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by a black is to all intents and purposes his wife, and preserves a certain degree of superiority over all those whom he afterwards espouses. The first wife resides in the house of her husband, eats with him, but without ever sitting at the same table; she takes care of his slippers in the house, and is consulted and heard on all domestic affairs. “ The other women, who are the associates of the first wife, though they are also legitimately united, are nevertheless obliged to obscrwe a certain deference towards the former: they are never suffered to enter the house of their lord without being sent for, and they are obliged to leave their slippers at the door; they are, in fact, a sort of legitimate concubines, who are visited by the husband in rotation, each of them a weck at a time. women, during the period in question, is ...; to prepare the food for her master, which she causes to be sent to his residence; or if she is patronised by the principal wife, she carries it thither herself. “ Each wife enjoys her own private property, and the most la-borious is the richest. Those women who are most experienced in washing the gold, possess the greatest quantity of that metal;

...the richest of them, however, can

not allow herself more luxuries than the poorest, because the husband will not suffer it : hence the only use that the richer woman can make of her property is, to render her residence more commodious and agreeable, to keep her children in better order, and to regale her husband and friends. “As the first wife has great influence, the concubines are interrested in courting her favour, and

Each of these

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be seen that their gallant and libertime women, not content with the gentle and complaisant characters of their husbands, sometimes love, like European Messalinas, to outrage benevolence, and to give publicity to their infamous transactions. “We have seen that the Bam

boukians possess vices, but they,

have also virtues. One of the principles of their morality is, always to do as they would be done by : they consequently never plundermor rob each other; they make no slaves, and a Bamboukian has never been known to capture and dispose of his own countryman. “They mutually assist each other, faithfully keep their promises, and exercise hospitality with every possible pleasure and benevolence; and this virtue they possess in the most eminent degree; but it is particularly towards the blacks, and in preference towards those of the Mahometan persuasion, that they exercise this virtue with zeal; for they do not respect the whites, because they fear them, and the suspicion which they entertain of them renders their conduct very different from that which they shew towards the blacks. “Throughout the whole country of Bambouk a black need never be in want of necessaries: if

he arrive naked amongst these hospitable people, the men and women immediately provide him with clothes, and nobody refuses him food. A strange negro will enter the first cottage that falls in his way, and salute the master, when, if it happen to be mealtime, he places the traveller by his side, and they both eat out of the same dish: every person treats him with cordiality; and when the repast is finished, he addresses his host to the following effect:- I thank thee, friend ; may Mahomet bless thee, and God prosper thee!’—With these words in his mouth, a strange black may travel over the whole country of Bambouk, and will every where

meet with the most favourable re-,


“From these principal traits in the character and manners of the inhabitants of Bambouk, we may be convinced that if the gold which they find at their feet, the fertility of their country, and the heat of the climate in which they reside, have rendered them corrupt and emervate, they nevertheless partake more of effeminacy than wickedness, and that the conquest and subjection of such a people might be easily undertaken and effected.”

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de Legaspi, who that year founded the city of Manilla, which has since been, and is at present the capital of the Spanish settlements in the Philippine Islands. “ In 1574 the pilot Juan Fernandez discovered two more islands in the neighbourhood of the American continent, which were named San Felix and San Ambor. They are described by the Spanish accounts to be small, uninhabited, and uninhabitable, being without frch water; and that they were the resort of birds, sea-calves, and fish. Their latitude 25° 20' south, and their distance to the west from Copiapo, 154 leagues. The English at this time first began to project enterprises in the South Sea. England and Spain were not in a state of open war; but the circumstances and events of the reigns of Philip the Second and of queen Elizabeth were such as did not fail to produce a strong degree of animosity between the two nations, which neither would be at the pains to conceal. Acts of aggression were committed by individuals of both, and connived at, sometimes encouraged, by the sovereigns. During a great part of queen Elizabeth’s reign, the two countries may be said to have been in a state of open (though not declared) enmity, and of private warfare. “With these dispositions, a number of English adventurers entered into schemes for cnriching themselves at the expense of the Spanish settlements in America; in revenge, it is said, for injuries

done either to themselves, or to some of their countrymen, by the Spaniards in that part of the world. John Oxnam, or Oxenham, of Plymouth, was the first Englishman who extended these schemes to cruising against the Spaniards in the South Sea. He had accompanied captain (afterwards sir Francis) Drake, in 1572-8. on an expedition to the West In

dies, in which that commander left

his ship on the north side of Daorien, and, being joined by the Indians who inhabited that part ct the country, marched across the isthmus with the intention of intercepting the Spanish treasure that was expected to have been sent upon mules from Panama to Nombre de Dios. The drunkenness of one of the English seamen prevented this attempt from succeeding. “ In the account of captain Drake's journey across the isthmus there is the following passage:— It gave a special encouragement unto us all, that we understood there was a great tree about the midway, from whence we might at once discern the North Sea, from whence we came, and the South Sea, whither we were going. “ . The fourth day following [this was the eighth day of their journey] we came to the height of the desired hill (lying east and west, like a ridge between the twe seas) about ten of the clock, where the chiefest of the Symerons" took our captain by the hand, and prayed him to follow him. Here

* * The name by which the independent Indians who then inhabited the isthmus of Darien were called. They were people who had fled from the dominion of the Spaniards; and living, on that account, in a state of continual warfare with their former masters, they willingly joined themselves with the English. The hill up which Drake was conducted might probably be the same from whence Nunnez de

Balboa first saw the South sea.

*- -


was that goodly and great high tree, in which they had cut and made divers steps to ascend near to the top, where they had made a convenient bower, wherein ten or twelve men might easily sit ; and from thence we might see the Atlantic Ocean we came from, and the South Atlantic so much desired. South and north of this tree, they had felled certain trees, that the prospect might be the clearer. “‘After our captain had ascended to this bower, with the chief Symeron, and having, as it pleased God at this time, by reason of the breeze, a very fair day, had seen that sea of which he had heard such golden reports, he besought Almighty God of his oodness to give him life and eave to sail once in an English ship in that sea : and then calling up all the rest of our men, acquainted John Oxnam especially with this his petition and purpose, if it would please God to grant him that happiness; who, understanding it, presently protested, that i. our captain did beat him from his company, he would follow him by God's grace.” “To both was granted the desired boon of sailing upon the South Sea; but they went by different routes, at different times, and their enterprises finished with different success. “ The following testimony is borne to the ability and fidelity with which Oxnam served under TDrake. There was occasion to send a party of men on shore, for a purpose which the people would not consent that their captain (Drake) should undertake. The relation says— John Oxnam and Thomas Sherwell were put it trust ..for our service, to the great con

tent of the whole company, who conceived greatest o: of thema next our captain, whom by no means they would condescend to suffer to adventure again this time.’. “ Drake's return to England from the voyage just noticed was in August 1573. In 1575 Oxnam was again in the West Indies, having under his command a ship of 129 tons burden, and 70 men. The history here given of his adventure is extracted from An Account of the West Indies and the South Sea, written by Lopez Vaz, a Portuguese, which, with its author, i into the hands of the English, in Rio de la Plata, in 1586, Portugal at that time being a part of the Spanish monarchy, and at war .. England. An abridged translation of the work of Lopez Vaz is in Hakluyt, vol. iii. p. 778. “ Oxnam went among the Symerons (the Indians before described), who were equally well disposed to the English as on the former occasion. When he was informed that a new regulation had been made by the Spaniards, and that the treasure was now always conducted by a strong guard of soldiers, he determined on an enterprise equally bold and extraordinary. “ He landed his men in the same place where captain Drake had before landed, and laying his ship ashore, covered her with boughs of trees, and buried all his guns in the ground, except two small pieces of ordnance, which he took with him, besides muskets, and a sufficient store of provisions and necessaries. Thus furnished, without leaving one man in the ship, he departed for the other sea, accompanied by a number of the Indians. When

When they had marched twelve leagues, they arrived at a river which ran into the South Sea. In a wood by the side of this river Oxnam cut timber, and built a F. which was forty-five feet ong by the keel. When the pinnace was finished, he embarked with his people, and fell down the river into the South Sea, taking six Indians with him for guides. They sailed to the Pearl Islands, and remained near them ten days, at the end of which time they captured a small bark from Quito, in Peru, in which were 60,000 pesos of gold", and a quantity of wine and bread. Shortly #. they made prize of a vessel from Lima, with 100,000 pesos of silver in bars. These riches were all taken into the pinnace, and they went to a small town on one of the Pearl Islands, inhabited by Indians, from whom it was hoped pearls would be obtained ; but the Indians had not many. From the Pearl Islands they went towards the main land, and after dismissing the two prizes, the pinnace re-entered the river from which she had sailed. Some of the Indians at the Pearl Islands, as soon as the Englishmen had dearted, hastened in their canoes to E. to give notice of what had passed. The governor of that place, within two days after receiving the intelligence, sent four barks in search of the English, with 100 soldiers, and a number of Indians, under the command of Juan de Ortega. Ortega went first to the Pearl Islands, and was there informed what course the Englishmen had taken; and continuing his pursuit, he met the vessels that had been captured and dismissed. By them he was directed to the

river. When he came to the entrance, he was at a loss which way to take, as the river fell into the sea by three different mouths. Whilst he was deliberating, a quantity of feathers of fowls were observed floating out of one of the lesser branches; and that way Ortega entered. . The fourth day, according to the account, of his advancing up the river, the pinnace of the Englishmen was descried lying upon the sand, with only six men near her, one of whom was killed by the Spaniards, and the others fled. The pinnace was searched, but there was nothing in her except provisions. Leaving twenty of his people to take care of the barks, Juan de Ortega landed with 80 men, armed with musketry. When they had marched half a league from the river, they found a place that was covered with boughs of trees, where the Englishmen had hid all their booty, which the Spaniards dug up, and with it returned to their barks, well satisfied with their success, and not intending to trouble themselves further about the English. But Oxnam, with all his men, and 200 Symerons, eager to recover the treasure, followed the Spaniards to the river's

side, and attacked them with more

impetuosity than good manage

ment. Ortega disposed his men

advantageously among the bushes,

and the English were repulsed

with the loss of 11 men killed,

and seven taken prisoners; whilst,

on the part of the Spaniards, only

two were killed, and a few wound

ed. The prisoners were question

ed, how it happened that they had

not departed with their treasure,

having been fifteen days unme

* * The peso of gold was 16 Spanish rials, nearly equal to eight shillings English:

the peso of silver was half of that value.”


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