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Boyet. Belonging to whom?


Το my fortunes and me.

Prin. Good wits will be jangling: but, gentles, agree:

So, in The Rival Friends, 1632:


my sheep have quite disgrest

"Their bounds, and leap'd into the several."

Again, in Green's Disputation, &c. 1592: "rather would have mewed me up as a henne, to have kept that severall to himself by force," &c. Again, in Sir John Oldcastle, 1600:

"Of late he broke into a severall
"That does belong to me."


Again, in Fenton's Tragical Discourses, 4to. bl. 1. 1597: entered commons in the place which the olde John thought to be reserved severall to himself," p. 64. b. Again, in Holinshed's History of England, B. VI, p. 150:-"not to take and pale in the commons, to enlarge their severalles." Steevens.

My lips are no common though several they be.] In Dr. Johnson's note upon this passage, it is said that SEVERAL is an enclosed field of a private proprietor.

Dr. Johnson has totally mistaken this word. In the first place it should be spelled severell. This does not signify an enclosed field or private property, but is rather the property of every landholder in the parish. In the uninclosed parishes in Warwickshire, and other counties, their method of tillage is thus: The land is divided into three fields, one of which is every year fallow. This the farmers plough and manure, and prepare for bearing wheat. Betwixt the lands, and at the end of them, some little grass land is interspersed, and there are here and there some little patches of green swerd. The next year this ploughed field bears wheat, and the grass land is preserved for hay; and the year following the proprietors sow it with beans, oats, or barley, at their discretion; and the next year it lies fallow again; so that each field in its turn is fallow every third year; and the field thus fallowed is called the common field, on which the cows and sheep graze, and have herdsmen and shepherds to attend them, in order to prevent them from going into the two other fields which bear corn and grass. These last are called the severell, which is not separated from the common by any fence whatever; but the care of preventing the cattle from going into the severell, is left to the herdsmen and shepherds; but the herdsmen have no authority over a town bull, who is permitted to go where he pleases in the severell. Dr. James.

Holinshed's Description of Britain, p. 33, and Leigh's Accedence of Armourie, 1597, p. 52, spell this word like Shakspeare. Leigh also mentions the town bull, and says: "all severells to him are common." Tollet.

My lips are no common, though several they be.] A play on the word several, which, besides its ordinary signification of separate, distinct, likewise signifies in uninclosed lands, a certain portion of ground appropriated to either corn or meadow, adjoining the com

The civil war of wits were much better used
On Navarre and his book-men; for here 'tis abused.
Boyet. If my observation, (which very seldom lies)
By the heart's still rhetorick, disclosed with eyes,*
Deceive me not now, Navarre is infected.

Prin. With what?

Boyet. With that which we lovers entitle, affected. Prin. Your reason?

Boyet. Why, all his behaviours did make their retire
To the court of his eye, peeping thorough desire:
His heart, like an agate, with your print impressed,
Proud with his form, in his eye pride expressed:
His tongue, all impatient to speak and not see,"
Did stumble with haste in his eye-sight to be;
All senses to that sense did make their repair,
To feel only looking on fairest of fair:

Methought, all his senses were lock'd in his eye,
As jewels in crystal for some prince to buy;

Who, tend'ring their own worth, from where they were glass'd,

Did point you to buy them, along as you pass'd.
His face's own margent did quote such amazes,7

mon field. In Minsheu's Dictionary, 1617, is the following article: "TO SEVER from others. Hinc nos pascua et campos seorsim ab aliis separatos Severels dicimus." In the margin he spells the word as Shakspeare does-severels.-Our author is seldom careful that his comparisons should answer on both sides. If several be understood in its rustick sense, the adversative particle stands but aukwardly. To say, that though land is several, it is not a common, seems as unjustifiable as to assert, that though a house is a cottage, it is not a palace. Malone.

4 By the heart's still rhetorick, disclosed with eyes,] So, in Daniel's Complaint of Rosalind, 1594:

"Sweet silent rhetorick of persuading eyes;

"Dumb eloquence." Malone.

5 His tongue, all impatient to speak and not see,] That is, his tongue being impatiently desirous to see as well as speak. Johnson. Although the expression in the text is extremely odd, I take the sense of it to be that his tongue envied the quickness of his eyes, and strove to be as rapid in its utterance, as they in their perception. Edinburgh Magazine, Nov. 1786. Steevens.

To feel only looking-] Perhaps we may better read: "To feed only by looking." Johnson.

His face's own margent did quote &c.] In our author's time,

That all eyes saw his eyes enchanted with gazes:
I'll give you Aquitain, and all that is his,

An you give him for my sake but one loving kiss.
Prin. Come, to our pavilion: Boyet is dispos'd-
Boyet. But to speak that in words, which his eye hath

I only have made a mouth of his eye,

By adding a tongue which I know will not lie.

Ros. Thou art an old love-monger, and speak'st skil



Mar. He is Cupid's grandfather, and learns news of


Ros. Then was Venus like her mother; for her father is but grim.

Boyet. Do you hear, my mad wenches?

[blocks in formation]

Arm. Warble, child; make passionate my sense of


Moth. Concolinel



notes, quotations, &c. were usually printed in the exterior margin of books. So, in Romeo and Juliet:

"And what obscur'd in this fair volume lies, "Find written in the margin of his eyes." Again, in Hamlet: "I knew you must be edified by the margent." Malone.

8 Concolinel-] Here is apparently a song lost. Johnson. I have observed in the old comedies, that the songs are frequently omitted. On this occasion the stage direction is generally -Here they sing-or, Cantant. Again, in The Play of the Wether, by John Heywood, bl. 1: "At the end of this staf the god hath a songe, played in his torne, or Mery Reporte come in." Proba

Arm. Sweet air!-Go, tenderness of years; take this key, give enlargement to the swain, bring him festinately hither; I must employ him in a letter to my love. Moth. Master, will you win your love with a French brawl?1

Arm. How mean'st thou? brawling in French?

Moth. No, my complete master: but to jig off a tune at the tongue's end, canary to it with your feet,2 humour it with turning up your eye-lids; sigh a note, and sing a note; sometime through the throat, as if you swallowed love with singing love; sometime through the nose, as if you snuffed up love by smelling love; with your hat penthouselike, o'er the shop of your eyes; with your arms crossed on your thin belly-doublet, like a rabbit on a spit; or your hands in your pocket, like a man

bly the performer was left to choose his own ditty, and therefore it could not with propriety be exhibited as a part of a new performance. Sometimes yet more was left to the discretion of the ancient comedians, as I learn from the following circumstance in King Edward IV, P. II, 1619:—"Jockey is led whipping over the stage, speaking some words, but of no importance."

Not one out of the many songs supposed to be sung in Marston's Antonio's Revenge, 1602, are inserted; but instead of them, cantant. Steevens.

9 festinately hither;] i. e. hastily. Shakspeare uses the adjective festinate in King Lear: "Advise the Duke where you are going, to a most festinate preparation." Steevens.


a French brawl?] A brawl is a kind of dance, and (as Mr. M. Mason observes) seems to be what we now call a cotillon. In The Malcontent of Marston, I meet with the following account of it: "The brawl! why 'tis but two singles to the left, two on the right, three doubles forwards, a traverse of six rounds: do this twice, three singles side galliard trick of twenty coranto pace; a figure of eight, three singles broken down, come up, meet two doubles, fall back, and then honour." Again, in Ben Jonson's masque of Time Vindicated; "The Graces did them footing teach;

"And, at the old Idalian brawls,

"They danc'd your mother down." Steevens.

So, in Massinger's Picture, Act II, sc. ii:


""Tis a French brawl, an apish imitation
"Of what you really perform in battle."


-canary to it with your feet,] Canary was the name of a spritely nimble dance. Theobald.


after the old painting;3 and keep not too long in one tune, but a snip and away: These are complements, these are humours; these betray 5 nice wenches-that would be betrayed without these; and make them men of note, (do you note, men?) that most are affected to these."

Arm. How hast thou purchased this experience?
Moth. By my penny of observation."

Arm. But O,—but 0,

Moth. -the hobby-horse is forgot.


3 - like a man after the old painting;] It was a common trick among some of the most indolent of the ancient masters, to place the hands in the bosom or the pockets, or conceal them in some other part of the drapery, to avoid the labour of representing them, or to disguise their own want of skill to employ them with grace and propriety. Steevens.


These are complements,] Dr. Warburton has here changed complements to complishments, for accomplishments, but unnecessarily. Johnson.


these betray &c.] The former editors: these betray nice wenches, that would be betray'd without these, and make them men of note. But who will ever believe, that the old attitudes and affectations of lovers, by which they betray young wenches, should have power to make these young wenches men of note? His meaning is, that they not only inveigle the young girls, but make the men taken notice of too, who affect them. Theobald.

6 and make them men of note, (do you note, men?) that most are affected to these.] i. e. and make those men who are most affected to such accomplishments, men of note.—Mr. Theobald, without any necessity, reads-and make the men of note, &c. which was, I think, too hastily adopted in the subsequent editions. One of the modern editors, instead of-" do you note, men?" with great probability reads-" do you note me?" Malone.

By my penny of observation.] Thus, Sir T. Hanmer; and his reading is certainly right. The allusion is to the famous old piece, called a Penniworth of Wit. The old copy reads-pen.

Farmer. The story Dr. Farmer refers to, was certainly printed before Shakspeare's time. See Langham's Letter, &c. Ritson.

Arm. But 0,-but 0,

Moth. the hobby-horse is forgot.] In the celebration of May-day, besides the sports now used of hanging a pole with garlands, and dancing round it, formerly a boy was dressed up representing Maid Marian; another like a friar; and another rode on a hobby-horse, with bells jingling, and painted streamers. After the reformation took place, and precisians multiplied, these

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