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last Session, without bringing forward ter. But however much the power and even the outline of a plan for the re combination of these propensities and moval of evils of the most alarming qualities way differ in individuals at magnitude, it was more than proba- birth, they may be all so directed by ble that the cause of our distresses subsequent circumstances, as to be made would be found to lie deeper than was
to form general characters, and those
characters to be of any of the most opat first imagined. The capricious character of the public mind has bitbérto posite nature, to be made entirely irra
tional or rational." rendered it hazardous, in the judg. ment of our most enlightened States There can be no doubt that some men, to apply any of the remedies will make slower progress in moraļ that have been suggested by Reform- and intellectual improvement than ists; and now, because the origin of others; but that there exists in the our disorder is traced pot in the mental constitution of any individual mal-administration of existing laws, an iosuperable obstacle to the pracbut in the individuals themselves who tice of the greatest virtues, I cannot compose society-like wayward child- admit. If there is any truth in the ren, we refuse to listen to the voice long - established position of Mr. of an instructor.
Locke, that there are no ideas but Valuing philosophical enquiries so such as result from sensation and refar only as they may contribute to flection, then is the character chiefly the happiness of mankind, I disclaim forined by the circumstances with all participation in the opinions Mr. which it is surrounded. When we Owen bas expressed on the subject of observe that man partakes of that faith. It is sufficient for me to ob- general character which prevails in serve, that as in his projected villages the country where he is born; that perfect freedom of religious sentiment he is of any religion he may be will prevail; whether he subscribes to taught; that even his manners and any Creed or not, is a consideration the lighter shades of character are which can form no rational ground regulated by the sphere in which be of objection to the play itself. moves; that different countries and
There have been few arguments ad- different ranks in society have each vanced in opposition to the New View a peculiar character ; is it possible to of Society, which Mr. Owen has not suppose that all this does not arise anticipated and completely refuted; from external circumstances: The but there is an imaginary barrier, most virtuous dispositions have oriwhich reflecting men, sincerely de- ginated from external causes : by obsirous of affording this permanent re serving what those causes have been, lief to the labouring classes, are ap and carefully applying them in the prehensive will oppose their best en- discipline of youth, they willinevitably deavour. “ As a proof of the impossi- lead to a similar result. It is not bility of making all mankind rational, that our systems of education, though good, and happy, by any general sys- in many respects faulty, are deficient tem of education, it is remarked in excellent practical precepts, but that in families where children have that the counteracting influence of experienced precisely the same treatsociety defeats the benefit of instrucment and instruction, their characters tion. Those objects impressed upon are found widely to differ, and con the mind in the course of study are sequently there must be a constitu- effaced by others more powerful, and tional defect in some minds which to which they are opposed in an inwill effectuaily prevent them from tercourse with the world. Children becoming respectable members of so- of one family, and educated together, ciety.” It will appear by the follow. would subsequently display the same ing extract, that Mr. Owen has not general character, if the external ex. overlooked the variety to be found citements of society did not elicit in the natural dispositions of indivi- those bad qualities which would otherduals.
wise lie dormant. It is the different “Man is born with combined propen- degree of power and combination in sities and qualities, differing in degree natural propensities and qualities and power, and in combination suffi. which renders some more obnoxious cient to create through life individuality to temptaliop than others, and preand distinctness of person and charac vents that general good conduct which
our own errors
must prevail in the “New View of So- sick are become more essentially neciety," where every peroicious excite- cessary? Was the Philosopher in erment is withdrawn.
ror, or shall we oot rather find that Pride, when presented to the mind the education he had in view was abstractedly, creates repugnance; but one that provided for the wants both how unconsciously are we reconciled of body and miod: not an education to its various gradations in the dif where Youth are taught one set of ferent ranks of life. That it should' principles in the academy, and anoso insinuate itself can be readily ac ther in society. It is in vain to in. counted for, since it is fostered in struct children in the important the nursery and in our schools; it is duties of morality and religion, if, first introduced under the milder cha upon the same day they receive these racter of Emulation, but even in this lessons, they are exposed to the temp. its most inoffensive form, it is a prin tations of want, and to the contagion ciple resting upon the degradation or of vicious intercourse. inferiority of others, and totally at There is not, Mr. Urban, any invariance with Christian motives *. herent depravity in human nature If equal pains were taken to instil which a Christian education, in a sointo the minds of youth principles of ciety formed upon the basis of Mr. benevolence, the gratification of he Owen's true and unerring principles ing enabled to perform a beneficent of political economy, caonot overact, as the reward of diligence, would
They are 8000 become a more powerful incen. alone that impede the melioration of tive than the desire of excelling: and inankiod ; not the real, but the factithus by reiterated acts of kindoess tious wants of society: the former they would acquire benevolent ha can now be supplied in superabunbits, the pleasures of which would be dance, and through the aid of mechafound far too exquisite to be exchang- nism with very moderate exertion; ed for any other, especially as they and as for the latter, they will all be would then become associated with expelled under a better system, and all their earliest impressions. In men
in ibe more extended practice of geso trained, and in a society of mu nuine Christianity: tual co-operation, Pride, Envy, Ava. Those who rank first in the order rice, and Anger, with all the bad pas. of created beings, and are eodowed sions, would not only be placed more with superior intelligence, must subhoder the dominion of Reason, but mit to the humiliation of learning the stimulus to their exertion would social union from the insect tribes, no longer exist. Thus, a two-fold Man, it is true, bas, in the improveoperation would be performed. In ment of his intellectual faculties, the preventive system, the removal loftier aims to pursue than that to of temptation, and in sedulously watch, which in stiuct directs the bee: but iog the early association of ideas,con- is the attainment of bis object facisisted the chief excellence of the laws litated by a departure from those of Lycurgus, and he produced the simple laws' which Nature has premartial and patriotic character hie de- sented to his view in the economy of signed ; why then should we despair the hive? On the contrary, do not of success in the application of these his struggles for subsistence, or for principles to higher objects?
the gratification of imaginary wants, When Plato was asked by what Dot only deprive him of the opporsigns a traveller might know imme. tunity of cultivating his reasoning diately on his arrival in áoy city that powers, but privations and misery education is veglected, he replied, abound, although the aggregale of "If he finds that Physiciansand Judges food, of cloathing, and of shelter are necessary." How does it arise amounts to superfluity? that in a Metropolis where education Yours, &c.
CHRISTIANUS. prevails more than at any former period, practitioners in law and phy, Mr. URBAN,
THE assertions in the Leiter of * See the admirable chapter on the Desire of Human Estimation and Ap- 404,) were to me so novel, as greatly plause, in Mr. Wilberforce's Practical to surprize me, and to excite my View of Christianity.
anxious interest to have their truth
THW..est (vol. IXXXVII. II. p.
or falsebood ascertained. He says whether the wickedness, or the folly that “the riogleaders and principal. were more glaring and extravagant. abettors of the plan," (i.e. of the There are many other parts of Traitors who were lately executed W.B.S.'s Letter which are open to at Derby) “ were mostly of the So- animadversion, and shew him to ciety called Methodists *: that in Dis- have written under the dominion of septing Chapels the meetings" (i, e. passion and prejudice. Nothing but of these same Traitors, if I under the blinding influence of that domistand him aright) were held, their vion could have urged him to put plans laid, and the business dis- the question, “ If the Clergy are, cussed :" that “from their Conven- obliged to give pledges of behaviour ticles they issued forth to put their and testimonials of life and characplan in execution, and from Religion ter, ought not Dissenting Teachers They proceeded to Murder :" and to be called to the same test ?"-and that, in short, the Methodists “ io. not perceive the obvious answer to stigate to crimes, and, not content it, That the Clergy have a Maintewith this, are equally ready to justify" nance secured to them by Law, while them.
the Dissenting Teacher has nothing, Having known, and intimately and and expects nothing, from the State, extensively known, the Methodists in but protection in common with bis different parts of England, upwards fellow-subjects. of this protection of forty years, I am assured that the it is the tendency, if not the intention, principles which they uniformly pro of W. B. S.'s inflammatory Letter to fess, the rules of conduct which they deprive them.
J. W. D. jaculcate, and the practice of all of them (I say, all of them, without ex Mr. URBAN,
Jan. 8. ception) with whom I have been con. versant, are directly at variance with THE appearance of the Works of
Genius, to whatever class they W. B. S.'s representation. I am not may belong, which are admired for unaware that faults, and some of their superior splendour, or esteem. magnitude, exist amoug, them; buted for a more than ordinary happidisaffection to the existing Govero dess of accomplishment, almost ioment, or an insurrectionary spirit, are evitably leads others on to emulanot in the number. As a body of tion; some, with unaspiring wishes people, they are rather characterized
of following the track of what they by inclinations and habits positively esteem, or of copying what they adthe reverse.
mire ; some, with more lofty aspiW. B. S.'s Letter, therefore, asto- rations of rivalling what has giveu pished me; and, as I reside in a part them delight, or of surpassing what of the kingdom distant from the scene may have excited the baser feelings of the late traitorous rising, 1 felt it of envy; and such consequences in due to myself, and to some endeared every possible shape and beariog we connexions among that religious su often perceive to have followed the ciety, to make enquiries of persons on appearance of the more admired prothe spot, who were likely to know ductions in the Poetical World. We the truth as to what he has asserted.
are informed, that even many of the The information I have received gives most durable monuments of fame, me reason to believe that those as
the most illustrious Poels, have owed sertions are unworthy of any credit. their origin and existence to some The grounds on which I form my trivial circumstance, or some slight opinion it is not now necessary to ad- idea, originating from others that duce: an anonymous accusation, with have long been as forgotten as if out proof, is sufficiently repelled by they had never been knowo. an anonymous denial. The Metbo.
Ariosto was an honour to his dists had no concern, either as a body Country, and the glory of his age, or as individuals, with the late insur. The general regard and universal rection, of which it is difficult
say admiration büs Orlando Furioso at. * By this term I understand W. B. S.
tracled was a cause to which the to mean the followers of the late Joba
world are indebted for not a few Wesley, whose name he expressly men
other Poems of great merit and tions; and I beg to be understood as exteosive celebrily; and these not speaking of those only.
confined to Italy alone. But on this
point it is quite unnecessary to di Markham in his preface informs late. The Poem of which I now in us, “ that this Paraphrase + was first tend to give a short description, was intended for one priuat mans repast, written with the intention to cootinue and not for a wedding - table; the the narrative of Ariosto's poble per time when Poesie was lesse, but more formance. Of Ariosto, it is impossi- beloued ; Poets fewer, but not so ble not cordially to agree with the bilter ; and Readers in generall, by opinion expressed by Mr. Roscoe, much, much better affected."-And " that his Works contributed more in another place admonishes the Reathan those of any other Author, to der that should “
apdiffuse a true Poetical Spirit through pear in the Poem, it only lies " in his out Europe."
English apparell: and no wonder (he Pbilip Des Portes, author of this continues) for I protest the TranslaPoem, was born at Chatres, in 1546. tion was finisht, and foorth of my His writings had much effect towards hands, aboue a dozen yeares agone, helping the progress and purity of a time wherein bumbasted breeches The French Language. Few Poets and straite whale-bon'd doublets bad wet with such high reputation dur- neither use nor estimation.” ing their life, and perhaps done in As the “ Argument of the Poem” those ages were so well rewarded for sufficiently informs us of the incitheir productions, as he is report. dents it records, I shall here transed to have been. It is said he re. cribe it, and insert some occasional ceived from Charles IX. for the pre extracts from both the original and sent poem, eight hundred crowns of translation, from which their comgold. Like some others of his Coun- parative merits may be estimated. trymen, the extensive celebrity and fame which he then enjoyed were
“ Rodomonth, King of Argier and
Sarza, beeing a man of most extreame speedily forgot, when ovce the object pride and courage, comming into of it was removed from the inter
Fraunce with King Agramant, who to course of his admirers. Of him, we
reuenge the death of Traianó his famay use the words of a well-known ther, slaine by Pipin King of Fraunce, writer respecting those whose merits bad conducted thitber a most puissant hare been over-rated by the prejua armie against Charlimaine, the sonne dices, and partialities of friends or of Pipin : after the warres were almost contemporaries, when he with much finished, and both Agramant, Mandritruth remarks, " that one generation card, Gradasso, and divers other kings seems to pride itself upoo defacing slaine, this Rodomonth vnderstanding the idols of the last; and not unfre- that Rogero, a Prince of excellent verquently they destroy to-day the golden federate and assistant vnto Agramant,
tue and prowesse, who also was a concalf which yesterday they set up; and
was not onely conuerted and becomed when idolaters turn iconoclasts, they
a Christian, but also should take to act as if the outrageousness of the
wife Bradamant, the daughter of Duke oue excess were to efface or atove for Aimon, one of the twelue Peeres of the folly of the other.” Such was Fraunce.” the fate of Des Portes, and such is the fate of a hundred others. Of the
When in the midst of the Nuptial merits of his Poem, the Reader will rejoicings, soon be enabled to judge from a few “ Charles plac't between specimens that will be introduced. The bride and bridegroom, (on whom
The translator was Gervase, or beuty feeds :) Jervis Markham, a name of frequent He saw a mighty man clad all in blacke, occurrence to collectors of Old En. Mounted vpon a mighty courser's backe.” glish Literature. And the present lit. Approaching," with disdainfull eie, tle volume may be entitled to the more Sending contemptrespect, by considering its rarity*. Thus vnto Roger and the rest he spake.
* It bears the following title : “Rhodomanths Infernall; or, the Diuell conquered. Ariostos Conclusions, &c. &c. At London, printed by V. S.” [for Ni. cholas Ling, 1598?) in sm. 8vo. El in eights. Dedicated by G. M. to Lord Mount-eagle. Of its rarity it may be sufficient to state that Ritson was ignorant of its existence he merely mentions that Nicolas Ling had a licence for printing it in 1598.
+ The French poem is comprised in 723 lines, the English is enlarged to 1192, or 149 eight-line stanzas.
Roger, I am Rodomount the king yet he had slaine voluckily: and Of fruitfull Argier on the Affricke about that castle, he is bound by the bounds,
Destinies to wander for an hundred Whome virtue and renowne doth hither
yeares, because his body wanted bu. bring
riall.” To chalenge thee, false traitor, whose
Such is the argument of this Poem. name sounds
Allow me then to make a few exIn heathen eares like Jews trumps when
tracts, they ring,
The Hell Scene I conceive to be And will approoue, that in thy heart abounds
particularly striking, but it is too Falshood vnto thy chieftaine and thy long to give at full length. Attractfaith,
ed by the cries of Charon, Pluto Wbieh from thy birth thou shouldst "sweats and torments himself, while preserue til death.
he begins to fret, to scold, and And therewithall auerre, that no true frowne," and Preserpine, as she is knight
[fame, called, “the faire Lanthorne of Hell, Ought to dispute of thee, or of thy the paramour. to Dis," encourages Thogh (brasen-facde) thou shunnest not him, by calling the damned souls to the light,
[claime: his aid with fattering words, toʻresist
“In spight of Plutoes deitie,
Will there in hell ereet bis emperie.”
“ Chacun' fuit au deuant quelque part
seur! Some of these knights that hemme. Car de crainte surpris le chien engloutisFoure, five, or if full twenty, nere tlie worse ;
[fame shall win, Et les tristes fureurs de sang entretaThe more they mount, the more my
chées Whilst I immortaliz'd by this great S'estoient au fond d'Auerne honteusedeede, [shall bleed."
ment cachées." Wil triumph when thy tre'bling heart Markham renders and enlarges
Rogero singly accepts the King of these lines in the following manner : Sarza's challenge, when, after a “ sell
“ Where ere he went, the Furies fled be. fought battell,” (the description of fore him,
[their flighé, which fills more than 30 cantos) the The whilst his pride augmented by Pagan king is slaio, "whose soul, All things without hell gates ran to after his death, (retaining the vio
adore him ;
[bis sight, lence, furie, and madnesse, which he And now the draw-bridge stands within possesst in bis life) descending into On it he prowdly leaps, that quaking Hell” there quarrels with old Charon,
bore him, [King, and Knight: and buffeting and striking “up the
And vaunts himselfe thereof Lord, old man's heeles," he overturos boat For why th' Ecchiddnian curre for feare and all, and then in the translator's
[head. words)“ maketh open warres against And in the burning lake did hide bis Pluto, the god of Hell, and euen con And now he pulls the Eban bridge in quereth and turmoileth all the diuels sunder,
[heeles, therein : till hauing ouerheated him And hauing Charon this while by the selfe, and seeking for water to quench Like to a maull makes his old pate to his thirst, be happeneth vpon Lethe,
[lars reeles.” the riuer of Forgetfulnesse; on which,
Beating the bridge, whose rented pilwhen he had drunke, hee instantly The invocation of the Stygian forgat all that was past (except Loue) ghosts, by Pluto, 'the Infernall King,' and so relurneth backe to the earth: is remarkably singular: it is said these where he wandred, till he fouod the ghosts, Castle of Isabella, the daughter of “ Like crowes about a carrion newlie the King of Spaine ; whom aibe he
slaine, bad formerly loued most entirely, Or like small flies about a candle's flame,