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the reign of John I. of Portugal, father of the celebrated and enlightened prince Henry, to the voyage of Vasco de Gamez inclusively, immortalised in the Lusíad of Camoens, which, in a cool prosaic narrative, is far too copiously referred to. The volume concludes with an appendix of papers and documents adverted to in the body of the work. The undertaking, we understand, was commenced under the patronage of the late board of admiralty. Mr. Burney's work is entitled “ A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. Part I. Commencing with an Account of the earliest Discovery of that Sea by Europeans, and terminating with the Voyage of Sir Francis Drake in 1579. Illustrated with Charts.” Captain Burney has executed his object, so far at least as it at present extends, in a manner masterly beyond any praise it is in our power to bestow, and has dedicated it to sir Joseph Banks, who will, no doubt, be proud of the honour hereby conferred upon him. It is clear, correct, and comprehensive; entertaining without fiction, and learned without dogmatism.
The professional skill of the writer
enables him to be almost always at home, and gives an ease, and
at the same time, an authenticity to
his descriptions, which we should in vain perhaps look for otherwise. We trust this important, and we may add incomparable, work will be persevered in ; not only through the discoveries in the Pacific, but, as a hint is thrown out in the introduction, through every other sea into which the spirit of adventure or the curiosity of man has at any time carried him. This is indeed to propose an arduous and most vo
luminous task to this admirable wri-.
ter, but w; know of no one so well
calculated to engage in it as himself. Whether he will think proper to plunge into so vast an engagement we cannot absolutely tell; but from the following declaration we are not without hopes: “ For the subject of the present work," says captain Burney, “I have chosen the discoveries made in the South Sea, to which my attention has been principally directed, from having sailed with that great discoverer, and excellent navigator, the late captain Cook, under whose command I served as lieutenant in his two last voyages.” In our last number we endeavoured to give some idea of the merits of Mr. Pinkerton's Geography. This, we understand, has since been translated into French, and is obtaining a large and deserved circulation upon the continent. At home, we have now to notice, that an abridgement of it, in one thick octavo volume, has been published for the use of schools, and is likely to meet with success. The editor has rather curtailed the work by the excision of excrescent parts, than by a condensation of the whole; and, as much of the original was not necessary to be studied in the greater part of our seminaries, we believe the plan to be the most judicious of any that could be adopted. In briefly adverting to the astronomical and mathematical literature of the year, as a tribute to genius and reputation we shall commence with noticing Dr. Small's account of the “ Discoveries of Kepler, including an astronomical Review of the Systems which had successively prevailed before his Time.” This is a useful book, developing the subject of which it treats in a manner perspicuous and intelligible. The obligations of our - * OW In own immortal Newton to his predecessor, Kepler, are faithfully pointed out; as are also the infinite improvements introduced by sir Isaac into the science; or rather, we may say, the outlines of the sublime building, are delineated, which he erected on so stable, a basis. The actual phenomena of the heavens are, in the first instance, carefully represented; then follow the earlier theories by which they were attempted to be described, a judicious elucidation of their inaccuracy and inefficiency, and the conduct pursued by Copernicus to establish the existing theory. Dr. Hutton has offered an acceptable present to the English reader, by his translation of Ozanam’s “ Recreations in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; ” which contain a vast fund of instruction, and, as the title expresses it, amusement, on the subjects of which he treats. Montu.cla's work is too operose and voluminous to become, at any time, much more than a book of reference; and the present, in common cases, will ably supply its place. It affords, moreover, a larger portion of scientific entertainment; and, in its language, as well as in its arrangement, is far better adapted for general use. Mr. Frend has very happily succeeded in a familiar little work, intended to convey to young persons an idea of the change which is perpetually taking place in the heavenly bodies, and the new phaenomena which the heavens themselves are hence assuming. This little tract he has denominated “Evenings at Home, or the Beauty of the Heavens displayed;" in which, he tells us, “several striking appearances to be observed on various evenings, in the heavens, during the year 1804, are described; and several means, within doors, are
pointed out by which the time of young persons may be innocently, agreeably, and profitably employed.” We are glad to be able to announce that this elegant and useful manual is to be continued annually. From Dr. Young we have received a concise and judicious “Analysis of the Principles of Natural Philosophy;” which consists, however, of a mere syllabus of a course of lectures; such, we believe, as he has been in the habit of using at the royal institute. It may hence be found of admirable service as a book of reference, or a guide in the prosecution of exercises and experiments; but the demonstrations must be added by the reader or student; for they are rarely introduced into the text-book before us. Mr. Baron Masseres has published another volume on the subject of mathematics, which he has entitled “Tracts on the Resolution of Cubic and Biquadratic Equations.” These tracts are introduced by a prefatory explanation of their contents, and consist of six in number. The old objections to the use of negative quantities are here re-urged; but we do not perceive that any new argument of importance is advanced in the course of the discussion, into which we have neither time nor inclination to enter. The tracts themselves reflect credit upon this ingenious mathematician's diligence, perseverance, and knowledge of his subject. Of a very different character, but equally worthy of attention, are Mr. Woodhouse’s “Principles of Analytical Calculation;” in which the writer has been far more anxious to furnish a book that may exercise the skill and ingenuity of our higher mathematicians, than to condescend to the limited powers and comprehensions of *:
It is, in reality, in no respect an elementary book: the language is technical ; the discussions novel and abstruse; yet the author seldom or never deviates from the soundest principles of reasoning in his analytic processes; he minutely and carefully seperates what is real from mere articles of convention, and discloses where the mind can rest with satisfaction in the discoveries of the moderns.
* On the subject of perspective, the only book worth noticing, is “A Practical Treatise, by Mr. Edwards, Associate and Teacher of Perspective in the Royal Academy." The ground-work of this treatise is, as it ought to be, the Lyncean Perspective of Dr. Brook Taylor; while the Optics of Mr. Emmerson have not been altogether lost sight of. It is a truly valuable publication, and ought to be in the hands of every student. We cannot quit it without noticing, that a remark, which we made in our last number on Mr. Malton's work, is here confirmed by a similar observation. Mr. Edwards admits, that it contains some excellent and masterly examples; but adds, that the author “has destroyed their utility, by entangling the vanishing points, and crossing the diagrams in so confused a manner, that it almost impossible for a young practitioner to trace and ditinguish the different figures." We perceive Mr. Malton to be more largely opposed, however, in an “Essay on Rural Architecture, illustrated with original and economical Designs, by Mr. R. Elsam." The public taste has unquestionably been long misled; but the present author, so far from restoring it to classical and appropriate simplicity, wanders further from the mark than most of his predecessors; and hence, though his professed cb
ject is to sacrifice, in every instance, art to nature, we not only have a plentiful introduction of art, but occasionally of the worst and most disgusting character. What avails it to conceal the mansion-house in a rast luxuriance of tufts of trees, or to make it shrink from a square of massy magnificenee into a picturesque nut-shell, if we be to have auxiliary huts and out-houses presented to us under the whimsical shape of rural retreats, Saxon gateways, Gothic castles, or some quaint device yeleped of Roman or Grecian style of architecture, but which might as well be nominated of Chinese invention ? We do not see that Mr. Malton is likely to suffer from the confused and hetrogeneous attack of the present writer. A work in a great measure of similar description, has issued from the hand of Mr. Repton, which he entitles, “Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape-gardening; including some Remarks on Grecian and Gothic Architecture, collected from various Manuscripts in the Possession of the different Noblemen and Gentlemen for whose Use they were originally written.” This pompous publication discovers some knowledge of the art, but an infinitely greater degree of conceit and egotism. With the specimens of architecture referred to, the writer has personally had but little concern; and, with respect to the branch of ornamental gardening, which more immediately constitutes his own profession, had we no other work upon the subject than the present, we should sincerely assent to the following passage with which it is introduced, that most “ difficult is the application of any rules of art to the works of nature." The book is dedicated to the king; and from its extrava
- gant gant price (five guineas), and the still more extravagant demand of the artist for his travelling expenses and professional opinion, there can be no doubt that he is intoxicated by the splendid and munificent gratuities he has received from the royal purse, though the amount of them is here modestly concealed. From still life we now advance to active life; from the bending line of beauty to the angles of fortification and the rigid manoeuvres of military tactics. ful subject; and several of the publications before us by no means disgrace its present importance. It is impossible to have noticed the various events of the late war, and especially the uniform success of Bonaparte, without perceiving that the system of attack and defence has undergone a very considerable change from what it exhibited under the seven years' war; in the course of which it was conceived to have attained its ultimate point of perfection. In almost every instance, during the late hostilities, the assailing army obtained possession of the field, and, in most instances, an important and decisive triumph; and as the French, and especially under the guidance of Bonaparte, were commonly the assailants, it is not to be wondered at that they should be able to boast of the greatest number of conquests. Impetuosity has almost universally prevailed over an orderly and rigid resistance; and the velocity of the attack has destroyed half the effect of the most ably planted artillery, and given an indubitable advantage to side-arms over musketry. It is hence highly necessary to become acquainted with those rapid and almost irresistible evolutions which have so successfully been introduced into the field by the enemy;
This has long been a fruit
and captain Macdonald has, in consequence, been usefully engaged in translating from the French tongue, the “Rules and Regulations for the Field Exercise and Manoeuvres of the French Infantry,” which were issued, Aug. 1st, 1791. The work is well illustrated by explanatory, notes; and should not only be cousulted, butprofessionally studied, by every regular and volunteer officer. An able “Treatise on the Art ut War,” has also made its appearance as an extract from the Encyclopædia Britannica; which is admirably well-timed ; and from its intrinsic merit highly worthy of perusal. It contains the principles of of fensive and defensive operations; with rules for conducting the petitguerre, or war of posts; and the methods of attack and defence in sieges. Colonel Herries has published the first part of his “Instructions for the Use of Yeomanry and Volunteer Corps of Cavalry;" a book which we suppose to be found, as it ought to be, in the parlourwindow of every person to whom, by its title, it is addressed. Mr. Smirke has produced a “Review of a Battalion of Infantry, including the eighteen Mandeuvres, illustrared by a Series of engraved Diagrams." The diagrams are here not an idle ornament; they give, in many instances, a fairer idea of the manoeuvre presented than it is easy to communicate by verbal description of any kind. We have received, independently of these publications, several of slighter and merely temporary importance, of which we may perhaps be expected to notice “ the Volunteer's, Guide; by an Officer in the third Regiment of Loyal London Volunteers;” Mr. Hood's “Elements of War;" and a “Manual for a Volunteer Corps of Infantry." Of these the merit
Containing History, Travels, Politics, Law, Ethics, Metaphysics, Education, - - Trade.
HE publications of the class immediately before us have been numerous, and in many instances not unimportant. We shall take a brief survey of the more valuable, and endeavour rather to communicate an idea of their general character, than to enter into a minute detail of their respective subdivisions. Mr. Plowden is entitled to an early notice in this chapter, in consequence of his “Historical Review of the State of Ireland, from the Invasion of that Country under Henry II. to its Union with Great Britain.” Such is the extent of the work as announced in the title; but it is obvious, from its perusal, that the historian's chief object was to give an account of the political transactions which have lately occurred within this department of what has, not inappropriately, been called West Britain; and which led to the important event of an union of kingdoms and legislatures. We have hence an extent of research, a minuteness of detail, and a scope of letter-press devoted to this latter consideration, which is altogether unproportioned to the space occupied by the earlier branches of the subject; and the title might have run perhaps more fairly—a “His
tory of the Annexation of Ireland to Great Britain, with an introductory Sketch of the former Country, from its earliest Periods.” These periods reach indeed to a lofty ascent; in reality, so lofty, that we often find our guide, as well as ourselves, lost in the clouds that surround us. It commences with the reign of that “great and favourite monarch Ollam - Fodlah, who reigned, according to Keating, 950 years before the Christian aera.” During his reign, and for several centuries afterwards, we meet with a wonderful assemblage of most marvellous and extraordinary events, which might well have served to decorate the warm and confident pages of general Vallency. Mr. Plowden fixes the period in which England acquired any degree of possession and controul over Ireland, in the reign of Henry II., who was invited to Ireland by Dermond, a king of Leinster, who, like another Paris, had seduced and carried off the wife of