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he was chosen president in 1859. If he had devoted his cannot be too grateful for the advantages afforded by the whole life to the study and teaching of science, and had fact that Christian ministers not only preach the doctrines occupied a professor's chair, he could not have spoken of Christianity, but live among their congregations, an more to the point, or more in the spirit of philosophy. example for the discharge of every Christian duty, as But it was in connection with the Great Exhibition of husbands, fathers, and masters of families, themselves 1851, with which his name will be for ever associated in capable of fathoming the whole depth of human feelings, history, that he became more especially the exponent of desires, and difficulties."* Alluding on the same occasion social progress. On the 21st of March, 1850, the Lord to the progress of civilisation, the Prince remarked: “And Mayor of London, Thomas Farncomb, gave a banquet to this civilisation rests on Christianitycould only be raised Her Majesty's Ministers, the Foreign Ambassadors, the on Christianity-can only be maintained by Christianity!” Royal Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, and the In a History of England for the People, we cannot mayors of 180 towns. In responding to the toast of his better close this sketch of the Prince's character than health on that occasion, the Prince said : “Nobody who by quoting the concluding sentences of his speech on has paid any attention to the peculiar features of our national education. After eloquently enforcing the duty present era, will doubt for a moment that we are living of every man to develop his faculties, and place himself at a period of most wonderful transition, which tends in harmony with the Divine prototype, so as to attain that rapidly to accomplish that great end to which, indeed, all happiness which is offered to him on earth, to be comhistory points—the realisation of the unity of mankind : pleted hereafter in entire union with him, through the notea unity which breaks down the limits and levels the mercy of Christ, he said : " But he can also leave these peculiar characteristics of the different nations of the faculties unimproved, and miss his mission on earth. He earth, but rather a unity the result and product of those will then sink to the level of the lower animals, forfeit very national varieties and antagonistic qualities. The happiness, and separate from his God, whom he did not distances which separated the different nations and parts know how to find. I say man has no right to do this; of the globe are rapidly vanishing before the achieve- he has no right to throw off the task which is laid ments of modern invention, and we can traverse them upon him for his happiness ; it is his duty to fulfil his with incredible ease; the languages of all nations are mission to the utmost of his power; but it is our duty, known, and their requirements placed within the reach of the duty of those whom Providence has removed from everybody; thought is communicated with the rapidity, this awful struggle, and placed beyond this fearful and even by the power, of lightning. On the other hand, danger, manfully, unceasingly, and untiringly to aid, by the great principle of the division of labour, which may | advice, assistance, and example, the great battle of the be called the moving power of civilisation, is being ex. people, who, without such aid, must almost inevitably tended to all branches of science, industry, and art. . . . succumb to the difficulty of their task. They will not So man is approaching a more complete fulfilment of that cast from them the aiding hand, and the Almighty will great and sacred mission which he has to perform in this bless the labours of those who work in his cause." + world. His reason being created after the image of God, he has to use it to discover the laws by which the Almighty

CHAPTER II. governs his creation; and by making these laws his

The Year 1862 – Affair o! the Nashville-Meeting of Parliament standard of action, to conquer Nature to his use, himself

Speech of Mr. Disraeli on the death of the Prince Consort - The a Divine instrument.” *

Revised Code – Reasons for its introduction - Adopted with Nor was the Prince less enlightened or less earnest as

modifications – Church Rates - Debates on the Civil War in

America -- Marriage of the Princess Alice - State of things in a Christian man than as a philosopher and a political

China – New Game-law introduced by Sir Baldwin Leighton economist. Referring, on one occasion, to dissensions in Reflections on it - Mr. Cobden attacks the Ministry - Reply of the Church, he said: “I have no fear, however, for her Lord Palmerston — Garrote robberies--Gift of Mr. Peabody safety and ultimate welfare, so long as she holds fast to

Affair of Aspromonte - Revolution in Greece - Banishment of

King Otho - Election of Prince George of Denmark - Cession of what our ancestors gained for us at the Reformation the Ionian Islands - War in America - Operations in Tennessee the Gospel and the unfettered right of its use.” Again, - Battle of Pittsburg - Landing - Campaign in Virginia at the anniversary of the Corporation of the Sons of the

M'Lellan Commander-in-Chief - Lands his army on the York

peninsula – Advances on Richmond - Battles of the ChickaClergy, in 1854, he remarked: “When our ancestors

hominy-M‘Lellan retreats-The troops re-embarked - Jackson purified the Christian faith, and shook off the yoke of a forces Pope back upon Washington - Lee invades Maryland domineering priesthood, they felt that the key-stone of

Fall of Harper's Ferry -- Battle of Antietam - Lee retreats

Burnside supersedes M'Lellan - Battle of Fredericksburg that wonderful fabric which had grown up in the dark

Bragg's invasion of Kentucky -- Results in failure - Naval times of the Middle Ages was the celibacy of the clergy, operations - Taking of Roanoke - Exploits of the Merrimac and shrewdly foresaw that their reformed faith and

Her fight with the Monitor - Farragut passes the forts and cap.

tures New Orleans - Butler is made Governor - His famous newly-won religious liberty would, on the contrary, only

proclamation - Execution of Mumford - Steps taken towards be secure in the hands of a clergy united with the people the emancipation of the slaves - Mr. Lincoln's message on the by every sympathy — national, personal, and domestic. indivisibility of the United States--Reflections on it. This nation has enjoyed for 300 years the blessing of a The year 1862, which brought the terrors and the church establishment which rests upon this basis, and calamities of war home to ten thousand American hearths

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was for Europe a time of profound peace. Nothing the fulfilment of duty. The Prince whom we have lost moro alarming has to be chronicled than a foolish fili. not only was eminent for the fulfilment of duty, but it bustering movement by Garibaldi, and the overturn of was the fulfilment of the highest duty under the most a dynasty in Greece. Only a prescienco more than human difficult circumstances. Prince Albert was the consort could have seen in the sinister apparition of Count Bis. of his sovereign ; he was the father of one who might be marck on the political stage of Prussia, and in the mas- his sovereign; he was the prime Councillor of a realm terly manner in which he out-generalled the Chambers and the political constitution of which did not even recognise crushed their attempts to circumscribe the power of the his political existence. Yet, under these circumstances, so Crown, the inanguration of that policy of "blood and difficult and so delicate, he elevated even the Throne by iron ” which was, in a few years, to result in two bloody the dignity and purity of his domestic life. He framed wars, to tear up finally and for ever the treaties of 1815, and partly accomplished a scheme of education for the and to alter the international relations of overy state in heir of England which proved how completely its august Europe.

projector had contemplated the office of an English king. An incident happened in January, which brought In the affairs of state, while his serene spirit and his forcibly home to the minds of Englishmen the difficulties elevated position bore him above all the possible bias of and embarrassments of that neutrality in the American our party life, he showed on every great occasion all the struggle which we had proclaimed, and were resolved resources, all the prudence, and all the sagacity of an exhonestly to maintain. An armed steamer, named the perienced and responsible statesman. I have presumed Nashville, ran up the Southampton Water, and anchored to touch upon three instances in which there was on near the town. It soon transpired that she was a Con- Prince Albert's part a fulfilment of duty-duty of the federate cruiser, and that, having just captured at sea a | highest character under circumstances of the greatest diffilarge American merchant ship, the Harvey Birch, she culty. ... There is one point, and one point only, on had, after removing her crew and such plunder as was which I will presume for a moment to dwell; and it is not too bulky, set fire to and destroyed her. This pro not for the sake of those who hear me, or of the gene. ceeding was an inevitable consequence of the British ration to which we belong, but it is that those who come proclamation forbidding either belligerent to bring after us may not misunderstand the nature of this illusprizes into any British port. In a few days, the U.S. trious man. Prince Albert was not a patron; he was not steam frigate Tuscarora, her captain and crew boiling one of those who by their smiles reward excellence or over with wrath and the desire for battle, came up stimulate exertion. His contributions to the cause of the Southampton Water, and anchored within a short progress were far more powerful, and far more precious. distance of the Nashville. To avert a collision, the He gave to it his thought, his time, his toil; he gave to it Admiralty immediately sent a man-of-war to Southamp. his life.... But what, Sir, avail these words ? ton. Greatly to his chagrin, the captain of the Tuscarora This House to-night has been asked by the honourable found himself compelled to conform to the provisions of gentleman to condole with the Crown upon this great our Foreign Enlistment Act, which enjoin the authorities calamity. That is not an easy office. To condole, in of any port in which two vessels belonging to belligerent general, is the office of those who, without the pale of states may be present at the same time, to allow to the sorrow, still feel for the sorrowing. But in this instanco one that leaves first a clear interval of twenty-four hours the country is as heart-stricken as the Queen. Yet in before the other may pursue. Thanks to this provision, the mutual sensibility of sovereign and people there is the Nashville (which was no match for the Tuscarora) something noble, something which elevates the spirit mado her escape; but her career was of no long con. beyond the ordinary calamity of earthly sorrow. The tinuance, as she was soon afterwards chased into Gib. counties, the cities, and the corporations of the realm, raltar, and there sold.

the illustrious associations of loarning, science, art, and Parliament met on the 6th February. In the royal skill, of which he was the bright ornament and inspiring speech the death of the Prince Consort was naturally spirit, have bowed before the throne in this great the prominent topic. Among other results of the deep calamity. It does not become the Parliament of the and universal sympathy with the Queen in her sorrow, was country to be silent. The expression of our feelings may a general determination, rather tacit than expressed, on be late, but even in that lateness some propriety may bo the part of statesmen of all parties, that the session observed. We, to-night (the two Houses), sanction the should be a quiet one. In the debate on the address expression of the public sorrow, and ratify, as it were, many things were eloquently and feelingly said, and it the record of a nation's woe.” may be well to place on record here a portion of the re. There are sentences in this oration which read a little marks made by Mr. Disraeli, the spokesman of the Con. grandiose, it must be confessed; nevertheless, similar servative party. After speaking of the common senti | language was employed by all the leading men on both ment which, during the preceding ten years, had united sides, doubtless with general sincerity; and the fact may the leaders of both parties in veneration for, and con- | be taken as a gauge of the strength of the monarchical fidence in, the Throne, ho continued :

principle in this portion of Europe ten years ago. "All that is changed. He is gone who was the com- The first question warmly debated this session related fort and support of that Throne. It has been said that to the new code of regulations, commonly called “the there is notbing which England so much appreciates as Revised Code,” which had been promulgated by the

Committee of Council for Education in the preceding of any pupil who might pass satisfactorily in any one of summer. Two great defects had gradually become ap- the three. parent in the working of the system by which state aid The plan of the Government was severely criticised by was extended to primary schools—the one administrative; many Conservative members, and met with little favour the other educational. The nature of the first will be ap- out of doors among those who had been most active in parent when it is stated that, till now, every teacher in the establishment, and continued most zealous in the supa school receiving an annual grant, and every pupil port, of primary schools. Especially the clergy of the teacher, had been separately recognised and dealt with by Church of England complained of the suddenness of the the Education department; and since the number of such change, of the utter disregard which it showed to the schools had been enormously increased since the Com. claims and services of the pupil teachers, of the pecuniary mittee of Council commenced its operations, the strain on difficulties in which they themselves as managers would the organisation of the department had by this time in many cases be involved by it. There were some who become nearly intolerable. Conceive a department went so far as to say that the teachers and pupil teachers having to make ont monthly or quarterly pay-warrants, had obtained a kind of vested right in their annual often for ridiculously small sums. for twenty thousand grants; but this was soon shown to be a mistaken opinion. pupil teachers! The other defect of the system of Mr. Walpole moved, on the 11th March, a series of resoluannual grants Mr. Lowe (then Vice-President of the tions, declaring it to be inexpedient to adopt the principle Council) considered to be this, that, notwithstanding the of payment by results exclusively, and censuring many check of Government inspection, it did not provide other portions of the Code. The House, however, went sufficient security for the economical application of the into Committee; but shortly be ore the Easter recess the public money. The grants often, answered, he thought, Government took into its serious consideration the obshowy rather than useful purposes. A large proportionjections which had been raised to their plan, and resolved of the teachers-such was his argument-concentrate to introduce such modifications as would disarm the optheir attention on their highest classes, their extra sub-position of the more influential and reasonable objectors. jects, and their cleverest boys; the annual examination The chief concession was the re-introduction of a small thus becomes an occasion for the display of carefully establishment grant, having nothing to do with“ payment selected pupils, and for the gratification of their master's by results,” to the extent of 4s. per annum for each child vanity, and ceases to be a careful scrutiny, probing into in daily attendance; something also was done for the pupil the state of the school from top to bottom, and testing teachers. The opposition was satisfied, and Mr. Walpole the progress made by the younger and duller, no less withdrew his resolutions; and the scheme thus sanctioned than that made by the older and cleverer boys. Nor was by Parliament regulates to this day the apportionment of it in human nature, he thought, for the Government in the public grant in aid of primary schools. spectors, though men of the highest character and The attempt made in 1861 to pass a bill for the abolition ability, not to give in to some extent to this inevitable of Church rates was renewed by Sir John Trelawny in bias of teachers, and, however unconsciously, to be the present year, but fared rather worse than before, the “ carried away by their dissimulation.” To inspectors bill being rejected on the second reading by a majority also, it was a thousand times pleasanter to examine ten of one in a full House. sharp boys than fifty stupid ones, and a saving of trouble. The progress of the civil war in America-of which a to assume, without actually testing it, that the lower connected account will be given farther on-excited a classes were relatively as far advanced and as well taught restless feeling in England, which naturally found its exas the top class.

pression within the walls of Parliament. The tidings of It was on the strength of considerations such as these that sanguinary conflicts occurring along the whole frontier Mr. Lowe drew up his Revised Code, which was at once territory, from the west of Missouri to the shores of Virto relieve the strain on the administrative machinery of ginia—of cities in flames, industry wrecked, hundreds of the department, and to introduce the principle of “pay persons arrested under martial law and languishing in ment by results." All recognition of, and all grants to state prisons, relentless executions, and wholesale plunder teachers and pupil teachers were to cease, and the de- -shook the mind of England to its inmost depths, and. partment was henceforward to have dealings with none according to the pro-conceived sympathies of different but the managers of schools. Secondly, the establishment characters and classes, were variously judged and in. grants for fixed cums, which had been hitherto made to terpreted. Merchants, impatient at the cotton famine, teachers and pupil teachers certified to be efficient by the found spokesmen in Parliament to inveigh against Government inspector, were to be replaced by capitation the fitfulness and inefficiency of the blockade of the grants, regulated in the following manner :-On the day Southern ports, and to urge the Government to interfere. of the annual examination, all pupils who during the But since, to say nothing of the strong evidence produced previous twelve months had attended school at least one on the other side proving that the blockade was as effec. hundred times, might be presented by the teacher to be tive as was possible under the circumstances, the very examined by the inspector in reading, writing, and fact that there was a cotton famine established the point arithmetic. Six “standards," varying in difficulty with to any reasonable mind without more ado, the advocates the age of the pupils, were settled in each of these subjects ; of English interference on this ground took nothing by and a certain small grant was to be obtainable in respect their motion. The language used by General Butler in his

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famous proclamation at New Orlean: * was reprobated for enabling the Unions iu that county to borrow money, with abhorrence on all sides, no speakor expressing him. when the pressure and burden of pauperism had reached self more strongly than Lord Palmerston. Mr. Lindsay, a certain point, upon the security of the rates. Alarmed the chief representative of that portion of the mercantile by the formidable destructive efficacy which the Confedecommunity of England which desired the recognition of rate iron-clad the Merrimac (or Virginia) had exhibited the Confederacy as an independent state, proposed a in her attack upon the wooden ships of the Federals, resolution, in July, suggesting the propriety of offering the Government proposed, and the House readily sancmediation with a view of terminating the hostilities tioned, a vote of £1,200,000 for the strengthening and

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between the contending parties. The matter was warmly re-construction of our forts and arsenals. Lastly, a discussed, but in the end the counsels vf prudence and debate on the affairs of China disclosed a singular state caution prevailed, and the resolution was rejected. of relations existing between Great Britain and the Celes

With the exception of the new Game Law, to which we tia! Empire. While trade on the coast had increased shall advert presently, the remaining proceedings of this enormously, inland all was disorganisation. Seriously Parliament were of minor importance, and may be dis. weakened in prestige by the result of the late war with missed in a few words. A dowry of £30,000, and an in. England and France, the Chinese Government had in a come of £6,000 a year, were voted without a dissentient great measure lost its hold of the reins of social and polivoice to the Princess Alice, on the occasion of her mar- tical order; society was crumbling to pieces in every riage to Prince Louis of Hesse. In order to meet the dis- direction, and the central power could give no effectual tress in Lancashire occasioned by the cotton famine, a protection to the treaty ports. The rebel Tae-pingsmeasure was passed, called the “Union Relief Aid Bill,” anarchists and fanatics of the worst description - had

agreed to a convention with the admiral on the station, • See p. 24,

whereby they undertook not to approach within thirty-four Vol. IX.—No. 416.

miles of Shang-hai, the great port near the mouth of the Snipe, being barbarously described in the Act as "snipes,” Yang-tse Kiang. But the Tae-pings broke this treaty, may be said to be made game of in a double sense. and spread terror and confusion almost to the gates of Further, rabbits, which have never before come within Shang-hai; trade was consequently deranged; and the the scope of the Game Laws, any more than sparrows, British authorities, with the full sanction of the Chinese are made game for the purposes of this Act. Government, raised an armed force, retook Ning-po from But the sting of the Act was in the second clause ; in the Tae-pings, and made permanent and effectual arrange- it could be seen, it was said, the motive of the large and ments for the defence of all the treaty ports. If events sweeping definition contained in the first. Under this do not take in China the turn that they have taken in India, second clause, it is lawful " for any constable or peace. it will be rather owing to the mutual surveillance and officer, in any county, borough, or place in Great Britain jealousy of the Western Powers, than because the process and Ireland, in any highway, street, or public place, to of gradual subjugation would in itself present much search any person whom he may have good cause to susdifficulty.

pect of coming from any land where he shall have been unSir Baldwin Leighton's Act, the object of which was to lawfully in search or pursuit of game, or any person aiding enlist the services of the county police as assistant game- or abetting such person, and having in his possession any keepers to the country gentlemen, deserves our particu- game unlawfully obtained, or any gun, part of gun, or nets lar attention ; for the time will come, and that speedily, or engines used for the killing or taking of game, and also when the enactment of such a law by the Parliament of a to stop and search any cart or other conveyance in or on civilised nation, in the latter half of the nineteenth cen- which such constable or peace-officer shall have good cause tury, will appear something monstrous and incredible. to suspect that any such game or any such article or thing The numerous opponents of the bill asked, Is this for is being carried by any such person, and should there be England, or for Turkey! is it a law passed for the found any game or any such article upon such person, cart, public good by the representatives of a free people, or a &c., to seize and detain” the same, and apply to some forest edict framed in the interest of his own pleasures magistrate for a warrant. The said magistrate may, upon by a Norman tyrant ? The measure had been originally conviction, fine the delinquent to the extent of five pounds. introduced in the Upper House by Lord Berners, but Although, in the debates of the session there had been, the Lords were too sensible to entertain it, and turned according to that joint understanding with which it was it out of doors with ignominy. The bill was then adopted begun, little exhibition of party heat or rancour, yet the by Sir Baldwin Leighton in the Lower House, and by spectacle of a large section of the Tory party almost open. careful tactics, and arranging that a sufficient number ly avowing their sympathy with Lord Palmerston and his of its friends should always be within call so as to ensure policy, and the evident congeniality between him and them, a superiority of force at the decisive moment, the country were not suffered to pass without observation. Towards gentlemen carried it through all its stages and passed it. | the close of the session, Mr. Cobden, in a carefully preThe Lords then had no scruple about accepting a bill pared and powerful speech, arraigned the policy of the which naturally could not but command their sympathies, Prime Minister as that of a man who was fighting, or preand the bill became law. This result was the more singu- tending to fight, under a banner not his own, and whose lar, inasmuch as the Government and all the sincere acts were nicely calculated to gain the approval of his Liberals opposed the bill on every stage. Mr. W. E. Fors. ostensible adversaries, and carry discouragement into the ter moved that it be read a second time that day three ranks of his nominal adherents. He asked, What had months, saying that, although it might not be the object | been the professed principles of the Liberal party? They of the promoters of the bill, it was certainly regarded out were economy, non-intervention, and reform. But the of doors as a proposal to turn the county police into game- present was the most extravagant Government which had keepers, a service which would prove very detrimental to administered the affairs of the country in time of peace the execution of their other duties. Sir George Grey, during the present generation. This assertion he supthe Home Secretary, warmly opposed the measure, both ported by an elaborate comparison, and proceeded to ascribe in principle and details ; and stated that twenty-eight chief the whole of this increased expenditure to Lord Palmerconstables had signed a memorial the year before against ston, who himself represented a policy, and who had cost the employment of the police in the preservation of game. the country no less a sum than £100,000,000. After adBut, owing to the apathy of the borough members (an verting to the wars with China as instances of the deparapathy proved by the smallness of the numbers on the ture of the Ministry from the policy of non-intervention, division lists), the opposition failed. Let us now examine he turned to the state of great Liberal questions and of the Act itself, which is extremely short, because its pro parties in the house, which, he said, was not an honest moters had no other thought but that of protecting their state. Lord Palmerstou was not governing the country own pleasures; to introduce safeguards and provisoos by his own party, but with the aid of his political oppotending to preserve the rights and dignity of free English. nents, who were then in power without the responsibility men from encroachment, was a matter about which they of office. He analysed Lord Palmerston's liberalism by do not appear to have troubled themselves in the least. his acts. The ballot, and other questions in which mem

The first clause gives a new definition of “Game." bers on that side of the house took an interest, were going According to this, a pheasant's or a partridge's eggs are back under the noble lord's leadership. Rather than as much "game” as the pheasant or partridge itself. I continue as they were, he would prefer being in opposi.

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