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the Court of Directors. To his powers of combination part of which he had followed the body of Outram to and foresight was mainly owing the brilliant and com- the grave. plete. success of the short Persian campaign in 1857; Lord Clyde was a man of striking and commanding and as to the important share which he bore in the person. “His crisp grey locks still stood close and thick, recovery of India after the mutiny, ample testimony has curling over the head and above the wrinkled brow, and already been borne to it in these pages. In 1858, he was there were few external signs of the decay of nature made a baronet, and returned finally from India in 1860, which was, no doubt, going on within, accelerated by so but with greatly shattered health; the rest so well many wounds, such fevers, such relentless, exacting eammed was not long enjoyed. He was buried in West- service. When he so willed it, he could throw into his minster Abbey.

manner and conversation such a charm of simplicity and Lord Clyde, better known as Sir Colin Campbell, was vivacity as fascir ated those over whom it was exerted, simply a soldier, but a soldier of whom any army in the and women adruired and men were delighted with the world might have been proud. He was an eminent in- gallant old sold er.” He was strict and unsparing in the stance of what a strong will and a well balanced mind, maintenance of military discipline, yet had a genuine love lodged in a vigorous body, can effect without the favours for the comme i soldiers, whose true interests he warmly of fortune. In the days of purchase, he was too poor to promoted, enr'aring no word to be said in their disparagepurchase his steps; in an age of patronage, he had no ment, no act to be committed to their detriment. family connections to keep his name in the front. He 1 Of Lord Lyndhurst and the Marquis of Lansdowne called himself Campbell, but the social weight neither of it has been said that the first did not understand the the house of Argyll nor of the house of Breadalbane English people, while the second conspicuously did. Lord was at his back. He rose to fame simply because a large Lyndhurst, the son of Copley, the eminent painter, born portion of his life was cast on troubled times, and be at Boston, in the United States, before the Declaration of canse, whenever and wherever he was tried through a Independence, died at the ripe age of 90; and it was long life, his coolness, tenacity, and energy were never thought and said by those who underrated the resources found unequal to the occasion. His father was a High- and the resolution of the Northern States, that, as his life lander of humble origin of the name of M'Liver, but began before the formation of the American Union, so it for family reasons he assumed his mother's name of did not close till he had seen the dissolution of it. After Campbell. Sent into the army when he was hardly of distinguishing himself at Cambridge, Lord Lyndhurst an age to wield a sword, as a beardless boy he fought went to the bar and soon rose to eminence. He connected under Sir John Moore at Corunna; later on, he shared himself from the first with the Tory party, and, as Soliin and contributed to the triumph at Vittoria, and led the citor-General, was employed in the proceedings against forlorn hope at St. Sebastian. Like most Peninsular Queen Caroline, in the House of Lords, on which occasion officers, he had not the good luck to be at Waterloo, and he displayed remarkable eloqueuce, judgment, and forfor the best part of thirty years, undecorated and un bearance. He was Lord Chancellor on three different known, he performed the routine duties of a captain or occasions when his party came into power, and conducted major on the peace establishment. When the Opium himself in that high office with rare ability, some of his War with China broke out in 1842, Colin Campbell was decisions being looked upon as models of lucid reasoning sent out to that country in command of the 98th Regi- and admirable diction. An upright and sagacious judge, ment; thence he was transferred to India, where he and an available politician, he was yet deficient in the distinguished himself highly in the Sikh War, and by a highest qualities of a statesman. That width of political well-timed charge with the 61st, on the bloody field of sympathy which makes the true statesman zealous for the Chilianwallah, saved the British army from a crushing de good government and prosperity of every portion of the feat. He served through the Crimean War, leading the commonwealth whose affairs he administers, however Highland Brigade to the charge at Alma,and was afterwards nature or circumstances may have alienated it from other entrusted with the important command of Balaclava. The portions, was not found in Lord Lyndhurst. To this dereaders of this history will remember how, upon the news ficiency must be ascribed the unfortunate expression of the death of the Commander-in-Chief in India, General which once fell from him in the House of Lords, when, Anson, reaching London, the name of but one man oecurred in resisting some measure of conciliation to Ireland, he to the Duke of Cambridge as possessed of all the qualities spoke of the Irish as "aliens to us in blood and in relineeded for the recovery of an empire almost falling from gion." The taunting and contemptuous phrase was never our grasp. Sir Colin Campbell went out, and his man- forgotten by those to whom it was applied, and was often agement of the war justified all the expectations that quoted with damaging effect against both himself and his had been formed of him.* In 1858, he was raised to the party. peerage as Baron Clyde of Clydesdale,“ taking his title Lord Lansdowne, who died at the advanced age of 82, from the river by whose banks he was born, as he had was descended from Sir William Petty, one of the most not an acre of hereditary or purchased land from which fortunate of the Cromwellian grantees in the south of to derive his designation.” In 1862, he was made a field. Ireland. An immense tract of land in the county Kerry mavshal. Death found him in the next year, in the early fell to him as his portion of the spoil after the Cromwel

lian conquest, and is still enjoyed by his descendants. • See Vol. VIII. p. 478.

Lord Lansdowne first entered into public life as Lord

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Henry Petty, and shrank not from the conflict with the ment, and the general impression of ability which he made matnre experience and rhetorical skill of William Pitt, on all who came in contact with him, than by brilliant against whom he sustained the charges brought against success in the schools. He was for some years a Fellow Lord Melville for peculation, and demonstrated their of Oriel, under Provost Copleston. The long series of his truth. He was a member of the Grenville and Grey published works commenced about this time, one of the Ministry, which came into power in 1807, and went out of earliest being “Historic Doubts respecting Napoleon office with them when George III. refused to entertain Bonaparte," the object of which was to show, by resorting their Catholic Relief Bill. He was an important and to an instance then patent and accessible to all men, the valuable member of every Liberal Ministry which held fallacy of the reasoning by which Hume endeavours to power from that time to the year 1852, generally holding undermine the credibility of the miracles and other wonthe post of Lord President of the Council. All through derful actions ascribed to Jesus Christ. By wit and life he was a thoroughly consistent but moderate Liberal, | argument, and that wealth of forcible, sometimes groand it used to be said that no public man had less to fear tesque, illustration which he had ever at command, he on the score of consistency, or would come out more defended the cause of civil and religious liberty in tho triumphantly from the crucial test of a recurrence to the Oxford common-rooms at a period when Toryism reigned pages of Hansard. He was a generous patron-& kind alike in the Church and in the University. He was a of Mæcenas-to literary men and artists. It was to him great reader and an ardent admirer of Adam Smith, and that we owed the introduction of Lord Macaulay to public was occupying the chair of Political Economy at Oxford life; his pleasant voice and kindly smile gave an addi. at the time when Lord Grey, desirous of sending to tional charm to the large and discerning hospitality which Dublin a 'Liberal successor to Archbishop Maghee, who gathered around him at Lansdowne House all that should assist in introducing into Ireland the system of was brightest in genius and most refined in manners, National Education which it had been resolved to estabwithout regard to differences of nationality, language, or lish there, pitched upon the eccentric Oxford professor as religion.

the likeliest man for his purpose. The result fully justiSir George Cornewall Lewis, a man of solid, not bril. fied the choice. From 1832, for more than twenty years, liant parts, an indefatigable student, a cautious theoriser, Whately's presence in Dublin, through the cordial relaa prudent financier, was cut off in the prime of life, at tions which he opened with Archbishop Murray, his the age of 57. In the biographical article which appeared Roman Catholic compeer, through his support of the in the Times soon after his death, it was truly said :-“Sir measure for reducing the number of Irish bishoprics, George Lewis was not a showy character, and especially through the firm and kindly spirit in which he ruled his he did not shine much in those debates from which the clergy-above all, through the zeal with which he threw country at large learns to estimate the position of & minis- himself into the work of defending and extending the ter ; but his wonderful power of mastering any subject, system of National Education, was a tower of strength his clear head, his sound sense, and his practical ability to the English Government. But soon after the appointwere fully recognised, and, spite of his slow, hesitating ment of Dr. Cullen in the place of Archbishop Murray manner, his voice had an authority in the House of there ensued a change. Gradually it became apparent Commons which men of much more eloquence might have that Whately's object in acting on and supporting the envied. In that assembly, the most critical in the world, National Board had not been simply political, as was geneno one commanded more attention when he rose to speak, rally supposed; that is, that he had not been actuated and no man was more entirely trusted. A doubt might simply by the desire of establishing harmony between the attach to the speeches of other ministers. This one two confessions, and giving to the Irish the best secular might be supposed to be careless, that to be occasionally education attainable, without ulterior views. His converill-informed, and a third to be capable of intentional sations with Mr. Senior, published since his death, show ambiguity. It was certain that Sir George Lewis would that Whately had also theological and religious objectsalways be accurate and truthful; and he more than made that he believed that the general use in the schools of a up for the want of brilliancy by the worth of his character form of religious instruction, confined to those tenets and and by the completeness of his work."

mysteries which both religions held in common, would Archbishop Whately was one of the most remarkable ultimately tend to the detriment of what he deemed to be men of the century. It was a name not quite unknown a corrupted and superstitious system, and to the spread before to English history. The "painful preacher” of Protestantism, which he regarded as the simpler and

of Banbury, in the seventeenth century, was of the purer faith. No blame whatever attaches to Whately for, , name and family of the Archbishop; and one of his this arrière pensée ; he would have been a less sincere, · uncles was that Thomas Whately, Under Secretary less thorough, we may boldly say a less devout man, had . of State for the Colonies, whose indiscreet correspond it been otherwise-had he acted in the whole business ence with Hutchinson, the Governor of Massachu. merely as a politician. But, on the other hand, it may setts, being purloined from his office, conveyed to Dr. be argued that no blame could attach to Archbishop Franklin, and published in America, contributed not a Cullen on his side, if, agreeing with Whately up to a little to widen the breach between Great Britain and the certain point as to the possible ultimate results of common discontented New Englanders. Whately made himself religious instruction, he set his face against it like a flint, felt at Oxford rather by his remarkable powers of argu- / and procured the expulsion from the list of National

school-books of those volumes of " Scripture Extracts, and in a manner betokening the most delicate consideraand those “ Easy Lessons on Scripture Evidences," on tion for the feelings of those whom he relieved. Yet, which Whately relied as the weapons and means which being eminently logical, and in nothing a creature of were to bring in, in the course of years, a pure, common, impulse, and having a theory that “whatever you pay a enlightened Christianity. When these books were ex- man to do, he will do; if you pay him to work, he will punged from the list, Whately resigned his place at the work; if you pay him to beg, he will beg,” he was Board, and every one knows that the Irish National' never known to give a farthing to a beggar in the street.

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system since that time, though in outward form remaining In his later years he used to say, “I have given away much the same as at first, has become, in fact and in ten- forty thousand pounds since I came to the see, but, thank dency, increasingly denominational. From the time of God! I never gave a penny to a beggar." . A note on tho his resignation till his death Whately continued to govern word " person,” in his “Essay on Logic," caused him to be his diocese, and to superintend the extensive province charged with Sabellianism ; and it may be admitted that which was subject to his visitation since the suppression the apparent symmetry and rationality of that heresy of the Archbishopric of Cashel, with the same generosity, had some attractions for his intellect; but it is certain justice, and ability by which his episcopal rule had been that he never deliberately departed, in this direction, from always characterised. He gave away large sums every the orthodox doctrine. On the doctrine of the Atoneyear to relieve the necessities of distressed clergy- ment he was much less in sympathy with the teaching men and their families, doing this with the utmost secrecy of the Thirty-nine Articles; his mind seemed incapable

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of admitting the idea of vicarions suffering. His powers visit to the Governor, said the cunning natives, is for the of talk were somothing marvellous; from his lips there express purpose of acknowledging the condescension of flowed a constant stream of racy, original, strictly consecuthe Japanese Government in paying the compensation tive discourse, which, though not made beautiful with money! imagery, was lighted up porpetually by apt similitudes! But the Prince of Satsuma could in no way be brought and novel illustrations. His mind seemed to be never at to reason. His envoys, at a later period, represented on rest; whether he was working in his garden, or taking his behalf that it was no doubt very wrong to murder his daily ride, or driving to some meeting of high officials, men, and that murderers ought to be brought to justice; his intellect was continually revolving some subject which but that the fault lay with the Tycoon, in not having told for the moment engaged his attention, turning it over and the English, though he had a treaty with them, that the over, comparing it with other subjects, or portions of Japanese law allowed no one to cross the path of a truth which he had already analysed, noting the points of Daimio during a procession without being cut down. resemblance and difference, deducing inferences, theo. This plea was, of course, disregarded, and when the inretical and practical, raising difficulties and resolving demnity continned to be withheld, it was resolved to them. The only defect that could be alleged against his employ force, and the matter was placed in the hands of manner of conversation was that it was a little too di- Admiral Kuper, commanding at Yokohama. Sailing dactic; he loved monologue, but did not shino in dialogue; thence with a squadron, consisting, besides his own ship, it was more like a professor lecturing his pupils than a the Euryalus, of the Pearl, Coquette, Argo, Perseus, philosopher comparing his stock of thoughts with that of Racehorse, and Havoc, Admiral Kuper mado Cape Chicother philosophers; and the consequence of all this was hakoff, the extreme southern point of the Japanese that Whately failed to appreciate, and did scant justice Islands, on the 11th August. Thence he steered for to, whatever, whether old or new, lay outside of his Kagosima Bay, the waters of which had scarcely ever own track of thought. Yet who ever knew him inti- before been ploughed by an European keel. Kagosime mately, without feeling that, in spite of bluntness, oddity, is the capital of the Prince of Satsuma's dominions, and and occasional roughness, in spite of the intellectual a town of about 40,000 inhabitants. Boats came off defect which made him prefer Crabbe to Wordsworth, from the town, by which Colonel Neale sent back a desit was unspeakably good to be in his company? patch to the Prince, demanding the payment of the Who did not feel that he was in the ennobling and indemnity, and allowing him twenty-four hours for a elevating presence of a truly good and truly great reply. In the interval, some officers of the fleet disman?

covered three valuable steamers belonging to the Prince, The English squadron in Japan, under Admiral Kuper, lying in a secluded cove higher up the bay. The twentywas under the necessity, this year, of resorting to mea- four hours having expired without a satisfactory answer sures of coercion against one of the Daimios, or half having been received, Colonel Neale requested the Admiral independent princes, of Japan, which involved the loss of to proceed to such measures of coercion as might be best many lives. The Prince of Satsuma was the ruler of a calculated to awaken the Prince's mind to a sense of the large and fertile territory in Kiusiu, the southernmost of serious nature of the resolves which had brought the the islands of Japan, and it was at a place within his British squadron to Kagosima. Admiral Kuper then jurisdiction that an Englishman, Mr. Richardson, was sent a portion of his force to take possession of the three murdered, and a murderous assault committed on an steamers, which were surrendered without resistance. English lady and two gentlemen who were riding with They were to be held by way of reprisals, until the him, in September, 1862. The English Government, when Prince should have paid the indemnity money. This the news of this ontrage was received, directed Colonel was on the morning of tho 15th August. About noon, Neale, our chargé d'affaires in Japan, to demand ample as the vessels lay in line, anchored, with springs on their

compensation for the murder, both from the Tycoon, the cables, at a distance of about 1,200 yards from the shore "temporal sovereign of Japan, and from the Prince of Sat- batteries, suddenly the whole of these batteries opened

suma. The former was required to pay the sum of £100,000 fire upon the Euryalus, the only ship within range. as an indemnity, the latter £25,000. After much parleying, Just at this time the wind, which had been gradually the Tycoon agreed to pay the sum demanded, which was growing stronger, with every symptom of heavy weather, accordingly brought to Yokohama, in June, 1863, and

rose to something like a hurricane or typhoon, and burst counted out in the presence of Colonel Neale. The Japanese upon the squadron. Unable to bring the Euryalus officials who had charge of the money tried hard to induce broadside properly to bear while at anchor, the Admiral Colonel Neale to receive it quietly and unostentatiously, (who had fortunately before signalled all the ships to get and under cover of night; but the Colonel, well versed in up steam) signalled to the steamers that had charge of the Asiatic character, refused to receive the indemnity the prizes to set them on fire, and for the whole squadron except amid circumstances of the greatest publicity. This to weigh and form line of battle. Taking the lead, the was accordingly done ; but the ingenious Japanese re- Euryalus steamed slowly past the batteries, engaging venged themselves a few days afterwards, when a large them with great effect; the other vessels, following in party of our sailors, accompanied by their band and some her wake, did the sime. The batteries for a time kept mountain guns, marched through the town and drew up up a heavy fire, in the heat of which Captain Josling in front of the Japanese Governor's house. This imposing and Commander Wilmot were killed by the same shot,

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