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considered as the founder of the Vatican library at Rome; the others were considerable benefactors to it, and by their industry and influence greatly enriched that inestimable repository; and many of the succeeding pontiffs, have, with great success, followed their example. “The Vatican library is divided into three parts. The first is public, and every one has access to it at different hours upon certain days; the second is kept with more privacy, and the third is only to be seen by persons of certain distinctions, or by those who have express permission for that purpose: this is called the sanctuary of the Vatican. “ Several libraries were formed at Rome, as that in the church of St. Peter, those of the fathers of St. Basil, and the Dominicans of Sancta Maria Sopra Minerva; and those in the palaces of Ottoboni, Chiggi, Barbarini, and Altlert. “ Libraries were also formed in other parts of Italy; in the royal palace and university of Turin ; the noble library of the great-duke at Florence; and those of the Laurentian, Benedictine, and Dominican monasteries in the same city. Large collections of manuscripts were also placed in the following libraries; namely, in the convents of St. Severini, Monte Cassini, Monte Oliveto, and St. John de Carbonara, at Naples; the ducal palace at Modena; the Ambrosian college of Milan; the ducal palace at Parrma; St. Mark’s at Venice ; the canons.regular at Bologna ; those in Padua, Genoa, and in other places in Italy.

“The sciences became so ge

nerally admired, that all the princes

in Europe endeavoured to promote them in their respective dominions. , Philip II, of Spain founded the Escurial library, in which he deposited that of Muley Cydam, king of Fez and Morocco, which contained upwards of four thousand volumes in the Arabic language; he also brought into Spain many manuscripts, which were found in several semi, maries of literature in Africa, to which were added a fine collection of eastern manuscripts, as well as a great number of Greek and Latin, which are very valuable. This library suffered much by lightning in 1670, but it has since been greatly augmented by the kings of Spain. “The library at Salamanca contains a great number of Greek manuscripts, which Ferdinanda Nonius bequeathed to that university. At Alcala is the valuable library collected by cardinal XiInenes. “ Francis the First laid the foundation of the royal library at Paris, which has been continually increasing. Cardinal Fleury, and the great Colbert, spared neither pains nor expense to enrich it. This library is inestimable, and contains a great number of manuscripts in almost every language. For particulars concerning this treasure of learning, the reader is referred to the catalogue of father Montfaucon, and to Mons. Galvis’s treatise on French libraries; a new edition of which is wanted, with accounts of those that have changed places and possessors. The Jesuits had, in different parts of France, many fine libraries; some account of what is become of them would be useful. There were many noble libraries in France, but our limits will not permit us to pay them the attention they deserve; therefore the reader is referred to the second volume of Montfaucon's Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum, published at Paris in 1739. “The emperor Maximilian the First followed the example of the other princes in Europe, and in the year 1480 founded the Imperial library at Vienna, which he enriched with a vast number of manuscripts taken from the momasteries in his Austrian dominions, and with such other manuscript collections as could be made by the German literati. “This inestimable repository of literary treasures was further increased by the acquisition of the once celebrated Buda library; it has from time to time been augmented with many other considerable libraries, and lately with a great number of valuable and curious manuscripts, which were preserved in the colleges and houses of the Jesuits within the Imperial dominions. In the latter end of the last century, M. Lambecius published at Vienna a catalogue of such manuscripts as were then deposited in the Imperial library; but an additional one, of the accessions to it since his time, would be very useful; as would a cata*ogue of those manuscripts that are preserved in the library at Brussels, founded by the late empress-queen, in which is deposited several of those lately belonging to the Jesuits in the Austrian Netherlands. The other principal libraries in Germany are those of the king of Prussia, the elector of Bavaria, the duke of Wolfenbuttel, the duke of Wirtemberg, the duke of Saxe-Gotha : that at Strasburgh, founded by bishop too in the sixteenth century ;

per init

and those at Anhalt, Helmstadt, Tubingen, Jena, Lavingen, and Ratisbon. There are at Liege the libraries of St. James and St. Benedict, and some MSS. in the cathedral at Cologne. “Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, possessed himself of the royal libraries formerly at Prague and Dresden, which his daughter, queen Christina, carried with her to Rome, and they are now preserved in the Vatican ; as is likewise the noble library which was formerly at Heidelberg. “The most considerable manuscript libraries in the Netherlands were lately those of the Carmelites at Bruges; of the Benedictimes, the Dominicans, and Canmelites at Ghent; the Jesuits at Antwerp, which with the magnificent library of printed books was, on the dissolution of that order, purchased from the late emperor by the abbot of Tongerloo, near Louvain, for about two thousand four hundred pounds sterling; the public library, and those in several of the colleges at Louvain; those of Middleburgh, Tongeren, Utrecht, and Zutphen ; and those at Harderwick and Leyden; in which two last are a great number of oriental manuscripts. A. Sanders, a monk of Afiligem, near Brussels, published a catalogue of the manuscripts in the different libraries of the LowCountries, in 2 vols. 4to. Lisle 1641, 1643, to which the reader is referred. “The northern parts of Europe are not without literary treasures. There are two considerable libraries at Copenhagen; one in the university, and the other in the city; which last was founded by Henry Rantzau, a Danish gentleman. There are still remaining Sofile some manuscripts in the library at Stockholm, which was founded by Christina, queen of Sweden. “ Poland has two considerable libraries, one at Wilna, enriched by several kings of Poland, as we are told by Cromer and Bozius. The other is at Cracow. “ The duke of Holstein Gottorp hath a curious manuscript library. “There were but few valuable manuscripts in Russia till the reign of Peter the Great, who founded many universities, and settled a large fund for a library at Petersburgh, which is well furnished. “ The royal library at Petershoff is most splendid, and the late empress spared neither pains nor expense to enrich her country with ancient marbles, pictures, medals, manuscripts, and whatever is magnificent. “There were several collections of manuscripts in England before the general restoration of science in Europe, which had at different times been brought hither by those who had travelled into for reign countries; these were chiefly preserved in the two universities, in the cathedral churches, and religious houses: but in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries several valuable libraries were formed in England. In the reign of king Henry VI., Humphry, duke of Gloucester, made a collection of MSS. for his library at Oxford. King Edward IV. and Henry VII. greatly assisted the cause of learning, by the encouragement they gave to the art of printing in England, and by purchasing such books as were printed in other countries. William Warham, archBishop of Canterbury, purchased many valuable Greek MSS. which had been brought hither by the

Decline and Reviv Al of Liter ATURE.

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[1553

prelates and others who came to this country, after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. King Henry VIII. may justly be called the founder of the royal library, which was enriched with the MSS. selected from those of the religious houses, by that celebrated antiquary, John Leland. Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, enriched the college of Corpus Christi, in Cambridge, with a great number of ancient and curious MSS. “ In the reign of queen Elizabeth, sir Thomas Bodley greatly increased the public library at Oxford, which is now called by his name. This great benefactor to mankind in general, and to his country in particular, quitted the court, and applied himself wholly to the purchasing of books and MSS. both at home and abroad: by these means, he had the satisfaction of furnishing that library with one thousand two hundred and ninety-four MSS. and, by the subsequent liberality of many great and illustrious persons, has been since increased to more than eight thousand volumes, including the MSS. given by Thomas Tanner, bishop of Norwick, and the valuable library bequeathed by the will of 1)r. Richard Rawlinson. “ Considerable augmentations were made to the libraries of the several colleges in the two universities, as also to those of our cathedral churches, the palace at Lambeth, the inns of court, the college of arms and others; catalogues of which were published at Qxford in 1697, under the title of Catalogus Manuscriptorum Anglia et Hibernia. “ Bodley's great contemporary, sir Robert Cotton, is also entitied to the gratitude of poso. - r for his diligence in collecting the Cottonian library; he was engaged in the pursuit of MSS. and records upwards of forty years, during which time, he spared neither trouble nor expense. “The neble manuscript library founded by Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, and greatly enriched by his son Edward, who inherited his father's love of science, claims a distinguished place in every acsoant which may be given of the literary treasures of antiquity in general, and of this country in particular. Posterity will ever be indebted to her grace the late duchess dowager of Portland, for securing this inestimable treasure of learning to the public, by authority of parliament, under the guardianship of the most distinguished persons of the realm, both for rank and abilities; whose excellent regulations have made this library, as also the royal, Cottonian, Sloanian, and others, now deposited in the British Museum, easy of access, and consequently of real use to the philosopher, the statesman, the historian, the scholar, as well as to the artist and the mechanic. “ It must give every one pleasure, who reflects on the improvements which have been made in

most branches of science in the three last centuries, that learning and the arts will not as formerly be lost to posterity; because, by the means of printing, and the improvements in education, knowledge is diffused through most nations, and is attainable by the generality of the people in every free country; whereby many individuals are qualified to promote, in their respective stations, the arts, as well as the interests, of each community. Science has humanized the mind, has caused men in a great measure to lay aside their prejudices, and has introduced a free intercourse between the literati of most countries, who have united in promoting and improving knowledge and the arts, without enterin into the religious or political opinions of each other. The true way of making others love us, will be to treat them with kindmess and humanity, and to observe the rule laid down by our great Master, of doing to others, as tre would they should do unto us; we may then, with reason, indulge a hope that every succeeding age will increase the knowledge, the virtue, and the happiness of mankind.”

On the Earliest D1sca v ERY of New Hollax D.

[From CAPTAIN Burs EY’s

-- HE first discovery of that

land by Europeans has been attributed to the Hollanders, who sailed along part of the west coast in 1616. Evidences however exist, which leave very little

Chronological History.]

reason to doubt that it was known at no late period of the 16th cen

tury. “The earliest claim to the original discovery is made by M. de Brosses, in favour of the sieur de Gonneville,

Gonneville, upon the evidence of an account given in a work, entitled, Mémoires touchant l’Etablissement d'une Mission Chrétienne dans te troisième Monde, ou Terre Australe, printed at Paris, 1663. “ M. de Brosses has inserted this account in his Navigations aur Terres Australes. It states, that some French merchants, being tempted by the success of the #. uese under Vasquez de Gama, determined upon sending a ship to the Indies by the same route which he had sailed. The ship was equipped at Honfleur. * Le sieur de Gonnetitle, qui en étoit le commandant, deca l'ancre au mois du Juin, 1503, et doubla le Cap de Bonne Espérance, oui il fut assailli d'une furieuse tourmente, qui lui fit perdre sa route et l'abandonna au calme ennuyeur d'une mer inconnue.’ i.e. “The sieur de Gonneville, who commanded her, weighed anchor in the month of June 1503, and doubled the Cape of Good Hope, where he was assailed by a furious tempest, which made him lose his route, and ... abandoned him to the wearisome calm of an unknown sea.”—“ Not knowing what course to steer, the sight of some birds coming from the south, determined them to sail in that direction, in the hope of finding land. They found what they desired; that is to say, a #. country, which, in their reations, was named the Southern India, according to the custom of that time, of applying indif. ferently the name of the Indies to every country newly discowered.” They remained six months at this land; after which the crew of the ship refused to proceed further, and Gonneville was obliged to return to France. When near home, he was attacked by an English corsair, and plundered of

every thing, so that his journals and descriptions were entirely lost. On arriving in port, he made a declaration of all that had happened in the voyage, to the Admiralty, which declaration was dated July the 19th, 1505, and was signed by the principal officers of the ship. “In one part of the relation, this great southern land is said to be not far out of the direct route to the East Indies, “non loin de la droite navigation des Indes Orientales.” The land of Gonneville has been supposed to be in a high southern latitude, and nearly on the meridian of the Cape of Good Hope; and Duval and Nolin placed it on their charts to the south-west from the Cape, in 48 degrees south. M. de Brosses conjectured that it was south from the Moluccas, and that it was in fact the first discovery of the T. Australis, since named New Holland. “ Let the whole account be reconsidered without prepossession, and the idea that will immediately and most naturally occur is, that the Southern India discovered by Gonneville was Madagascar. De Gonneville having doubled (passed round) the Cape, was by tempests driven into calm latitudes, and so near to this land, that he was directed thither by the flight of birds. The refusal of the crew to proceed to the Eastern India would scarcely have happened, if they had been so far advanced to the east as New Holland. “ There are, however, claims to the Terra Australis for the 16th century, which seem much better founded than the one made by M. de Brosses. There is, in the British Museum, a manuscript map of the world (as wo, o

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