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present, but that every advantage might to acquire reputation in that profession. be derived from a little innovation. He He found it impossible to gain even a has been unreserved in his censure of livelihood ; for most probably be adhered public schools as they are now to the prescribed form of tuition which ducted; but he bopes the reader will be has existed for ages, and endeavoured to able to gather from bis observations, do nothing more than other masters at that his sentiments would be decidedly the same place bad done before. Mil. in favour of them, if they would conde- ton, on the other hand, was of service to scend to adopt a few changes in their his pupils, and improved their minds, if general plan.'
not bis own income, by the novel meThere is a Chapter under the title thod which he employed of cultivating of “ Prejudice-obstinate adherence mechanical powers of the understanding.
the moral, as well as the physical and to established systems --- superfluous But the Sage of Litchfield, instead of rules, definitions, exceptions, &c.; applauding bis industry and good intenand a few lines from which shall be tions, misunderstood and mis-stated his extracted as a specimen of the Au- system, and spoke in contemptuous thor's style:
terms of the wonder-working Academy,'
which he said, bad never to his know“ The Poet Cowley, who was not ledge produced any very eminent man."" only a man of genius, but a respectable scholar also, related of himself, that his Master at Westminster School could 75. Six Letters on Singing, from a Fanever prevail upon him to learn the com
ther to his Son. By the Rev. C. J. mon rules of grammar. Perhaps he was
Smyth, A. M. late Fellow of New at the time reckoned a stupid boy, and
College, Oxford, Chaplain to Lady considered as being deficient in memory;
Bayning, and Rector of Fakenham whereas he really possessed too much
Magna, Suffolk. 8vo, pp. 28. Bald. imagination and fancy to confine bis
win, Cradock, and Joy. attention to a string of words, and bad
MR. Smyth's musical talents bave intellect enough to imbibe a sufficient long been very justly and highly apquantity of learning, without stopping preciated ; and these instructions to to pick up the unnecessary appendages.' & St would take more than two years' of Amateurs, and still mure so of
his Son are well worth the attention argumentation to persuade Winchester, Eton, Harrow, or Westminster, that Singers by Profession. Latin and Greek may be learnt without “ Six Letters,” he tells his Son, “ will the assistance of so many sign-posts and cost me only a few hours labour; and if directions, and that practice will do you have sufficient confidence in my more in a week than rule and precept judgment implicitly to follow my direcwill do in a month. Sir William Jones tions, the result, if my principles are just, would never have been so eminent as a will be such, that a good master may linguist, if he had found it necessary to finish you as a Singer, and will have no study one-fifth of the languages which he bad habits to conquer; and you will not could speak, in the same manner as have occasion to spend more time in boys study the elements of Latin alone. unlearning than you did in acquiring The celebrated Barretier is said to have those defects. been master of five languages at nine “ I will be as plain as possible: those years of age; but from what Johnson has who think clearly may always write been able to collect of his life, it is quite clearly; and in almost every Didactic clear, that the method by which he was Work we should avail ourselves of fainstructed was very unlike that which is miliar illustration ; and it is often more adopted at our public schools. • The intelligible, always more impressive, first languages which Barretier learned,' than dry reasoning delivered with ma. says bis Biographer,' were the French, thematical conciseness and precision. German, and Latin, which he was taught, “I must begin with first principles. not in the common way, by a multitude He who begins ill rarely ends WELL. of definitions, rules, and exceptions, which In singing, the management of the breath fatigue the attention and burthen the
is of the utmost importance; the breath memory, without any use proportionate should not be let out too fast; husband to the time which they require, and the it well; the loudness of the tone does disgust which they create.
not depend on the quantity of breath “ Dr. Johnson, who was qualified for you afford to any given note or notes. any thing rather than a schoolmaster, “ A Singer should never begin a pasand wliose mighty genius would have sage with his lungs empty, but always been lost under the vapours of an aca fill his chest moderately full of wind bedemic employment, failed in bis attempt fore he begins singing; and whenever
he bas an opportunity, imbibe as much some such word as · La,'' Fa,' or the breath as he can, and keep his chest ex word 'Amen.' I never heard an Italian panded. You may have observed, that sing in his throat; but I do remember professional singers of great eminence to have beard a Singing.master of great pout themselves out, as it were, like pid- eminence in the Metropolis, who is now geons, before they begin to sing a pas no inore, form bis tone so high in the sage : they are wise in so doing-utility head, as absolutely to fall into the condemands this sacrifice of appearance. trary extreme of nasality a subject I
“When you are singing, stand erect; sball now explain. hold your head rather high ; do not “ In the first place, sing the word tuck your chin into your cravat - this nation' to any notes you please. Now position of the head obstructs the pas- sing it again, holding your nose
- the sage of the voice: this will be the case tone will become intolerably nasal. Naalso if the teeth are not kept open at a sality of singing, therefore, is occasufficient distance. The Italians sing sioned by the sound being obstructed in with bocca ridente, a smiling mouth*. the nose: the passage through that orA person once observed to a professional gan is not free.
For this reason no Musician of eminence, a friend of mine, Orator or Singer ought to take snuff. that Signior Rauzzini always sang as “A good portamento implies also if he were smiling; my friend replied, that the notes be properly sustained. that he could not erecute what he did He who sings tremulously t, and makes with his mouth differently formed. The that kind of close shake which old-fakeeping the mouth continually round, shioned violin and bass players were so with a view to produce a particular kind fond of, fails egregiously as to portaof tone, makes dreadful havock with mento. In order to acquire the faculty pronunciation.
of sustaining notes, without which your “ Singing in the throat is occasioned good voice and car will never conduct by making a kind of tone which conveys yoa to excellence, practise daily the to a hearer the idea that the singer sustaining about twelve notes of the ashas a swelling in bis throat, and in ad- cending and descending diatonic major dition to this inconvenience has a cord and minor scale, beginning at any pitch tied tight round his neck. It is very easy which is not too low for your voice, or to sing the words Do and Sol in the throat. would carry you beyond its natural or It is not without effort that a person can
artificial compass.” sing 'La' in the throat. In order to In the concluding Letter be says, avoid this most disgusting defect, all “ I shall now open my heart to you good singers practice divisions and ex with respect to Teachers of Singing. ercises in solfeggi, to the syllable · La.' With very few exceptions, the only The Italians, who hold guttural singing good English Singing-masters have ciin utter abhorrente, always practise to ther been taught by Italians, or have
*"1 request the favour of thuse Singers who maintain we ought to sing with a round mouth, to advert to an organ-pipe. The open diapason, I hope they will allow, affords a pure tone. But the open diapason has a bocca ridente, and not a bocca rotonda.
“I lately observed at the concert performed at the Argyle Rooms, that Naldi and Tramezzuni sung with a bocca ridente. (1813.)"
+ " I shall now relieve the dryness of my subject by some judicious observations of the late Mr. Twining, on the following lines of Spenser:
The joyous Birds, shrouded in cheerful shade,
Their notes unto the Voice attemper'd sweet ;
To th’ Instruments divine, respondence meet. “The singing of birds cannot possibly be attemper'd' to notes of a human voice. The mixture is, and must be, disagreeable. To a person listening to a concert of voices and instruments, the interrupting of singing-birds, wind, and water-falls, would be little better than the torment of Hogarth's Enraged Musician. Of the expressions, some are feeble and without effect, as 'joyous birds;' some evidently improper, as 'trembling voices' and cheerful shade;' for there cannot be a greater fault in a voice than to be TREMULOUS (Lines continued).
The silver-sounding instruments did meet
With the base murmurs of the waters':fall;
The gentle warbling wind low answered to all."
adopted the sterling principles of the Master of the Revels, Prince Rupert, Italian school. Sir William Parsons, Prince Maurice, General Fairfax, Olithe instructor of Mr. Harrison, travelled, ver Cromwell, Jobn Selden, General if I am rightly informed, into Italy--so Monk, Arthur Herbert, Lord Torringdid Mr. Greatorex. Almost all Handel's ton, Lord Godolphin, Duke of Shrewse great singers were Italians.
bury, &c. &c. With Notes, and an “ As you have a bass voice, I hope, Appendix. Edited by Rebecca Warere long, you will take lessons of - for ner, of Beech Cottage, Bath. 8vo, pp. the purpose of improving your tone as 214. Longman and Co. well as taste. “ The best language for musick is, be
We have recently had occasioa to yond a doubt, the Italian; the next, in notice a somewhat similar publication point of excellence, the Latin. Where by Miss Warner (vol. LXXXVII. ii. to place the English language I know 346); and are glad to find that she not; but cannot help lamenting that has encouragement to proceed in her so many words end in double and triple pleasant task. consonants, and its remarkable ten The title-page sufficiently explains dency to sibilation.”
the contents of the present collection;
of which this Series contains CXXIV 76. Speech, printed verbatim as it was in Letters.
tended to have been delivered at St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich, at a Meeting
" To the liberal communications of held at that Place, September 26, her friends the Editor is, in great mea1817, for the Conversion of the Jews.
sure, indebted for the contents of the By the Rev. C. J. Smyth, M. A. 8vo, following pages ; and, were she at libera pp. 8. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.
ty to point out the particular sources
from whence her materials are drawn; We have read this Speech, but not
or to acknowledge the assistance she with quite so much pleasure as we had has been favoured with, in the slight in examining the Musical Letters : notes which accompany the letters ; she
“ I disclaim,” says Mr. Smyth, “all should feel less hesitation in presenting pretensions to didle-dawdleism of libe- her volume to the publick, and less rality. --- I have been blamed by one out doubt as to its favourable reception." of the Society for joining the Society. I Another Series is announced, coohave been blamed by one in the Society sisting of unpublished Letters, of the for distributing the Short Account of
beginning of the Eighteenth Century, tbe Jews.'
illustrative of the Herbert Family ; He adds, however, very modestly, the latter end of King William's, and
“ Without any affectation of humi- the early part of Queen Anne's reigo. lity, I feel disposed to say that our cause has been advocated by much more able 78. The Beauties of Owen Felltham, seand better-informed persons than my lected from his “ Resolves," published self.”
in the Year 1661. Second Edition. By
J. A. 12mo, pp. 93. Hodson. 77. Epistolary Curiosities; Series the
THE original Publication of Fell. First : consisting of Unpublished Letters, of the Seventeenth Century, il- tham, in 1661, is a work of which the lustrative of the Herbert Family, and merit has long been well established; of the Reigns of James 1. Charles 1. containing truths not only of the first Charles 11. James II. and William III. importance, but also of an uncommon From George Herbert, Elizabeth Queen degree of beauty ; though sometimes of Bohemia, Edward Lord Herbert of encumbered with quaint ideas and obCherbury, Sir Henry Herbert, Knight, solete expressions.
* " I freely own that I greatly prefer the Latin to the Italian for singing; the excessive abundance of vowels (or rather repetition of them) in the latter produces to my ear a monotonous and effeminate effect. Now the Latin is by no means defective in the employment of vowels; but then they are so relieved and diversified by the termination of consonants and liquids, that a much greater variety, and, I think, a much more euphonious effect, is the result.
" I remember having seen a composition of the late Dr. Hayington (not Harington) to that Ode of Anacreon Xaderoy de un pianoat, which had a beautiful effect when accurately sung; and I guess that a Greek anthem would be peculiarly solemn and impressive.
« Φωνή βοων εν τη ερήμω. “Ετοιμάσαθε την οδών Κυρία, ευθείας σoιείτε τας τρίβος aurē. These words well set, and well sung, would be magnificently sonorous and imposing ; at least so it appears to me.-Note by Mr. Wesley."
" It has been the amusement of a deduced from it are confioed; it few leisure hours to collect the most in affords to the human mind an inexstructive as well as beautiful passages, haustible variety of subjects for reflecand by bringing them into a more mo
tion and investigation, of the most indern and compendious form, to endea- teresting and important kind: it em, your to render them more useful."
braces all the regular operations and In its present form the Work has an phenomena of pature. The Philosoeminent tendency to advance the io. phie Chemist walks abroad and looks terests of sound Religion and Mo- around him with observation and rality, and to convey instruction in ideas so different from those of other very pleasing language.
men, that he is like a superior being.
In contemplating the works of Na. 79. La Vérité sur L'Angleterre. Par ture, be enjoys the exquisite delight un Français ; publiée et dédiée à la
of looking through effects up to their Nation Anglaise, par J. A. Vievard,
causes, and anticipating future conProprietaire - Editeur. 2nd Edition,
sequences. 8vo, pp. 222, 212. De Boffe.
Another circumstance which renTHE productivo of a generous and 'ders the study of this Science particaenlightened Frenchman ; who, grate. Jarly interesting is, that every person ful for the asylum he received in this of moderate intellectual powers will, Kiogdom during the period in which in the course of their study and expethe legitimate King of France and the riments, meet with subjects and apPrinces of the House of Bourbon
pearances for original investigation, were protected in this free and happy ibat may give rise to new discoveries country, is desirous
A Newton in “ à refuter les exagérations, les impos- Chemistry has not appeared, nor is tures, et les absurdités, contenues dans les livres, dont certains écrivains, quidés, dent will not languish for want of the
it probable ever will exist: the Stusans doute, par la haine et la passion, ne cessent d'inonder la France, l'Allemagne, hope of ever knowing any thing more et les Pays-Bas, contre la Nation, le
than what has already been known. Gouvernement, et les Dames Anglaises."
Dr. Reece's“ Chemical Guide," like
the other productions of that Gentle80. The Chemical Guide ; or, Complete man's pen, is stamped'with a peculiar
Companion to the portablé Chest of character; it displays a scientific acChemistry, being an Epitome of Mo- count of the subject treated of,containdern Chemistry. By Richard Reece, iog much original matter, expressed in M. D. Author of the Medical Guide a clear and easily intelligible manner; and Dictionary, &c. &c. 12mo, pp. such as should ever be the style of the 335. Longman and Co.
language of true Science. Cicero THĘ advantages to be derived said of Socrates," that he had brought from prosecuting the cultivation of Philosophy down from Heaven to the Sciences, in the manner pointed dwell in the houses of men.” The ! out by the illustrious Bacon, is par- present Work has contributed much ticularly demonstrated by the disco. to draw from the clouds Medicine and veries which have of late been made its attendant Sciences, and diffuse the in Chemistry. Modern Chemistry knowledge of them amongst mankind. may, indeed, be considered as a new The “Chemical Guide” contains a branch of Science, and well exempli lucid explanation of all the principal fies his observation, that " quando- operations of Chemistry; the nature, quidem natura rerum magis se prodit analysis, and elective attractions of per vexationes Artis, quam in liber. its agents, and much miscellaneous tate propria.” It is to the patient information of importance to the Arinvestigation of Nature, in the manner tizan and Agriculturist. And, what advised by him, that we owe the must render this Work peculiarly use. koowledge we have acquired in this, ful to the Student, every theory, every the most delightful and useful of all enunciated fact, is accompanied wită the sciences. The Physician, the Agri- directions for conducting experiinents culturist, the Artisan, and the Ma. in a safe and easy manner; which, at nufacturer, are well acquainted with the same time that they strongly imthe advantages resulting from its pre- press the fact on the mind, incite to sent state of perfection; but it is not perseverance in the pursoit, by the within these bounds that the benefits entertainment which they aford.
- nor ever
The Author, in treating of Com- galvanic fluid, and the oxygen, thus bustion, favours the opinion of the coming in contact, a general disengagelight being furnished by the coinbus- ment of heat ensues, and the principle tible body, and caloric by the oay- of vitality is thus conveyed to every part.” gen; which by their combination
The reputation of the “ Medical form fire.
Guide" of the same Author is well In the Essay on Animal Chemistry established. To those who possess it the theory advanced seems to be very we would strongly recommend the ably supported by facts.
“ Chemical Guide,” as containing We quote the following passage:
valuable and necessary inforination " The brain is the seat of sensation for understanding the nature of disand volition, and, by a variety of experi- ease, and the operation of remedies. ments, is clearly concerned in the pro.
It will convey io the Chemical Studuction of animal heat. If the commu- dent, in a clear and entertaining navnication of a part with the brain be cut ner, all that is requisite for acquiring off by dividing the principal nerves, the a general knowledge of the Science, heat is considerably diminished; and and also contains much and valuable by tying the principal artery so as to informalion for the use of the Agriprevent the flow of blood tbrough it, culturist and Artizan. The instrucihe same effect will follow; which shew tions for making the various re-agents that the evolution of heat is dependent employed in Analytical Chemistry are on both the nerves and arterial blood.
more full and clear thao are to be Analogy also confirms this, and demon- found in most other works of the kind. strates that beat is the effect of decomposition, and consequently is the result of inore than one power. In explaining 81. A Poetical Epistle to the King of then the origin of animal heat, it may
Hayti, 8vo, pp. 96. Sherwood & Co. be observed, that oxygen, the principle THE Author observes, of combustion, is supplied from the atmosphere by the lungs during respira. Presum'd to write before
“ This is my first offence. I never tion; and that this oxygen, combining Can dare to scribble more, unless with the red particles of the blood, imparts to it its brightness and Aorid colour. The candid and the kind caress.” That the blood, tbus oxygenated, or Though we cannot certaioly caress having received the principle of heat, this well-intentioned Bard, we are is propelled by the heart through the ar. 90 kind as to let him speak for him. terial system, to every part of the body: self; and the Argument of the first It is in its passage tbrough these vessels Canto, and the concluding lines, may it parts with its oxygen, when it is re.
be suflicient : turned again to the heart by another series of vessels termed veins, to be trans
« Advice to Hayti, sent from London, mitted through the lungs for the pur
Lest she unbappily be undone. pose of being re-oxygenated. Hence This grave epistie is begun, the blood in the veins and arteries ex. By sbewing what vught to be done ; hibits different appearances, that of the
And what the King ought not to do ; latter being bright and florid, while the
Wrote and presented at one view : former is of a dark colour, in conse
Rules wbich, experience declares, quence of the absence of oxygen.
Should guide monarchial affairs. By the brain is produced a subtle How to promote emancipation, fluid which is conducted to every part How to create a mighty Nation ; of the body by means of branches termed
Of which we presently display nerves: these filaments of the brain
The whole paraphernalia.” take the course of tbe arteries or vessels “ To you, O King, I now commend, containing the oxygenated blood. By The weeping tribes of Africa, the union which takes place between Release, console, instruct, befriend. subtle or nervous fluid, and the oxygen Snatch Cruelty's steel goad away ; of the blood, a species of animal com The altars of proud Avarice bustion is produced; for the nerves, as Destroy-prevent the sacrifice appendages of the brain, are positively May Heaven your sympathy reward, electrified, while the arterial blood, in And shield you by an angel-guard-consequence of the oxygen it bolds, is May Heaven forbid the negroes' cries, negatively so. Betwixt them, therefore, And the young Nation patronize ;it is highly probable a disengagement of Les Negres, Jecommende à vous — calorie takes place; the nervous or Adieu ! Je vous commende à Dieu."