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6. State the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction.
7. Name the three powers of government, in what officers each is vested, and by whom and for what periods such officers are chosen.
8. Define an ex post facto law.
CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF IOWA.
TIME, FORTY-FIVE MINUTES.
1. What is the title of the presiding officer of the Senate? How is he chosen?
2. What is the title of the presiding officer of the House? How is he chosen?
3. What restriction does the Constitution make regarding duelling? 4. Give the names of the State officers, and the office that each fills.
5. Can private property be taken for public use without compensation? Explain.
6. What record must the journal of each House show on the final passage of a bill?
7. When does a law passed by the General Assembly take effect?
8. Does the State give pecuniary aid to county Agricultural Societies? Explain.
9. In what respect do the functions of the District Courts differ from those of the Circuit Courts?
10. How can the Constitution be amended? Give the process.
DIDACTICS-THEORY OF EDUCATION.
TIME, ONE HOUR AND THIRTY MINUTES.
1. Describe the conditions and qualities of a person educated up to your ideal standard,
2. Enumerate the forces or agencies that mould and educate the human being.
3. Which division of education belongs particularly to the schools? Give your reasons.
4. Write a few lines concisely explaining and defining teaching. 5. What is knowledge? Give an extended answer.
6. In what way does memory differ from knowing? In what divisions of knowledge does simple memory constitute complete knowing?
7. What conditions in the intellect and feelings of a pupil favoring his efforts to acquire knowledge should you induce and maintain during study and recitation? 8. What is the meaning and application of the term “ method
as used by writers on Didactics?
9. Discuss the two distinctive methods of intellectual movement by which the learner acquires knowledge.
10. What are the conditions upon which good government for any school can be secured?
TIME, ONE HOUR.
1. Describe what your pupils should be able to do in Reading on the completion of the Second Reader? Of the Third Reader? Of the Fourth Reader? Of the Fifth Reader?
2. What results should be reached in number lessons at the end of the first year?
3. Explain your treatment of fractions when teaching pupils just entering upon this subject.
4. Discuss the principle called self-activity in pupils. When is it violated and when maintained?
5. What principles underlie the art of questioning?
6. Indicate the development by inductive teaching of some rule in arithmetic, as that of “pointing off” in multiplication of decimals.
7. What faculties does a well devised system of Object Lessons tend to development and discipline?
8. Describe the features of a well-conducted recitation in Geography, Grammar grade.
9. What are the names of the usual grades in a city school system? Indicate the work in Arithmetic to be done in each grade.
10. What elements in the character and policy of the teacher will produce good government?
The fee for a State certificate is three dollars, and the holder is authorized to teach in any of the public schools of the State for a term of five years. The law requires that in case applicants fail to receive diplomas or certificates one half of the fee required shall be returned.
No. of applicants......
Amount on hand and paid over to State treasurer..
The number of applicants has not been as large as was expected, and yet it is equal to that of other States for the first year after the organization of similar boards.
Many of our teachers are reviewing and preparing for the next examination, which will be held in Davenport the coming month of August.
Before closing this report I desire to call attention to the apparent deficits of the various school funds for the
I do not think it at all probable that this is an actual shortage. It arises, no doubt, from the practice of borrowing from one fund in favor of another, which, in many cases, swells the receipts beyond what they really are. It may also be accounted for in part by carelessness and inefficiency of school officers, and furnishes a strong argument in favor of a consolidation of funds. It should also be stated that county superintendents are required to copy the original reports of secretaries and treasurers in reporting to this department. The item, “Paid for other purposes,” is frequently erroneously reported as “Amount on hand.” Wherever this mistake was made for the year 1881 it goes to swell the apparent deficit of the present report.
With the utmost faith in the future growth and efficiency of our schools, and yet with a keen sense of the imperfections of our laws, which I trust will be speedily remedied, this report is most repectfully submitted.
J. W. AKERS, Superintendent Public Instruction.
ESSAYS UPON EDUCATIONAL QUESTIONS.
COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL.
BY PROF. R. D. JONES, OF GUTHRIE COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL.
" This system of high schools
is the identical plan recommended by the immortal Jefferson to the legislature of Virginia, the next year after he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
** Iowa, then the possession of a foreign prince, afterward annexed to the l'nited States by his far-seeing policy, was first to adopt his stateman-like system of public instruction.”
The foregoing statement we find in the report for 1858, made by the Hon. Maturin L. Fisher, then State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
It is interesting to note that the conception of the county high school system originated in the fertile brain of that man of ideas, Thomas Jefferson, he who meditated upon the sources of law, and the origin of liberty, and was proficient upon the violin; who pondered on profound problems of political science; and, when Minister Plenipotentiary to France, sent seed, and shrubs and plants to the farmers of America; who drafted with equal ease a Declaration of Independence, and a model mould-board for an improved plow; who was the founder of the Democratic party, as well as of schools and colleges. Truly he was a man of versatile and remarkable talents!
How extensively this county high school system of Jefferson has been established in other States, I have no means of ascertaining. In Iowa a law was passed March 12, 1858, authorizing the establishment of county high schools, and providing certain aid by the State. This law was repealed December 28, of the same year. During the short period in which it was in force a county high school was established at Albion, Marshall county, but the law under which it was estabished
having been repealed, and not realizing the aid promised by the State, after a year or two the school suspended.
Nothing was then done until the year 1870, when Senator Marcus Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo county, introduced a bill authorizing counties to's establish and sustain a high school for the benefit of those who desire a more advanced education than the ordinary schools of the county afford, and for those who desire to fit themselves for the vocation of teaching." The bill became a law.
The bill became a law. This law was slightly modified in 1873, but has since remained unchanged.
As yet, there is but one such school in the State. In 1874 the people of Guthrie county voted to establish a county high school. The school opened January, 1876, with about fifty pupils. The enrollment during the school year, ending May 18, 1883, was one hundred and forty.
The board of trustees consists of six members besides the county superintendent, who is president ex officio. Two trustees are elected each year by the people, just as other county officers are elected.
It is intended that these trustees shall represent different sections of the county. One of the trustees lives thirty miles from the school. Some others live nearly as far away. More responsibility must rest upon the principal of the school than in the ordinary city high school.
The school is supported by a tax upon all the property in the county. The average tax is about five eighths of one mill. A man in reality worth $5,000 is assessed at one-third of this, or less, and pays about $1 per year for the support of the county high school. But the majority of the men in Guthrie county do not pay taxes on $5,000 worth of property, and, therefore, do not pay even so much as $1 per year for the support of the school. The railroads and non-residents pay, I think, at least one-fourth of the expenses of higher education in Guthrie county ; but, so far as I know, they do not complain. They realize that it pays to educate. They have the commendable spirit of the Hon. John I. Blair, who, though a resident of New Jersey, is said to have paid one million dollars of school taxes in Iowa and who has done so gladly, because he believes that it costs less to sustain schools than it does penitentiaries, that in the end it is cheaper to employ teachers than policemen.
Guthrie county, being comparatively new, is not blessed with large towns, nor well equipped high schools. This school has, therefore, afforded an opportunity to many young and men women to obtain an education which they could not otherwise have acquired.