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panies suspend payment or not, they are obliged to make they had, therefore, a right to participate in the spoil. Dr. fresh calls upon the unpaid portion of the shares. Thus Lushington delivered judgment in the case on the 30th our imaginary investor may find himself, in an extreme June. He seems to have admitted the force of Mr. case, called upon to furnish £20,000 upon his shares, Bovill's scriptural argument in so far that he included instead of the £3,000 which he had fondly fancied to be under the description of “ General Whitlock's forcos,” to the utmost that would ever be demanded of him. It was whom he awarded the sum in litigation, “any troops left in this way that the shareholders of many limited liability by General Whitlock on his march, but which at the time companies found themselves, unless persons of large of the capture formed a portion of his division, and were capital, face to face with ruin, because they had unthink- still under his command.” Lord Clyde and his staff were ingly entangled themselves in a liability which, limited as also declared entitled to share in the booty captured it was, yet, when pressed to its full extent, was more than at Banda and Kirwee; but the claim of Sir Hugh Rose they could sustain.

\ and his army, employed at the time in the important colA variety of minor incidents falling under the year lateral operation of the siege of Jhansi, but who had never 1866 may here be briefly noticed. The House of Commons ! effected an actual junction with General Whitlock—and gave proof of its unabated loyal attachment to the House all other claims—were disallowed. The foundering of of Hanover, by voting to the Princess Helena, on the the London, a large iron steamship, in the Bay of Biscay, occasion of the announcement of her intended marriage in the January of this year, with a loss of two hundred to Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg and twenty lives, including Dr. Woolley, the principal of Augustenburg, an annual allowance of £6,000 a year, and the new Sydney University, and the well-known actor, a dowry of £30,000—a donation similar to that which had Gustavus Brooke, was memorable for the calm courage been granted to the Princess Alice. The marriage took | displayed by the captain, Captain Martin, who sent off his place at Windsor Castle on the 5th July. Another chief engineer in the only boat which could be launched, marriage, which excited much popular interest for the saying that his own duty was to stay by the ship. This well-known geniality and good-nature of the bride made boat, with nineteen persons on board, was picked up by a her a universal favourite-was that of the Princess Mary passing vessel. The wonderful procession of meteors, raof Cambridge, at Kew, on the 12th June, to the Prince diating from a point in the north-eastern sky, seen on the von Teck. The great Banda and Kirwee prize-money ; night of the 13th November, though not a proper subject caso was argued, and decided in this year. From the for a political and social history, could never be forgotten magnitude of the booty which was the subject of litigation, by any that witnessed it. A deficient harvest deepened and the number and position of the claimants, the plead- | the painful impression which the monetary disasters of ings were followed with interest. In the course of the 1866 had left on the minds of the people. In the critical campaign of 1858 in Central India, which stamped out months of August and September the weather was unthe last remains of the mutiny in that region, General usually wet and stormy, and the wheat crop suffered much Whitlock had led a British force to Banda, driven out the in consequence. A great deal of corn was housed in bad Nawab, and taken possession of a rich booty in gold and condition, and no inconsiderable portion wasted or spoiled. jewels collected there, the value of which was estimated The result was a yield considerably below the average, and at not less than £800,000. The question to be decided the prices of grain were consequently much enhanced. was—to whom did this booty of right belong ? Ought The prices of other necessaries were also raised ; although it to be awarded to General Whitlock's force exclusively, this was probably due to a permanent cause, with which by which Banda was taken-or were other divisions, the bad harvest had nothing to do—we refer to that graeven though serving at a distance, entitled to their share, dual rise in the price of all articles of necessary consumpon the ground that it was by their co-operation that the tion, which the continual influx of gold, in quantities before taking of Banda was rendered possible? The family of unknown, into the markets of the world, commencing from Lord Clyde, who was Commander-in-Chief in India at the the discovery of the gold-fields of California, has slowly time, also appeared as claimants. On one of the days of but surely effected. These untoward circumstances, comhearing, Mr. Bovill advanced a curious precedent, which bined with a contraction of the demand for labour, arising he had found in the Old Testament, touching the equitable from commercial failures and discredit, made the winter of distribution of prize-money. In the Book of Samuel it 1866–7 a period of considerable suffering to the poor was narrated that David with a part of his army pursued | in England. the Amalekites, and took much spoil; and since some portions of David's army had remained in charge of the baggage, while the remainder pursued the enemy, the question arose whether the pursuers alone should monopo

CHAPTER XIX. lise the booty, or whether they should share it with those that remained behind. King David decided that was his State of Ireland in 1866 : Fenian Trials : Lord Wodehouse's Letter :

Government introduces a Bill to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act part is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be

in Ireland; it is rapidly passed into a Law: Numerous Arrests that tarrieth by the stuff; they shall part alike." By in Dublin : Arrival of Troops : Renewal of the Suspension Act in parity of reasoning, Mr. Bovill maintained that his August ; Mr. Maguire protests against it; it becomes Law: No

actual Outbrenk occurs in Ireland-Fenianism in America: clients had borne a necessary part in the scheme of capture /

Sweeny and Stephens : Fonian Raid into Canada; Skirmish with through which Banda fell to General Whitlock, and that the Canadian Militia; Fenians retire : Another Raid from Ver.

mont: Firm attitude of the American Government-Death and latter sentence, on which the prisoner exclaimed, “ I will Character of the Queen Marie Amélie; of Dr. Whewell; of

have the same principles afterwards.” In Dublin, and Bishop Cotton; of Mr. Keble.

still more in Limerick, the populace loudly cheered Fenian THE state of Ireland in 1866 was such as to excite grave prisoners as they were being taken to gaol. A number of and sorrowful reflections in the minds of those citizens of strangers continued to arrive in Dublin, many of them beeither country who desire to see the day when old wounds traying by their military bearing that they had seen shall be healed, old international wrongs redressed, old service in the field, whom the police knew to be in com. causes of animosity forgotten. We have described in a munication with those suspected of Fonianism, but who former chapter the circumstances under which Stephens, woro careful to commit no overt act which could bring the chief head.centre, effected his escape from confinement them within the grasp of the law, and, on being questioned,

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in 1865, and how a special commission was appointed, in | said that they were come to Ireland to see their friends order to try Fenian prisoners. During January, the Fenian Arms of all kinds were continually being seized; eve trials were going on in Dublin before Mr. Justice Keogh, three pieces of artillery were discovered, just on the poin and a number of the accused were sentenced to terms of of being dispatched to Drogheda. The attempts to seduc penal servitude, varying from ten to five years. But the soldiers from their allegiance, in spite of the severity terrors of the law, and the grave and solemn tones of er- the special commission against this particular offene mined justice, reprobating the guilt and folly of the Fenian were found to increase in frequency. In addition to th conspiracy, were contumaciously set at nought by many former reward of £1,000 offered by the Government fo of the prisoners. Patrick Hayburne, of the "Emmet the apprehension of Stephens, a further sum of £1,0 Guard,” in the Fenian brotherhood, a young man, the only | was now offered for such private information as shoul support of his mother, on being found guilty, requested the lead to his capture; but no informer came forward. A judge to sentence him to a term of penal servitude rather this was generally known before the meeting of Parli than to two years' imprisonment. Mr. Justice Keogh ex. ment; but the despatch of the Lord Lieutenant, date pressed his pity for the misguided youth, and passed the February 14th, proposing the suspension of the Haber

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Corpus Act, proved that matters were more serious than house's letter, and they were of a nature that the govern. the public had any idea of. Lord Wodehouse wrote:- ments of nations, in the legislative no less than in the

“ The state of affairs is very serious. The conspi- executive branches, usually find irresistible. Yet it was rators, undeterred by the punishment of so many of & saddening thought, that sixty-five years after the their leaders, are actively organising an outbreak, with a Union, and thirty-four years after the first Reform Bill, view to destroy the Queen's authority. Sir Hugh Rose so little progress had been made in attaching the masses details the various plans they have in contemplation, and of the Irish people to the constitution under which an he draws no exaggerated picture. There are scattered Englishman thinks it his happiness to live! Mr. Bright over the country a number of agents, who are swearing gave impressive utterance to this feeling, when he spoke in members, and who are prepared to take the command of the shame and humiliation which he felt at being when the moment arrives. These men are of the most called on for the second time, in a parliamentary career of dangerous class. They are Irishmen, imbued with twenty-two years (the first occasion was at the time of American notions, thoroughly reckless, and possessed of Smith O'Brien’s rising in 1848), to suspend the Habeas considerable military experience, acquired in a field of Corpus Act in Ireland. He asserted that Ireland was in warfare (the civil war in America) admirably adapted to a state of chronic agitation, and that the numerical train them for conducting an insurrection here. There majority of the Irish people were in favour of a complete are 340 such men known to the police in the provinces, separation. Although this was not the occasion for and those known in Dublin amount to about 160, so that I entering upon the general question of the state of Ireland, in round numbers there are 500. Of course, there are and the nature of the remedial measures that were remany more who escape notice. This number is being quired, he could not but express his conviction that the augmented by fresh men constantly arriving from institutions under which Irishmen were required to live America. In Dublin itself there are several hundred were not such as could command their affection or call men (perhaps about 300 or 400) who have come over forth their loyalty ; yet he believed there was a mode of from England and Scotland, who receive Is. 6d. a day, making Ireland loyal, and he threw the responsibility of and are waiting for the time of action. Any one may discovering it on the Government and on the Imperial observe these men loitering about at the corners of Parliament. the streets. As to arms, we have found no less than Mr. Roebuck, alluding to the asserted fact that the threo regular manufactories of pikes, bullets, and car- | Catholic clergy in Ireland were opposed to the Fenians, tridges in Dublin. The police believe that several more who on their side scouted the notion of submission to exist. Of course, bullets are not made unless there are priestly authority, and endeavoured to undermine the rifles to put them in. The disaffection of the population influence of the clergy over the people—said that neverin some counties, such as Cork, Tipperary, Waterford, theless he attributed much of the present discontent to and Dublin, is alarming; and it is day by day spreading the Roman Catholic priesthood, who for years had more and more through every part of the country. But the taught the people to hate English rule, but who, now that

ost dangerous feature of the present movement is the at- i they found themselves threatened by this conspiracy, had tempt to seduce the troops. Are we to allow these agents become wondrous loyal. He went on to ridicule the sento go on instilling their poison into our armed force, upon timent of nationality, on the ground that every great which our security mainly depends ?” Lord Wodehouse empire in the world's history had been made up of different concluded his despatch by declaring that he could not be ! nationalities. Mr. Roebuck's study of history had failed responsible for the safety of the country, if power was 1-his opponents asserted—to show him, that men will not not forthwith given to the Government to seize the sacrifice the nationality of race to the nationality of leaders ; on that condition he hoped still to avert serious citizenship, unless the sacrifice is made worth their while. mischief.

Justice-equality-sympathy-where these are, it is not On the receipt of this letter, Sir George Grey, then so very difficult to weld populations differing in race and Home Secretary, immediately requested Lord Russell to language into one common nationality. The German insummon a meeting of the Cabinet, and when it was con- habitants of Alsace are thoroughly French in feeling-as vened, laid Lord Wodehouse's letter before them, and | Germany knows to her cost-because, at any rate since urged that his application with regard to the suspension | the Revolution, no Frenchman ever dreamed of talking of the Habeas Corpus Act should be acceded to. The to them about their being under “French rule;” being Cabinet unanimously agreed that there was no choice but an integral portion of the French people, they were no to accede to the application, and it was determined that a more under the rule of the rest of their countrymen, bill for the purpose should be introduced into the House than the Normans or the Bretons were. Did Mr. Roeof Commons on the next day (Saturday, February 16), buck ever realise to himself what would be the feelings and carried through all its stages, so as to receive the of an Englishman, if he were conscious of living under a royal assent, and become law on the same day, and be rule other than English? Yet he expected the people of carried into execution by the Irish Government not later Ireland to love - English rule.” and thought they would than Monday. This was accordingly done. At twelve have come to do so, but for the priests! Leave was o'clock next day, Sir George Grey brought in a Bill to given to introduce the bill by a majority of 364 to 6 suspend for six months the Habeas Corpus Act.in Ireland. votes; it passed through all its stages without further His arguments were chiefly derived from Lord Wode. I discussion, and was then sent up to the Lords, who dis

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posed of it with equal celerity. But the royal assent At Trim, in the county Meath, several arrests were made, had to be given, before the measure could become law; among them that of Mr. Malone, one of the wealthiest and the Queen was at this time at Osborne. As soon as and most respectable merchants in the town; other perthe bill had passed the Lords, a telegram announcing the sons moving in a respectable position were also captured. result was sent to Earl Granville, who was in attendance At Queenstown, about a month later, two of the Town on her Majesty at Osborne, and who thereupon solicited Commissioners were arrested. These instances showed and obtained the Queen's signature to the usual formal that the passage in the Queen's speech at the opening of document, authorising her assent to be given to the bill the session, speaking of the Fenian movement as “a conby Commission. The sittings of both Houses were sus. spiracy adverse alike to authority, property, and religion, pended till 11 p.m., by which time it was calculated that and disapproved and condemned alike by all who are the special train conveying the document might have interested in their maintenance," was unfortunately not arrived. But midnight came, and still the messenger did quite exact. not appear; at half-past twelve, however, the despatch In making a great display of force at the outset, the box, bearing the important document, was brought to the Irish executive was probably pursuing the wisest and Lord Chancellor. Some time elapsed before it was also the most humane course. Troops kept pouring into properly filled up, and then the clerk entered, carrying Dublin; the 1st Battalion of the Coldstream Guards the Royal Commission. The House of Commons was and the 85th Regiment arrived there before the end of sent for to hear the royal assent given to the bill in February, and were followed by the 6th Dragoon Guards question, and soon the Speaker, accompanied by about and a body of artillerymen, as well as a detachment of fifty members, appeared at the bar of the House. The the Military Train corps from Woolwich. The most Commissioners then stated that it was Her Majesty's stringent measures were taken for stamping out any will and pleasure to give her assent to the bill, and it signs of disaffection that might manifest themselves became law. This was about twenty minutes to one on among the troops; nor was this severity without cause, the Sunday morning. Probably no statute was over for not privates only, but several non-commissioned passed with so much celerity as this, the first Act of the officers, were found to have either taken the Fenian oathi, new Parliament.

or uttered treasonable language, or been seen habitually But rapid as were the operations of the legislature, the in the company of notorious Fenians. Through the Dublin executive considered the state of affairs so critical greater part of March frequent arrests continned to be as to justify it in anticipating the passing of the law. On made; and by that time the ranks of the disaffected were Saturday morning, February 17, the arrests of suspected so depleted and discouraged, partly by the arrest of the persons commenced, and were continued through the day, leaders, partly by the rush to America and England of nearly 250 persons being in custody at nightfall. No those who knew themselves to be most compromised resistance was in any case offered to the police, nor were among their followers, that all fear of an outbreak was at any captures of arms effected on this day. Thirty-seven an end. American citizens, of Irish extraction, most, if not all, of The Act for the suspension of the Habeas Corpus was whom had served in the civil war, were among the originally passed for six months only, and would have persons arrested. The suddenness of the blow appears expired on the 1st of September; but as the new Ministry to have utterly disconcerted the conspirators. The sus- felt that to allow it to expire would endanger the public picious-looking strangers, who had for weeks past haunted peace, they sought and obtained from Parliament at the the streets of Dublin, disappeared; the steamers to Liver- beginning of August the enactment of a bill renewing pool were crowded with passengers; and for several days the former Act for an indefinite period. Lord Naas, the the steamboats sailing for America took away numbers of Chief Secretary for Ireland, stated that from the suspenbellicose gentlemen, who found that the Irish revolution sion of the Habeas Corpus Act up to the 23rd of July, was not to come off just yet. The authorities, however, | 419 persons who had been imprisoned had been disneglected no necessary precaution; the vans conveying charged, generally on condition that they shonld leave prisoners to Kilmainham or Richmond were guarded by the country. From every authority he learned that it troops; all the soldiers of the garrison not on duty were would be dangerous to permit the sudden and simulconfined to their quarters all night, ready to turn out at taneous liberation of the 320 prisoners who remained in a moment's notice; and no strangers were admitted custody; yet such liberation was anavoidable if the Act within the gates of the Pigeon-house Fort, which guards were allowed to expire. He spoke of the fact that, the mouth of the Liffey, on any pretence. The most im- although suppressed in Ireland, at any rate as to any portant arrest was believed to be that of Patrick J. public manifestations, the Fenian conspiracy still existed M'Donnell, said to have been at the head of the move- ) in force in another country; that there were still in ment since the escape of Stephens. In the provinces Ireland newspapers advocating the Fenian cause, which some noteworthy incidents occurred. On the same night disseminated seditious and treasonable sentiments through on which the arrests were effected in Dublin, a body of the country; and that secret, drillings of the populaFenians were practising drill at a place called Cullen in tion had been lately renewed. Mr. Maguire protested the county Tipperary; a patrol of police came up and against the renewal of the Act, on the ground that there endeavoured to disperse them; the Fenians then fired was no disorder now in Ireland which the ordinary upon and wounded some of the police, one man mortally. powers of the law were not adequate to deal with. Oų

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