for want of the t.tle of an emperor or
a god. The reason of this is, that greatness has Mancipiis locuples, eget æris Cappadocum rex6. no reality in nature, being a creature of the
fancy, a notion that consists only in relation and This is the case of almost all great men, as well comparison : it is indeed an idol ; but St. Paul as of the poor king of Cappadocia: they abound teaches us, “ that an idol is nothing in the with slaves, but are indigent of money. The an- world.” There is in truth no rising or meridian cient Roman emperors, who had the riches of the of the Sun, but only in respect to several places: whole world for their revenue, bad wherewithal to there is no right or left, no upper-hand in nalive (one would have thought) pretty well at ease, ture; every thing is little, and every thing is and to have been exempt from the pressures of great, according as it is diversely compared, extreme poverty. But yet with most of them it There may be perhaps some village in Scotland was much otherwise; and they fell perpetually or Ireland, where I might be a great man: and into such miserable
penury, that they were forced in that case I should be like Cæsar (you would to devour or squeeze most of their friends and wonder how Cæsar and I should be like one anoservants, to cheat with infamous projects, to ran- ther in any thing); and choose rather to be the sack and pillage all their provinces. This fashion first man of the village, than second at Rome. of imperial grandeur is imitated by all inferior Our country is called Grcat Britany, in regard and subordinate sorts of it, as if it were a point of only of a lesser of the same name; it would be honour. They must be cheated of a third part but a ridiculous epithet for it, when we consider of their estates, two other thirds they must expend it together with the kingdom of China. That, in vanity; so that they remain debtors for all the too, is but a pitiful rood of ground, in comparison necessary provisions of life, and have no way to of the whole Earth besides : and this whole globe satisfy those debts, but out of the succours and of Earth, which we account so immense a body, supplies of rapine: “ as riches increase" (says is but one point or atom in relation to those numSolomon) so do the mouths that devour berless worlds that are scattered up and down them 7.” The master mouth bas no more than in the infinite space of the sky which we be. before. The owner, methinks, is like Ocnus in hold. the fable, who is perpetually winding a rope of The other many inconveniences of grandeur I hay, and an ass at the end perpetually eating have spoken of dispersed!y in several chapters; it.
and shall end this with an ode of Horace, not Out of these inconveniences ariscs naturally exactly copied, but truly imitated. one more, which is, that no greatness can be satisfied or contented with itself: still, if it could mount
tip little higher, it would be happy, if it could gain but that point, it would obtain all its
HORACE. Lib. III. Ode I. desires; but yet at last, when it is got up to the very top of the Pic of Teneriff, it is in very great
Odi profanum vulgus, &c. danger of breaking its neck downwards, but in no
Hexcf, ye profane ; I hate you all; possibility of ascending upwards into the seat of tranquillity above the Moon. The first ambitious
Both the great vulgar, and tire small. men in the world, the old giants, are said to have To virgin minds, which yet their native whiteinade an heroical attempt of scaling Heaven in
ness hold, despite of the gods : and they cast Ossa upon
Not yet discolour'd with the love of gold Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa : two or three which makes it look so gilded and so foul),
(That jaundice of the soul, mountains more, they thought, would have done to you, ye very few, these truths I tell; Cheir business: but the thunder spoilt all the work, The Muse inspires my song; hark, and observe when they were come up to the third story:
it well. And what a noble plot was crost! And a hat a brave design was lost !
We look on men, and wonder at such odds
"I'wixt things that were the same by birth , A famous person of their effspring, the late
We look on kings as giants of the Earth, giant of our nation, when from the condition of a
These giants are but pigmies to the gods.
The humblest bush and proudest oak very irconsiderable captain, he had made himself lienta nant-general of an army of little Titans, Beauty, and strength, and wit, and wealth, and
Are but of equal proof against the thunder-stroke. which was his first mountain, and afterwards gorieral, which was his second, and atter that,
And love to see themselves, and smile,
? Eccl. r. Il And joy in their pre-eminence awhile ;
Ev'n so in the same land,
[stand ; second is like the foolish chough, which loves to Poor weels, rich corn, gay flowers, together steal money only to hide it. The first does Alas! Death mows down all with an impartial much harm to mankind; and a little good too, hand.
to some few : the second does good to none;
no, not to himself. The first can make no exAnd all ye men, whom greatness does so please, cuse to God, or angels, or rational men, for his Ye feast, I fear, like Damocles :
actions : the second can give no reason or coIf ye your eyes could upwards move
lour, not to the Devil himself, for what he does; (But ye, I fear, think nothing is above)
he is a slave to Mammon without wages. The Ye would perceive by what a little thread first makes a shift to be beloved; ay, and envied
The sword still hangs over your head: too by some people; the second is the universal No tide of wine would drown your cares ;
object of hatred and contempt. There is no No mirth or music over-noise your fears :
vice has been so pelted with good sentences, and The fear of Death would you so watchful keep, especially by the poets, who have pursued it As not t'admit the image of it, Sleep.
with stories, and fables, and allegories, and al
lusions; and moved, as we say, every stone to Sleep, is a god too proud to wait in palaces, Oing at it: among all which I do not remember And yet so humble too, as not to scorn
a more fine and gentleman-like correction, than The meanest country cottages :
that which was given it by one line of Ovid :
In any stormy breast.
Much is wanting to luxury, all to avarice.
To which saying, I have a mind to add one 'Tis not enough; he must find quiet too. member, and tender it thus, The man, who in all wishes he does make, Poverty wants some, luxury many, avarice all Does only Nature's cowusel take,
things. That vise and happy man will never fear The evil aspects of the year;
Somebody says 8 of a virtuous and wise man, Nor tremble, though two comets sbould appear;
“ that having nothing, he has all :" this is just He does not look in almanacs, to see
his antipode, who, having all things, yet has Whether he fortunate shall be;
nothing. He is a guardian eunuch to his beLet Mars and Saturn in the heavens conjoin,
lored gold: divi eos amatores esse maximos, And what they please against the world design, sed nil potesse. They are the fondest lovers, So Jupiter within him shine.
but impotent to enjoy. If of your pleasures and desires no end be found, And, oh, what man's condition can be worse God to your cares and fears will set no bound. Than his, whom plenty starves, and blessings What would content you? who can tell ?
curse; Ye fear so much to lose what ye have got,
The beggars but a common fate deplore,
The rich poor man's emphatically poor.
I wonder how it comes to pass, that there has Spare nought that may yourwanton fancy please; never been any law made against him: against
Lut, trust me, when you have done all this, him do I say? I mean, for bim : as there are Much will be missing still, and much will be public provisions made for all other madmen: amiss.
it is very reasonable that the king should appoint some persons (and I think the courtiers would not be against this proposition) to manage his
estate during his life (for his heirs commonly VII.
need not that care): and out of it to make it
their business to see, that he should not wait OF AVARICE.
alimony befitting his condition, which he could
never get out of his own cruel fingers. We reTacre are two sorts of ararice: the one is but but have no care at all of these really poor me!!,
lieve idle vagrants, and counterfeit beggars; of a bastard kind, and that is, the rapacious appetite of gain; not for its own sake, but for the who are, methinks, to be respectfully treated, in pleasure of refunding it immediately through all regard of their quality. I might be endless . the channels of pride and luxury: the other is against them, but I am almost choaked with the the true kind, and properly so called; which is super-abundance of the matter ; too much plen. a restless and unsatiable desire of riches, nor for any farther end or use, but only to hoard, • The author, well acquaivted with the taste of and preserve, and perpetually increase them. his readers, would not disgust their delicacy by The covetons man, of the first kind, is like a letting them know that this “ somebody " was freely ostrich, which devours any metal; but St. Paul, [2 Cor. vi. 10.]—though the sense it is with an intent to feed upon it, and in effect, and expression would have done honour to Plato. it makes a shift to digest and excern it. The HURD.
ty impoverishes me, as it does them. I will j Do you within the bounds of nature live, conclude this odious subject with part of Ho- And to augment your own you need not strive; race's first satire, wbich take in his own familiar One hundred acres will no less for you style:
Your life's whole business, than ten thousand, do.
But pleasant 'tis to take from a great store. I admire, Mæcenas, how it comes to pass, What, man ! though you 're resolv'd to take no That no man ever yet contented was, Nor is, nor perhaps will be, with that state Than I do from a small one? If your will In which his own choice plants him, or his fate. Be but a pitcher or a pot to fill, l'appy the merchant, the old soldier cries : To some great river for it must you go, The merchant, beaten with tempestuous skies, When a clear spring just at your feet does now! Happy the soldier ! one half-hour to thee Give me the spring, which does to human use Gives speedy death, or glorious victory : Safe, easy, and untroubled stores produce ; The lawyer, knockt up early from his rest He who scorns these, and nceds will drink at Nile, By restless clients, calls the peasant blest : Must run the danger ofthe crocodile, The peasant, when his labours ill succeed, And of the rapid stream itself, which may, Envies the mouth, which only talk does feed. At unawares, bear bim perhaps away. "Tis not (I think you 'll say) that I want store In a full flood Tantalus stands, his skin Of instances, if here I add no more;
Wash'd o'er in vain, for ever dry within : They are enough to reach, at least a mile, He catches at the stream with greedy lips, Beyond long orator Fabius's style.
From his toucht mouth the wanton torrent slips: But hold, ye, whom no furtune e'er endears, You laugh now, and expand your careful brow; Gentlemen, malecontents, and mutineers, "Tis finely said, but what's all this to you? Who bounteous Jove so often cruel call,
Change but the name, this fable is thy story, 'Behold, Jove's now resolv'd to please you all. Thou in a flood of useless wealth dost glory, Thou soldier, be merchant: merchant, thou Which thou canst only touch, but never taste; A soldier be: and lawyer, to the plough. Th'abundance still, and still the want, does last. Change all your stations straight: wby do they stay. The treasures of the gods thou would'st not spare: The devil a man will change, now when he may. But when they're made thine own, they sacred Were I in general Jove's abused case,
are, By Jove I'd cudgel this rebellious race:
And must be kept with reverence; as if thou But he's too good; be all, then, as ye were ; No other use of precious gold didst know, However, make the best of what ye are,
But that of curious pictures, to delight, And in that state be cheerful and rejoice, With the fair stamp, thy virtuoso sight, Wbich either was your fate, or was your choice. The only true and genuine use is tbis, No, they must labour yet, and sweat, and toil, To buy the things, which nature cannot miss And very miserable be awhile;
Without discomfort; oil and vital bread, But 'tis with a design only to gain
And wine, by which the life of life is ted, What may their age with plenteous ease main. And all those few things else by which we live: tain.
All that remains, is giv'n for thee to give. The prudent pismire does this lesson teach, If cares and troubles, enry, grief, and fear, And industry to lazy mankind preach:
The bitter-fruits be, which fair riches bear; 'The little drudge does trot about and sweat, If a new poverty grow out of store; Nor does he straight devour all he can get ; The old plain way, ye gods ! let me be poor. Bnt in his temperate mouth carries it home A stock for winter, which he kuow's must come. And, when the rolling world to creatures bere Turns up the delorı'd wrong-side of the year, Ant shuts him in, with storms, and cold, and
Paraphrase on Horace, B. III. Od. xvi. wet, He cheerfully does his past labours eat:
A Tower of hrass, one would have said, 0, does he su? your wise example, th' ant,
And lucks, and bolts, and iron bars, Does not, at all times, rest and plenty want;
And guards, as strict as in the heat of wars, But, weighing justly a mortal ant's condition, Might have preserv'd one innocent maidenhead, Divides his lite 'twist labour and fruition. The jealous father thought he well might spare Thee, neither heat, nor storins, nor wet, nor cold, All further jealous care; Fruin thy unnatural diligence can withhold : And, as he walk'd, t' himself alone he smild, To th' Indies thou would'st run, rather than see To think how Venus' arts he had beguii'd; Another, though a friend, richer than thee.
And, when he slçpt, his rest was deep : Fond inam ! what good or beauty can be found But Venus laugh'd to see and hear bim sleep. In heaps of treasure, buried under ground ?
She taught the amorous Jove Which rather than diminish'd e'er to see,
A magical receipt in love, Thou would'st thyself, too, buried with thein be: Which arm'd him stronger, and which help'd bin Aud wbat's the difference " is 't not quite as bad
more, Never to usc, as never to have had ?
Than all his thunder did, and his almighty-ship In thy vast barns millions of quarters store;
before. Thy belly, for all that, will hold no more She taught him lore's elixir, by wbich art Than mine dues. Every baker makes much bread: His godhead into gold he did conrert: What then? He's with no more, than others, No guards did then his passage stay, fed.
He pass'd with ease; gold was the word;
Subtle as lightning, bright, and quick, and fierce, and draw up all bridges against so numerous an
Gold through doors and walls did pierce. enemy.
The truth of it is, that a man in much business To blow up towns, a golden mine did spring, must either make himself a knave, or else the
He broke through gates with his petar; world will make him a fool: and, if the injury 'Tis the great art of peace, the engine 'tis of war; went no farther than the being laught at, a wise And fleets and armies follow it afar:
man would content himself with the revenge of The ensign 'tis at land, and 'tis the seaman's star. retaliation ; but the case is much worse, for these
civil cannibals too, as well as the wild ones, not Let all the world slave to this tyrant be,
only dance about such a taken stranger, but at Creature to this disguised deity,
last devour him. A sober man cannot get too Yet it shall never conquer me.
soon out of drunken company, though they be A guard of virtues will not let it pass.
never so kind and merry among themselves ; it is And wisdom is a tower of stronger brass.
not unpleasant only, but dangerous, to him. "The Muses' laurel, round my temples spread, Do ye wonder that a virtuous man should love Does from this lightning's force secure my head : to be alone? It is hard for him to be otherwise ; Nor will I lift it up so high,
he is so, when he is among ten thousand : neither As in the violent meteor's way to lie.
is the solitude so uncomfortable to be alone withWealth for its power do we honour and adore ? out any other creature, as it is to be alone in the The things we hate, ill-fate and death, have midst of wild beasts. Man is to man all kind of more.
beasts ; a fawning dog, a roaring lion, a thieving
fox, a robbing wolf, a dissembling crocodile, a From towns and courts, camps of the rich and treacherous decoy, and a rapacious vulture. The great,
civilist, methinks, of all nations, are those whom The vast Xerxean army, I retreat;
we account the most barbarous ; there is some And to the small Laconic forces fly,
moderation and good-nature in the ToupinamWhich holds the straits of poverty.
baltians, who eat no men but their enemies, whilst Cellars and granaries in vain we fill,
we learned and polite and Christian Europeans, With all the bounteous Summer's store, like so many pikes and sharks, prey upon every If the mind thirst and hunger still :
thing that we can swallow, It is the great boast The poor rich man's emphatically poor.
of eloquence and philosophy, that they first conSlares to the things we too much prize, gregated men dispersed, united them into socieWe masters grow of all that we despise.
ties, and built up the houses and the walls of cities.
I wish they could unravel all they had woven; A field of corn, a fountain, and a wood,
that we might have our woods and our innocence Is all the wealth by nature understood.
again, instead of our castles and our policies. They The monarch, on whom fertile Nile bestows have assembled many thousands of scattered peo
All which that grateful earth can bear, ple into one body: it is true, they have done so ; Deceives himself, if he suppose
they have brought them together into cities to That more than this falls to his share, cozen, and into armies to murder, one another : Whatever an estate does beyond this afford, they found thein hunters and fishers of wild creaIs not a rent paid to the lord :
tures : they have made them hunters and fishers But is a tax illegal and unjust,
of their bretheren : they boast to have reduced Exacted from it by the tyrant Lust.
them to a state of peace, when the truth is, they Much will always wanting be,
have only taught them an art of war : they have To bim who much desires. Thrice happy he framed, I must confess, wholesome laws for the To whom the wise indulgency of Heaven,
restraint of vice, but they raised first that devil, With sparing hand, but just enough has given. which now they conjure anıl cannot bind : though
there were before no punishments for wickedness, yet there was less committed, because there were
no rewards for it. VIII.
But the men, who praise philosophy from this
topic, are much deceived : let oratory answer THE DANGERS OF AN HONEST MAN for itself, the tinkling perhaps of that may unite IN MUCH COMPANY.
a swarm ; it never was the work of philosophy to asseinble multitudes, but to regulate only, and
govern them.when they were assembled; to make If twenty thousand naked Americans were not the best of an evil, and bring them, as mich able to resist the assaults of but twenty well-armed as is possible, to unity again. Avarice and ama Spaniards, I see little possibility for one honest bition only were the first builders of towns, and man to defend himself against twenty thousand founders of empire; they said, “ Go to, let us koaves who are all furnished cap à pé, with the build us a city and a tower whose top may reach defensive arins of worldy prudence, and the offen- unto Heaven, and let us make us a name, lest sire too of craft and malice. He will find no less we be scattered abroad upon the face of the odds than this against him, if he have much to do carth 9.” What was the beginning of Rome, the in human affairs. The only advice therefore which metropolis of all the world > What was it, but a I can give himn is, to be sure not to venture bis concourse of thieves, and a sanctuary of eriiniperson any longer in the open canıpaign, to retreat and entrench bimself, to stop up all avenues,
9 Gen. xi. 4. VOL. VII.
nals? It was justly named by the augury of no the cleanly; the sight of folly and impiety, less than twelve vultures, and the founder cement- vexations to the wise and pious. ed his walls with the blood of his brother. Not Lucretius ?, by his frvour, though a good poet, unlike to this was the beginning even of the first was but an ill-natured man, when he said, it was town too in the world, and such is the original delightful to see other men in a great storm: and sin of most cities: their actual increase daily no less ill-natured should I think Democritus, with their age and growth; the more people, the who laughed at all the world, but that he retired more wicked all of them; every one brings in his himself so much ont of it, that we may perceire part to inflame the contagion: which becomes he took no great pleasure in that kind of nirth. at last so universal and so strong, that vo pre- I have been drawn twice or thrice by company cepts can be sufficient preservatives, nor any to go to Bedlam, and have seen others very much thing secure our safety, but fligbt from among delighted with the fantastical extravagancy of the infected.
so many various madnesses; which upon me We ought, in the choice of a situation, to re- wrought so contrary an effect, that I always gard above all things the healthfulness of the returned, not only melancholy, but even sick place, and the healthfulness of it for the mind, with the sight. My compassion there was perrather than for the body. But suppose (which haps 100 tender, for I meet a thousand madmen is hardly to be supposed) we had antidote enough abroad, without any perturbation ; tho', to weigh against this poison; nay, suppose further, we the matter justly, the total loss of reason is less were always and at all points armed and provide deplorable than the total depravation of it. An ed, both against the assaults of hostility, and exact judge of human blessings, of riches, hothe mines of treachery, it will yet be but an un- rours, beauty, even of wit itself, should pity the comfortable life to be ever in alarms; though abuse of them, more than the want. we were compassed round with fire, to defend Briefly, though a wise man could pass never ourselves from wild beasts, the lodging would be so securely thruagh the great roads of human unpleasant, because we must always be, obliged life, yet he will meet perpetually with so many to watch that tire, and to fear no less the defects objects and occasions of compassion, grief, shame, of our guard, than the diligences of our enemy. anger, hatred, indignation, and all passions but The sum of this is, that a virtuous man is in dan- envy (for he will find nothing to deserve that), ger to be trod upon and destroyed in the crowd that he had better strike into some private path; of his contraries, nay, which is worse, to be chan- nay, go so far, if he could, out of the common ged and corrupted by them; and that it is im- way, ut nec facta audiat Pelopidaruin ; that possible to escape both these inconveniencies, he might not so much as hear of the actions of without so much caution as will take away the the sons of Adam. But, whither shall we fly whole quiet, that is the happiness, of his life. then ? into the deserts, like the ancient herinits?
Ye see then, what he may lose; but, I pray, what can he get there?
-Quà terra patet, fera regnat Erinnys,
In facinus jarâsse pules
One would think that all mankind had bound What should a man of truth and honesty do at themselves by an oath to do all the wickedness Rome? he can neither understand nor speak the they can; that they had all (as the scripture language of the place; a naked man may swim speaks) “ sold themselves to sin :" the difference in the sea, but it is not the way to catch tish only is, that some are a little more crafty (and there; they are likelier to devour him, than he but a little, God knows) in making of the bargain. them, if he bring no nets, and use no deceits. II thought, when I first went to dwell in the counthink therefore it was wise and friendly advice, i try, that withont doubt I should have met there which Martial gave to Fabian, when he met him with the simplicity of the old poetical golden age; deniy arrived at Rome:
I thought to have found no inhabitants there,
but such as the shepherds of sir Phil. Sydney Honest and poor, faithful in word and thought; in Arcadia, or of Monsieur d'Urfé upon the banks What has thee, Fabian, to the city brought? of Lignon ; and began to consider with myself, Thou neither the buffoon nor bawd canst which way I might recommend no less to posteplay,
rity the happiness and innocence of the men of Nor with false whispers th' innocent betray: Chertsea : but to confess the truth, I perceived Nor corrupt wives, nor from rich beldams get quickly, by infallible demonstrations, that I was A living by thy industry and sweat;
still in Old England, and not in Arcadia or La Nor with vain promises and projects cheat, Forrest ; that, if I could not content myself with Nor bribe or flatter any of the great.
any thing less than exact fidelity in human conBut you ’re a man of learning, prudent, just; versation, I had almost as good go back and seek A map of courage, firm, and fit for trust. for it in the Court, or the Exchange, or WestWhy you may stay and live unenviel here; minster-hall. I ask again, then, whither shall we But (faith) go back, and keep you where you Ay, or what shall we do? The world may so come
in a man's way, that he cannot choose but salute
it; he must take heed, though, not to go a whor. Nay, if nothing of all these were in the case, ing after it. If, by any lawful vocation, or just yet the very sight of uocleanness is loathsome to
2 Lucr. lib. ij. "Juv. Sat. iii. 41.
3 Ovid. Metam. i. 241.