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HENRY VI.-PART FIRST...
PART SECOND ..
WILIAM SIAKSPEARE was born at Stratford-upon-Avon, in Warwickshire, ou the 23rd day of April, 1564. Of the rank of his family it is not easy to form an opinion. Mr. Rowe says that loy the register and certain public writings relating to Stratford, it appears that his ancestors were “ of good fizure and fashion," in that town, and are mentioned as “gentlemen," an epithet which was more determinate then than at present, when it has become an unlimited phruse of courtesy. His father, John Sbakspeare, was a considerable dealer in wool, and had been an officer and bailiff (probably high-bailiff or mayor) of the body corporate of Stratford. He held also the ottice of justice of the peace; and at one time, it is suid, possessed lands and tenements to the amount of £500, the reward of his grandfather's faithful and approved services to King Henry VII. This, however, has been esserted upon very doubtful authority, Mr. Malone thinks "it is highly probable that he distinguished bimself in Bosworth Field on the side of King Henry, and that he was rewarded for his military services by the bounty of that parsimonious prince, though not with a grant of lands. No such grant appears in the Chapel of the Rolls, from the beginning to the end of Henry's reign.” But whatever may have been his former wealth, it appears to have been greately reduced in the latter part of liis life, as we ind, from the hooks of the Corporation, that, in 1579, he was 'excused the trifling weekly tax of fourpence leried on all the aldermen; and that, in 1586, another alderman was appointed in his room, in connequence of his declining to attend on the business of that office. It is even said by Aubrey,' a man surficiently aceurate in facts, although credulous in superstitions narratives and traditions, that he followed for some time the occupation of a butcher, which Mr. Malone thinks not inconsistent with probability. It aiust have been, however, at this time, no inconsiderable addition to his ditficulties that he had a family of ten children. His wife was the daughter and heiress of Robert Arden of Wellingcote, in the county of Warwick, who is styled " a gentleman of worship.” The fumily of Arden is very ancient, Robert Arden of Bromich, Esq., being in the list of the gentry of this country returned by the cora missioners in the twelfth year of King Henry VI. A. D. 1433. Edward Arden was sheriff of the county in 1563. The woodland part of this country was anciently called Ardern, afterwards softened to Arden; am hence the name.
Our illcstrious poct was the eldest son, and received his early education, however narrow or liberal, at a free school, probably that founded at Stratford. From this lie appears to have been soon removed, and placed, according to Mr. Malone's opinion, in the office of some country attorney, or the seneschal of sime manor court, where it is highly probable he picked up those technical law phrases that so frequently occur in his plays, and could not have been in common use, unless among professional men. Mri Capell conjectures, that his early marriage prevented his being sent to some university. It aj pears, however, as Dr. Farmer observes, that his early life was incompatible with a course of educaLin; and it is certain, that “ his contemporaries, friends and foes, nay, and himself likewise, agree in his want of what is usually termed literature.” It is, indeed, a strong argument in fuvor of Stabspeare's illiterature, that it was maintained by all his contemporaries, many of whom have left upora ravri every merit they could bestow on him; and by bis successors, who lived nearest to his time, shen " his memory was green ;” and that it has been denied only by Gildon, Sewell, and others down o Upton, who could have no means of ascertaining the truth.
lu his eighteenth year, or perhaps a little sooner, he married Anne Hathaway, who was eight year elder than himself, the daugoter of one lathaway, who is said to have been a substantial yeoman in
the neighborhood of Stratford. Of his domestic economy, or professional occupation at this time, we | lave no information ; birt it would appear that both were in a considerable degree neglected by his
*M88. Aubrey, Mus. Ashmol. Oxon, examined by Mr. Malone.
associnting with a gang of deer-stealers. Being detected with them in robbing the park of Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, near Stratford, he was so rigorously prosecuted by that gentleman, as to be obliged to leave his family and business, and take shelter in London. Sir Thomas, on this occasion, is said to have been exasperated by a ballud Shakspeare wrote, probably his first essay in poetry, of which the following stui za was communicated to Mr. Oldys :
A parliament member, a justice of peace,
He thinks himself greate,
Yet an asse in his state
Sing lowsie Lucy, whatever befall it. Theso lines, it must be confessed, do no great honor to our poet; and probably were unjust; for ass though some of his admirers have recorded Sir Thomas as a 'vain, weak, and vindictive luagistrato," he was certainly exerting no very violent act of oppression, in protecting his property against a man who was degrading the commonest rank of life, and had, at this time, bespoke no induigence by Btiperior talents. The ballad, however, must have made some noise at Sir Thomas's expense, as the author took care it should be affixed to his park-gates, and liberally circulated among his neighbors.
Ou his arrival in London, which was probably in 1556, when he was twenty-two years old, he is fail to have made his first acquaintance in the play-house, to which idleness or taste may have directed him, and where his pecessities, iť tradition may be credited, obliged him to accept the office of call-boy, or prompter's attendant. This is a menial whose employment it is to give the performers notice to be ready to enter, as often as the business of the play requires their appearance on the stage. Pope, however, relates a story, communicated to him by Rowo, but which Rowe did not think deserving of a place in the life he wrote, that must a little retard the advancement of our poet to the office just mentioned. According to this story, Shakspeare's first employment wus to wait at the door of the playhouse, and hold the horses of those who had no servants. that they might be ready after the perform
But “I cannot," says his acute commentator, Mr. Steevens, dismiss this anecdote without observing, that it seenis to want every mark of probability. Though Shakspeare quitted Stratford on account of a juvenile irregularity, we have no reason to suppose that he had forfeited the protection of his father, who was engaged in a lucrative business, or the love of his wife, who had already brought him two children, and was herself the daughter of a substantial yeoman. It is unlikely, therefore, when he was beyond the reach of his prosceutor
, that he should conccal his plan of lite, or place of residence, from those who, if he found himself distressed, could not fail to afford him such supplies as would have set him above the necessity of building horses for subsistence.” Mr. Malone has remarked, in his "attempt to ascertain the order in which the Plays of Shakspeare were written, that he might have found an easy introduction to the stage : for Thomas Green, a celebrated comedian of that period, was his townsman, and perhaps his relation. The genius of our author prompted him to write poetry; his connection with a player might have given his produetions a dramatic turn: or his own sagacity might have taught hin that fame was not incompatible with profit, and that the theatre wils an avenue to both. That it was once the general custom to ride on horseback to the play, I am likewise yet to learn. The most popular of the theatres were on the Bankside; and we are told by the satirical pamphleteers of that time, that the usual mode of conveyance to these places of amusement wus by water, but not a single writer so much as hints at the custom of riding to them, or at the practice of having horses held during the hours of exhibition. Some allusion to this usage (if it had existel) must, I think, have been discovered in the course of our researches after contemporary fashions. Let it be remembered, too, that we receive this tale on no higher authority than that of Ciba ber's Lives of the Poets, vol. I, p. 130. Sir William Davenant told it to Mr. Betterton, who communicated it to Mr. Rowe, who, according to Dr. Johnson. related it to Mr. Pope.” Mr. Malone concurs in opinion, that this story stands on a very slender foundation, while he differs from Mr. Steevens as to the fact of gentlemen going to the theatre on horseback. With respect, likewise, to Shakspeare's father being “ engaged in a lucrative business," we may remark, that this could not have been the case at the time our author came to London, if the preceeding dates be correct. He is said to have arrived in London in 1556, the year in which his father resigned the office of alderman, unless, indeed, we are permitted to conjecture that his resignation was not the consequence of his necessities.
But in whatever situation he was first employed at the theatre, he appears to have soon discovered those talents which afterwards made him
Th' applause, delight, the wonder of our stage! Some distinction he probably first acquired as an actor, althongh Mr. Rowe has not been able to discover any character in which he appeared to more advantage than that of the ghost in Hamlet.
The instructions given to the player in that tragedy, and other passages of his works, show an intimate acquaintane with the skill of acting, and such as is scarcely surpassed in our own days. He appears to have studied nuturo in acting as much as in writing. But all this might have been mere theory. Mr. Malone is of opinion he was no great actor. The distinction, however, which he might obtain as an actor could only be in his own plays, in which he would be assisted by the novel appearance of author and actor combined. Before his time, it does not appear that any actor could avail himself of the wretched pieces represented on the stage.
Mr. Rowo regrets that he cannot informn us which was the first play he wrote. More skilful research has since found, that Romeo and Juliet, and Richard II and III were printed in 1997, when he was thirty-three years old ; there is also some reason to think that he commenced as a dramatie writer in 1592, and Mr. Malone even places his first play, “ First Part of Henry VI," in 1589. His plays, however. must have been not only popular, but approved by persons of the higher order, as we are certain, that he enjoyed the gracious favor of Queen Elizabeth, who was very fond of the stage: and the particular and affectionate patronage of the Earl of Southampton, to whom he dedicated his poems of “ Venus and Adonis," and his “ Tarquin and Lucrece.” On Sir William Davenant's anthority, it has been asserted, that this nobleman at one time gave him a thousand pounds to enable him to completo a purchase. At the conclusion of the advertisement prefixed to Lintot's edition of Shakspeare's poenis, it is said, “That most learned prince, and great patron of learning, King James tho First, was pleased, with his own hand, to write an anicable let er to Mr. Shakspeare; which letter thougb now lost renained long in the hands of Sir William D'Avenant, as a credible person now living can testify." Dr. Farmur with great probability supposes, that this letter was written by King James, in return tur che compliment paid to him in Macbeth. The relator of this anecdote was Sheifield, Duke of' Buckinghumn. These brief notices. meagre as they are, may show that our author enjoyed high favor is. his day. Whatever we may think of King James as a “ learned prince," his patronage, as well as that of his predecessor, was suficient to give celebrity to the founder of a new stage. It may be added, tliai his iconimnon merit, his candor, and good nature, are supposed to have procured him the admiration and acquaintance of overy person distinguished for such qunities. It is not difficult. indeed, to sulipuse, that Shakspeare was a man of humor, and a social companion, and probably excelled in that Spies of minor wit not ill adapted to conversation, of which it could have been wished he had been nire sparing in his writings.
How long he arted has not been discovered, but he continued to write till the year 1614. During his dramatic career he acquired a property in the theatre, which he must have disposed of' when he retired, as no mention of it occurs in his will. His connection with Ben Jonson hus been variously related. It is said, that when Jonson was unknown to the world, he offered a play to the theatre, which was rejected after a very careless perusal, but that Shakspeare having accidently cast his eye on it, conceived a favorable opinion of it, and utterwards recommended Jonson and luis writings to the publie. For this candor he was repaid by Jonson, when the latter became a poet of note, with mnenvious disrespect. Jonson ucquired reputation by the variety of his pieces, and endeavored to arrogate the supruinacy in dramatic genius: Like a French critic, he insinuated Shakspeare's incorrectness, bis careless manner of writing, ind his want of judgment; and, as he was a remarkably slow writer hirnrelf, he could not endure the praise frequently bestowed on Shukspeare, of seldom altering or blottils out what he had written. Mr. Malone says, " that not long after the year 1600. a coolness arose be veen Shakspeare und him, which, however he may talk of his almost idolatrous attection, produced on his part, from that time to the death of our author, and for many years afterwards, mucli clumsy Baruanni, and many malevolent reflections." But from these, which are the commonly received opinions on this subject, Dr. Farmer is inclined to depart, and to think Jonson's hostility of Shakspeare absolately groundless; so uncertain is every circumstance we attempt to recover of our great poet's life. Junson bad only one advantage over Shakspeare, that of superior learning, which inight in certain situations give him a superior rank, but could never promote his rivalship with a man who attained the highest excellence without it. Nor will Shakspeare suffer by its being known that all the dramatic poets before he appeared were scholars. Greene, Lodge, Peele, Marlowe, Nashe, Lily, and Kyd, had ull, Says Mr. Malone, a regular university education ; and, as scholars in our universities, frequently compose and sted plays on historical subjects."
The latter part of Shakspeare's life was spent in case, retirement, and the conversation of his friends. He had accumulated considerable property, which Gildon (in his " Letters and Essays," 1694 ) stated to amount to £300 per annum, a sum at least equal to £1000 in our days ; but Mr. Malone doubts whether all his property amonited to much more than £200 per annum, whích yet was a considerable fortune in those tiines, and it is supposed that he might have derived £200 per annum from the theatre while he cotinued on the stage.
He retired some years before his death to a house in Stratford, of which it has been thought important to give the history. It was built by Sir Hugh Clopton, a younger brother of an ancient family in that neigbborhood. Sir Hugh was Sheriff of London in the reign of Richard III, and Lord Mayor in the reign of Henry VII. By his will, he bequeathed to his elder brother's son, his manor of Clopton, &c., and his house by the name of the Greut Hiruse in Stratford. A good part of the estate was in possession of Edward Clopton, Esq., and Sir Hugh Clopton, Knight, in 1733. The principal estate hud Inxu sold out of the Clopton family for above a century, at the time when Shak-peare became the purchuiser; who having repaired and modelled it to his own mind, changed the name to New Place, which thu mansion-house, afterwards erected in the room of the poet's house, retained for many years. The House and lands belonging to it continued in the possession of Shakspeare's descendants to the time of ile Restoration, when they were re-purchused by the Clopton family. Here, in May. 1742, when Mr. Garrick, Mr. Macklin, and Mr. Delane, visited Stratford, they were hospitably entertained under Sunbspeare's mulberry tree by Sir Hugh Clopton. He was a barrister at law, was knighted by King Gorge I, and died in the suth year of his age, in December, 1751. His executor, about the year 1752, suld Vere Place to the Rev. Mr. Gastrell, a man of large fortune, who resided in it but a few years, in crusequence of a disagreement with the inhabitants of Stratford. As he resided part of the year at Lähield, he thought he was assessed too highly in the inonthly rate towards the inaintenance of the Pri bat being very properly compelled by the magistrates of Stratford to pay the whole of what was leiied on him, on the principle that this house was occupied by his servants in his absence, he pervishly declared that that house should never be assessed again; and soon afterwards pulled it down, duld the materials, and left the town. He had some time hetore cut down Shakspeare's mulberry treu.. to save himself the trouble of showing it to those whose admiration of our great poet led them to visit de classic ground on which it stood. That Shakspeare planted this tree appears to be sufficiently authenticated. Where New Place stood is now a garden. Before concluding this history, it may be Dretssary to mention, that the poet's house was once honored by the temporary residence of Henrietta Maria, queen to Charles I. Theobald has given an inaccurate account of this, as if she had been obligea lo take refuge in Stratford from the rebels; but that was not the case. She marched from Newark, June 16, 1643, and entered Stratford triumphantly about the 22d of the same month, at the head of three thousand foot, and fifteen hundred horse, with ono hundred and fifty wagons, and a train of artillery. Here she was met by Prince Rupert, accompanied by a large body of troops. She resided about three weeks at our poet's house, which was then possessed by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Nasle, and her husband.
*Xote hy Mr. Malone to “Additional Anecdotes of William Shakspeare."
*In 1603, he and several others obtained a licence from King James to exhibit comedies, tragedies, histories, &c., at the Globe Theatre and elsewhere
*This was the practice in Milton's days. “One of his objections to academical education, as it was then con ducted, is, that men designed for orders in the Church were permitted to act plays," &c. Johnson's Life of Milton.
**As the curiosity of this house and tree brought much fame, and more company and profit to the town, a cer. Ain man, on some disgust, has pulled the house down, so as not to leave one stone union another, and cut down dre tree, and piled it as a stock of firewood, to the great vexation, loss, and disappointment of the inhabitants, towever, an honest silversmith bought the whole stock of wood, and makes many odd things of this wood for the curious." Letter in Annual Register, 1760. Of Mr. Gastrell and his lady, see Boswell's Life of Dr. Joha: Hog, vol. ii, p. 356. Edit. 1793.