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tion. Comparing Lord Palmerston with Mr. Disraeli, he July, he inclosed to Mr. Adams. The report stated that thought the latter would be quite as desirable upon the there had been no attempt on the part of the builders of Treasury bench.

the “290” “ to disguise, what is most apparent, that she is The veteran Premier defended himself against this intended for a ship of war.” It proceeded to recommend vehement attack with the skill and adroitness which his that the American consul at Liverpool should submit such thorough knowledge of Parliament, his tact, bonhomie, evidence as he could obtain to the collector there, who and cheerful elasticity of temper, rendered habitual and would, thereupon, take such measures as the Foreign natural to him. He urged that if his zeal in the cause of Enlistment Act would require, and concluded by saying Reform appeared to have grown somewhat cold, he was

on somewhat cold. he was that the officers at Liverpool would keep a strict watch on theroin only reflecting faithfully the general feeling of the vessel. Mr. Adams then instructed the consul to the House, while the House no less faithfully reflected the follow the course indicated in the Customs' report. The general feeling in the country. As to economy, he could, consul accordingly submitted a statement on the 9th of course, urge the continual rise in the costliness of July, but the collector replied that the details given were national armaments, owing to the invention of new engines not, in a legal point of view, sufficient to justify him in of destruction, and maintain that to spend money on for taking upon himself the responsibility of the detention tifying the points where it was vulnerable to attack, was, of the ship. Mr. Dudley (the consul) then directed his in fact, a nation's best and truest economy. On the deli- utmost endeavours to obtaining direct legal proof, and cate question of the state of parties and Conservative in this he at last succeeded, laying it, in the form of support he said little, and that little was eminently judi affidavits, before the collector on the 21st July. The cious and discreet.

affidavits were on the same day transmitted by the collector About this time the Alabama escaped from the Mersey to the Board of Customs at London, with a request for through a want of vigilance on the part of the British instructions by telegraph, “as the ship appeared to be authorities; and, inasmuch as her evasion led to such ready for sea, and might leave any hour.” momentous consequences, we propose to narrate in some Up to this point, if the action of our authorities had detail the circumstances connected with that event. not been all that the Federal Government might have

There can be no doubt that, on the part of those who desired, at any rate, it had been neither unfriendly nor in. ordered and paid for her, the Alabama was intended from efficient. The collector at Liverpool could not proceed to the first for a Confederate vessel of war. She was a detain the vessel without legal evidence; but as soon as steamer of about 900 tons burden, with long raking masts, such evidence was supplied, he immediately sent it to the and engines of 300 horse-power, being evidently designed head of his department, and, while requesting instructions, rather as a scourge of Federal commerce than to en- indicated the extreme urgency of the case. But now counter Federal cruisers. Her armament consisted of there unfortunately occurred an act of gross administrative eight guns—six 32-pounders in broadside, and two pivot i laches, of which the American Government and people guns amidships, one of which was a rifled 100-pounder had just reason to complain. Blakeley gun. She was built in the yard of the Messrs. From the Board of Customs at London, the affidavits Laird, Birkenhead. Of course, her armament was not and the collector's letter were sent to the Treasury. This put into her till after she had left the Mersey. But that must have been done at any rate, ought to have been she was being built and fitted for a vessel of war no one done on the 22nd July, and the Treasury, seeing the who knew anything about naval architecture could doubt. urgency of the case, should, if unwilling to act on its own Indeed, the matter was notorious at Liverpool, where the responsibility, have laid the affidavits immediately before sympathies of the mercantile community ran strongly in

the law officers of the Crown, and requested their opinion. favour of the Confederates. While she was building much Nor was it by this channel only that the affidavits showing correspondence passed between the Federal consul at i the true character of the Alabama reached our GovernLiverpool and his Government and the American minister ment. Copies of the most material among them were in London ; but Mr. Adams desired to wait until he could sent by Mr. Adams to Earl Russell on the 22nd July, and lay before Earl Russell sufficient evidence to justify him again on the 24th. One would have thought that here in attaching the vessel and prosecuting the builders under again, either immediate action would have been taken or the Foreign Enlistment Act. Meantime, on the 15th the opinion of the law officers obtained with all practi. May, the vessel was launched under the name of the cable expedition. But what happened? The affidavits * 290."

were considered by the law officers of the Crown on the On the 23rd Jane. Mr. Adams thought that he had 28th July, six days after the letter from Liverpool had acquired sufficient proof. On that day he wrote to Earl reached London, stating that the vessel might leave any Russell, saying that a new and powerful vessel was being hour. They soon made up their minds, and their report fitted out at Liverpool " for the especial and manifest was in Earl Russell's hands on the morning of the 29th. object of carrying on hostilities by sea," and soliciting Orders were then immediately sent to Liverpool to stop such action as might “tend either to stop the projected the vessel. But it would appear that in some mysterious expedition, or to establish the fact that its purpose is not manner intelligence of the intention of the Government inimical to the people of the United States.” Before re- to detain the vessel had reached the persons at Liverpool plying, Earl Russell obtained a report on the subject from who had charge of her. The Customs department at the Customs department at Liverpool, which, on the 4th Liverpool, on receiving the order for detention, telę. graphed that “the vessel .290' came out of dock last position his pockets were rifled, murderous blows and night, and left the port this morning.”

kicks being freely administered in case of any symptom In a conversation with Mr. Adams, two days afterwards, of returning consciousness. After many cases of garotte at the Foreign Office, Earl Russell remarked that a delay robbery had occurred, in some of which the victims had in determining upon the case of the “ 290” “had most died of the injuries received, while in all the constitution unexpectedly been caused by the sudden development of a and health were permanently shaken, the garotting of a malady in the Queen's advocate, Sir John D. Harding, member of Parliament, Mr. Pilkington, drew the special totally incapacitating him for the transaction of business. attention of the Home Secretary to the condition of the This had made it necessary to call in other parties, whose streets. The police became suddenly active, and arrested opinion had at last been given for the detention of the gun. a number of known criminals on suspicion ; these were boat, but before the order got down to Liverpool the tried en masse by Baron Bramwell, and all who were vessel was gone.” Such an excuse could not be expected identified as having been implicated in garotte robberies to satisfy the American Government, but neither is it were sentenced to heavy terms of penal servitude. The satisfactory from the English point of view. The matter class of ferocious human wolves to which the condemned being known to be urgent, if, on its being referred to Sir persons belonged was partly dispersed, partly cowed, by John Harding, that official was found to be incapacitated this judicious severity. by ill health or any other cause, what was done ultimately The benevolent act of a philanthropic American mer. should have been done at first-viz., “other parties” chant, Mr. George Peabody, who, in March, 1862, made a should have been called in. This too easy-going, laissez free gift of £150,000 to the London poor, must not be aller mode of conducting public business on the part of passed over in silence. Government departments in 1862 cost us three millions The admirers of Garibaldi in this country witnessed sterling in 1873.

with sorrow the failure of a rash enterprise made by him The Alabama steamed down the Mersey, and pro- in August, the object of which was the conquest of Rome. ceeded to Moelfra Bay, on the coast of Anglesey, where M. Thouvenel, writing to the French ambassador at Rome, she lay two days. The American Government considered,* in this very year, in the name of the Emperor, had again and it is difficult to contravene their opinion, that there declared in positive terms that “ the capital of Catholicism was culpable negligence somewhere in permitting a ship, could never at the same time become, with the consent of the seizure of which had been ordered, to lie unmolested France, the capital of Italy;” and Rattazzi, who had sucin British waters for two whole days. From Moelfra Bayceeded Ricasoli as Italian premier in February, had de. the vessel proceeded to the Azores, and remained at clared that his Ministry, while remaining faithful to the Terceira till the arrival of a vessel from London, having vote of the Chambers asserting Rome to be the capital of on board six guns, ammunition, coals, &c., for the new the Italian kingdom, “would go to Rome by moral and cruiser. Two days afterwards, the screw-steamer Bahama diplomatic means, always hand in hand with France.” In arrived, having on board Commander Raphael Semmes, of spite of these public and official declarations, Garibaldi the Confederate navy, and other officers, besides two resolved to try whether the Rome-ward progress of the more guns. The transfer of the guns and stores having revolution could not be accelerated. Having raised a been completed withont hindrance from any one, Captain band of volunteers, he landed in Sicily, and at Palermo, Semmes hoisted his flag on the 24th Angust, and the on the 26th July, issued one of those turgid manifestoes Alabama, now first known by that name, sailed from for which he is notorious, calling upon the Hungarians to Terceira with twenty-six officers and eighty-five men. rise in arms, and, having disposed of the “ferocious des

Parliament was prorogued on the 7th August, and potism” of the Hapsburgs, join the Italian revolutionists home affairs went on as quietly as usual for the remain in effecting the complete liberation of Italy. But the der of the year. Pauperism increased, owing to the col. Hungarians, led by the wise Deak, were at that time enlapse of industry in Lancashire; nevertheless, the popu- gaged in those struggles, within the pale of the laws lation was greater by a quarter of a million at the end of and the constitution, which have since resulted for them the year than it had been at the beginning of it. But a in such a splendid recognition of their national integrity number of persons equivalent to about one half of this in- and dignity. In a calmly reasoned letter, General crease emigrated in the course of the year. In the autumn, Klapka replied to the revolutionary rhetoric of Garibaldi, the honest and law-abiding citizens of London were pointing out the folly of his enterprise, and the want of alarmed by the outbreak and rapid increase of a new species true patriotism which he was exhibiting. of crime, the “garotte robbery.” The villains who intro. | Crossing to Melito, Garibaldi made a fruitless attempt duced it did not observe an absolutely uniform practice, on Reggio, and then commenced his march northwards. but the usual modus operandi was this the victim who But the Italian Government was on the alert, and had had been marked out for attack was seized from behind given orders to Cialdini to put the thing down. That round the throat by one of the confederates; at the same general detached Colonel Pallavicino, who, having come instant another coming up in front dealt him a violent on Garibaldi's track, pursued and overtook him, on the blow in the stomach; he was then thrown violently down 29th August, at Aspromonte. His followers were dison his back, thus being rendered insensible, and in this persed with little difficulty, and Garibaldi himself was

wounded in the foot and taken prisoner. The Italian * "Case of the United States," p. 377. London, 1872, Government behaved with great leniency; Garibaldi him.

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self was released, and a decree of amnesty issued to all templated re-union of the islands to Greece. The new his followers, except those who belonged to the Italian Parliament met, and unanimously ratified the cession. army or nary.

One difficulty, however, still remained. Greece was a weak A revolution, more akin to the ridiculous than to the state ; Corfu possessed a capacious and important harbour, sublime, took place this year in Greece. In October, and, by the care of the protecting state, had been conwhile King Otho and his queen were absent from Athens, verted into a formidable fortress ; were the fortifications the people rose, the troops mutinied, the Bavarian dynasty handed over intact, it might be apprehended that, in some was declared to have ceased to reign, and a provisional | future European war, a great Power allying itself to Greece Government installed itself in office, with Demetri Bulgari | would employ the fortifications of Corfu for the purpose at its head. From the vaguely grandiloquent phrases of of strengthening its own position in the Mediterranean. the manifesto published by the provisional Government, it The British Government therefore, in concert with the four would not be easy to discover what was the misconduct other great Powers, decided that the Ionian Islands alleged against Otho, or whether there was any misconduct (Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, at all. It seems that he was not considered faithful to the and Paxo) should, from the time of their cession to Greece, “ grande idée," on which the imagination and ambitious "enjoy the advantages of a perpetual neutrality,” and hopes of every true Greek are fed—the idea of the exten. that the fortifications which had been constructed in sion of the frontiers of the Hellenic state, and the Corfu, as no longer required after the concession of such deliverance of the millions of their countrymen who still neutrality, should be demolished previously to the evacuagroan under Turkish misrule. In a word, the crime of tion of the island by the British garrison. This was in Otho was that he was unpatriotic. A plébiscite was November, 1863; the demolition was at once proceeded decreed, in humble imitation of the Napoleonic proto. | with ; but it was not till far on in 1864 that the troops type, for the election of a king of Greece; every Greek finally quitted the island, and the anvexation to Greece above twenty years of age was to have a vote. The was consummated. result of the voting was, that Prince Alfred, second son A fierce struggle raged during the whole of this year of Queen Victoria, was chosen king by an overwhelming between the Federals and Confederates in America. majority. But it had been previously agreed between Into the details of this struggle the historian of England the plenipotentiaries of the protecting Powers, England, is not called upon to enter, but he may justly be expected France, and Russia, that all members of the reigning to make his readers acquainted with its general features, families of those nations should be excluded from the since it was a strife which, in determining for a long Greek succession. The election of Prince Alfred was period the destinies of the most important portion of the thus nullified. The further progress of the Greek revo- northern continent, affected powerfully the position of lution belongs to a later year; nevertheless, it will be con. England in the world, no less than the interests of venient to give at this place a connected view of the millions of British and Irish emigrants, in this and whole series of transactions, so that it will be unnecessary future generations. If the Confederates had broken up hereafter to return to the subject. At the end of De- the Union, it is hard to believe that an English Ministry, cember, 1862, Mr. H. Elliot was commissioned by our | however unwarlike, would have courted humiliation, as Government to make it known to the provisional Govern. in the Treaty of Washington and its preliminaries; or ment at Athens, that England was disposed to cede the knowingly so framed an arbitration as to lose an island Ionian Islands (over which she had exercised a proteetor- belonging to us by the clearest right, as in the case ate since the Congress of Vienna) to Greece, provided of San Juan. that the form of government remained monarchical; that The operations to be described fall under the head of Greece abstained from aggression against neighbouring military and naval—the first embracing the minor constates; that the king selected were a prince "against tests in Tennessee and Arkansas, together with the great whom no well-founded objection could be raised ;” lastly, struggle in Virginia ; the second comprising the operathat the cession were shown to be in accordance with the tions of the Federal fleets on different points of the unanimous, or nearly unanimous, wish of the Ionian popu- Confederate coast, the battle of the Merrimac and the lation. The Greeks and Ionians accepted the proffered Monitor, and Farragut's gallant capture of New Orleans. terms with enthusiasm. After long consideration and dis- 1. The state of Tennessee, which had been one of the cussion, a suitable occupant for the throne was found in last to secede, was not left long in the hands of the Con. Prince George, son of the King of Denmark, and federates. Lying along the southern border of Kentucky. brother to the Princess of Wales. A Greek deputation, open to the Mississippi, and watered by navigable rivers proceeding to Copenhagen in June, 1863, tendered the which run into the Ohio, it was peculiarly open to attack crown to Prince George, who graciously accepted it, and from those who held the upper course of the former, and soon afterwards proceeded to Greece, where he was re- the whole basin of the latter river. Its capital, Nashceived with general enthusiasm. England, thoroughly ville, on the river Cumberland, was secured, the Consatisfied with this selection, proceeded to carry out federates hoped, by the erection of two forts, Fort Henry ber promise. Sir Henry Storks, the Lord High Com- ! and Fort Donelson, the one on the Tennesseo river, the missioner, dissolved the Ionian Parliament in August, other on the Cumberland, at a point in Kentucky where and summoned a new one, on which the express mandate the streams approach within twenty miles. But, in should devolvo of taking into consideration the con- | February, a strong force, under the command of General

Ulysses Grant, moving up from the Ohio, captured both troops presently came into line, and the exhausted Conforts with little difficulty. Nashville, being thus left federates, disappointed of a victory that was just within defenceless, fell into the hands of the Federals soon their grasp, retired towards the frontier of Mississippi. after, and the major part of the state was recovered. A The loss of the Federals in this bloody and critical endesperate attempt to roverso the course of fortune was gagement was 14,000 men, in killed, wounded, and made by the Confederates in April, when, under their prisoners ; that of the Confederates 11,000. ablest general, Albert Sidney Johnston, they attacked in In the state of Arkansas, west of the Mississippi, a force the scattered divisions of Grant around Pittsburg battle was fought at Pea Ridge, in March, between the Landing on the Tennessee. On the first day of the con Federal general Curtis and the Confederate Van Dorn; Aict, the Confederates were successful along the whole and another at Prairie Grove, in December, between the

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line; Grant's army was driven so close to the bluff forces under the command of Blunt and Hindman. overhanging the river, that one resolute charge seemed Neither action was decisive, but the general course of the all that was wanted to push them in headlong rout year's campaign in this state was unfavourable to the into and across the river. On the next day, news arrived Confederates. that General Buell was hurrying up to the aid of But the great blow was struck—the gigantic failure Grant with reinforcements; Johnston, however, still sustained-in Virginia. Since the resignation of Scott, pressed on, and was making preparation for the final the new general, M'Lellan, had been labouring incescharge, when the bursting of a single shell changed santly to augment the number and perfect the disciplino the fate of the battle, and decided the destiny of of the army. When a force had been collected of nearly the West. Johnston fell mortally wounded: the com- | 200,000 men, the most efficacious mode of employing it mand devolved upon Beauregard ; there was an interval | had to be considered. The attempt to march to Richof fatal indecision; the “native hue of resolution was mond the year before had been baffled within a few miles sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;" the Con- of Washington by the catastrophe of Bull Run; and alfederate general began to concentrate his guns, instead of though M.Lellan knew by his scouts that the Confederates advancing his masses; and the Federals, feeling them were no longer in force on that line, the thought of crossselves no longer pressed, recovered courage. Buell's | ing so many rivers, and transporting his stores along so

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