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hoftilities; the third consists of the treaties of peace, and the transactions relative to their ratification, with some general reflections on the consequences of the war.

It fhould be remembered, that the campaign here recorded was the third of our war with Tippoo Sultan. The first commenced in June 1790, and concluded with that year. It was confined below. the Ghauts. The second campaign contained the capture of Bangalore, which fixed the feat of war in the enemy's country, and concluded with the retreat of Lord Cornwallis from Seringapatam, towards the end of May 1791. The third commences almost from that point, and terminates in March 1792. Observing, however, as the author very properly states, that, in the fine climate of Mysore, campaigns are regulated rather by plans of operations, than by feafons.

The narrative commences with unfavourable circumstances; the retreat of the two armies under General Abercromby and Lord Cornwallis ; the loss of cannon in both; an epidemic disorder among the cattle; and a dreadful scarcity of grain. These evils, however, vanish by degrees; the junction of the Mahrattas affords a supply of necessaries, arrangements are made for obtaining in future the most ample and regular provifion of bullocks and grain, and for replacing the battering guns. On the return of the army to the vicinity of Bangalore, the operations began which were to secure the communication with the Carnatic, and reduce the power of the enemy in those parts. The British force was immediately and successfully employed to reduce Ousfoor, Rayacotta, and the other hill. forts commanding the Policode Pass. The next object was the forts to the north-east of Bangalore, which interrupted the communication with the Nižam's army, and with the Carnatic, by that route. These being soon reduced, Nundydroog, a place of greater magnitude and strength, was attacked, and, after being besieged from Sept. 22d, was carried by asfault, on the 18th of October, in spite of obstacles which might reasonably

have been deemed insurmountable. In this part of the narra· rative we have an anecdote of General Medows, which reminds

us of some traits recorded of the generals of antiquity. When every difpofition had been made for the assault, fome perfun unthinkingly mentioned, in the hearing of the troops, that a mine was 'reported to be near the breach, General Medows, with that promptitude which marks his character, replied, if there be a mine, it must be a mine of gold.” p. 46.

By means of dispositions made for that purpose, fupplies of all kinds now came in from the Carnatic. Penagra was taken at the end of October ; and Kistnagheri attacked on the 7th of November : this was almost the only enterprise that was not


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completely successful, the lower fort and pettah were taken; but the upper fort maintained its defence, and the attack was relinquished. It seems that it could only have been carried by a coup de main, which unluckily failed. On the 2d of the same month another instance of ill success happened to us, the relief of Coimbetore having been prevented,

that garrison was obliged to capitulate to Cummer-ud-Deen Cawn, on terms which Tippoo did not afterwards fulfil.

Savendroog, or the Rock of Death, bore witness, in the month of December, to the invincible ardour and perseverance of the British troops. This fortress standing in the way between Bangalore and Seringapatam, is thus described : It is so

a vast mountain of rock, and is reckoned to rise above half a mile in perpendicular height, from a base of eight or ten miles in circumference. Embraced by walls on every side, and defended by cross walls and barriers, wherever it was deemed accessible ; this huge mountain had the farther advantage of being divided above by a chasm which separates the upper part into two hills, which, having each their defences, form two citadels capable of being maintained independent of the lower works; and, affording a secure retreat, should encourage the garrison to hold out to the last extremity:" p. 67. It is also famed no less for its noxious atmosphere, occasioned by the surrounding hills and woods, than for its wonderful fize and strength. Hence it derives its formidable name.

The Sultan is said to have flattered himself, that before this place “ half the Europeans would die of sickness, the other half be killed in the attack.” He was, however, mistaken, The garrison, fortunately for us, trusted more to the strength of the place than to their own exertions, and on the 21st of December, only the lith day of the siege, this fortress, hitherto deemed impregnable, was taken by assault, in less than an hour, in open day, without the loss of a man, only one private soldier having been wounded.

Outredroog and other forts successively fell after this brilliant success. The forces of the allies were not equally fortunate during the same interval. The army of the Nizam, after a long siege of Gurramcondah, drew off to join our forces, and only left the place blockaded. To make amends for this failure, the Mahratta army under Purseram Bhow, assisted by our Engineers, took Hooly Onore, Bankapoor, Simoga, and other places. By the latter end of January 1792, the whole allied force, except ing the Bombay army, was assembled in the vicinity of Hooleadroog.

We now come to the second part of the narrative: the operations against Seringapatam. On the ift of February the

allies began their march, and by two o'clock on the 5th, were encamped across the valley of Milgotah, only six miles from the position of Tippoo before Seringapatam. It could not well be expected by the sultan, that he should receive fo early an attack as Lord Cornwallis destined for him. His camp was strongly situated and fortified by a bound hedge and several redoubts. Nevertheless, after causing his position to be reconnoitred in the morning of the 6th, the commander in chief ifsued orders for the attack that very evening. The army was to march at night in three divisions, and without cannon. “ The plan of attack, says Major Dirom, was indeed bold beyond the expectation of our army ; but, like a discovery in science, which excites admiration when disclosed, it had only to be known to meet with general applause.” The outlines of this great enterprise are generally known; the particulars cannot be detailed in this place, but are related with great clear . ness by the historian, and so illustrated by the attendant plans, that the circumstances cannot be mistaken. The only appearance of partiality in the whole narrative, is the fair colour given in this account to the error of the right division, and the suppression of the formidable consequences which we understood to be very near ensuing from it: and even this may

deserve the name of delicacy, rather than partiality. Major Dirom him. self was with Col. Nesbitt at the head of this column.

The result of this operation was, that Tippoo was driven from his camp into Seringapatam, all his redoubts taken, and a lodgment established on the island, in a strong position, where Lieut. Stuart remained pofted. All possible preparations were made, from this time, for taking the capital by alfault : and they were such as probably would have been crowned with full success. On the 16th of February, the Bombay army, under General Abercromby, after overcoming various obstacles, joined the main army, and remained posted to the north-west of the city. On the 19th, it was stationed on the south side of the Cavery, in a situation that seemed to give the Sultan much uneasiness. However, after attacking the advanced post of this army, on the night of the 21st, Tippoo made no further effort; and on the 24th, when the preparations for the general assault were in great forwardness, it was announced that preliminaries of peace were settled. The conferences for this purpose had begun on the 15th; but the operations, on both sides, continued till the 24th. After the cessation of arms which then took place, the conduct of Tippoo Sultan was so equivocal and sufpicious, as to make it necessary, on our part, to renew the preparations for the siege. Overawed, at length, by the firmness and decision of Lord Cornwallis, and probably alarmed by the discon


tent of his own people, the reluctant Sultan fubmitted to all the tenns proposed; and, on the 19th of March, thecopies of the definitive treaty were delivered in form, by his sons, to Lord Cornwallis, and the agents of the allied princes. The Nizam's fon, Prince Secunder Jah, and the Mahratta plenipotentiary Hurry Punt, thought it beneath their dignity to be present on this occafion in perfon, and were represented by their vakeels.

Thus ended a war, which, as the author fums it up in his conclufion, “Vindicated the honour of the nation, has given the additional poffeffions and security to the settlements in India which they required; has effected the wished-for balance amongst the native powers on the peninsula; has, beyond all former example, raised the character of the British arms in India; and has afforded an instance of good faith in alliance, and moderation in conqueft, fo eminent, as ought to constitute the Englith arbiters of power; worthy of holding the sword, and scales of justice in the East."

The general view of advantages gained by us in this war, may be briefly stated thus:-1. Our most formidable enemy is so reduced by it, as to render our possessions in India both profitable and secure.--2. Madras is secured from invasion by poffeffion of the pafles, and covered by a territory defended by strong forts.----3. The value of Bombay is greatly enhanced by poffef fions gained on the Malabar coast

, protected by Paligautcherry and the frontier of the Coorga Rajah. These advantages, it may be presumed, will far overbalance the expences of the war. By a statement in chap. iii. part iii. it appears, that Tippoo loft in this war 67 forts, 801 cannons, and 49.340 men.

In the details of this narrative many interesting particulars occur, among which we fhall select a few. The following description of the march of our allies is particularly striking:

• In marching to the eaftward, the armies of the allies encamping in the rear of our army, then fronting Savendroog, were not disturbed in the mornings by our march: and having sometimes to pass beyond our camp to their ground, it was highly entertaining to see them in motion the whole day; the chiefs in different groups'a Moguls and Mahrattas alternately, themselves and their principal attendants mounted on elephants, diftinguished by their state-flags and nagars, also borne on elephants. They were furrounded by cavalry, with their various standards, and preceded by their bards, and bands of music, who sung the praises of their masters, and the heroes of their nation. Group fucceeding group; elephants, camels, pikemen, standard-bearers; horsemen innu

numerable, armed with sword and shield, with lances, bows and arrows, and every variety of ancient and modern arms and armour ; tilts and tournaments for exercise, and a continual discharge of pistols and carabines, displayed the jubilee of their march. A spectacle fo wild and irregular, yet fo grand and intereiting, resembled more the visions of romance, than


any allemblage that can be fupposed to have existence in real life!" P. 23

In the fort of Oussoor were found the melancholy traces of the fate of some of our countrymen, who had fallen a sacrifice to the cruelty of Tippoo: the circumstances are thus related :

• In one of the forehouses in the fort (a kind of laboratory, where the military stores were kept), there was a little journal found, in English, by which it appeared that some Europeans had been confinedh ere, and mentioned the work the person who wrote it had done as a carpenter. Some poor people, who remained in the pettah, said there had been three Europeans, one of them called Hamilton, prisoners at this place ; who were all very much re{pected, and regretted by the inhabitants; that they were alive till after the capture of Bangalore, when Tippoo sent orders to put them to death; that the killedar, who was a man of great humanity, evaded the fire order, but the second came by a messenger, who was

instructed to see it carried into execution. They řewed the place where the unfortunate men were beheaded and buried; and, on digging up the graves, the heads were found severed from the bodies, and, from the appearance of the hair, and some remnants of their clothes, no doubt remained of the truth of this murder; which is one of the many Tippoo appears to have committed, to prevent his false assertions being detected, of there having been no British subjects detained by force in his country, since the last war. Some have fortunately made their escape; but wherever the tyrant suspected they might fall into our hands, he has always ordered them to be put to death.' P. 33.

The character and anecdotes of the Rajah of the Coorga country, whom we protected, and finally established in his territory, are highly interesting ; but are too long to be extract-ed here. They will be found in chap. viii. of the first part. Against this prince, whom he had reason to consider as one of the main instruments of the war, the Sultan doubtless harboured the severest vengeance; the demand of his country by us was unexpected ;' and he is said to have been irritated to a state of phrenzy, when it was mentioned by his vakeels.

Among the circumstances to be regretted in this war, was the unavoidable destruction of the Sultan's beautiful garden on the island of Seringapatam.

• The Sultan's garden, which had fourished under the mild influence of a climate, where the seafons of spring, summer, and autumn, reign with uninterrupted and united power, became a melancholy spectacle, devoted to the necessities of military service; and appeared for the firft time as if it had suffered the ravages of the severeft winter. The fruit trees were ftripped of their branches, while the lofty cypress trees, broken to the ground by the troops, to be formed into fascines, were rooted up by the followers to be con5


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