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the gentlemen who spoke after the at that time could not have been mover and seconder of the address, better employed, and the success and who more than insinuated the they at length obtained materially insufficiency of the present admini- contributed to the attainment of stration. These gentlemen accom- peace. But if the military men panied their observations with a employed in that expedition were studied panegyric upon Mr. Pitt. consulted, would they say that noIn the praise of his abilities, and in thing obstructed, that nothing had the acknowledgement of the signal rendered doubtful, its ultimate sucservices rendered by him to the cess? The gentlemen he had alcountry, no man could join more ready alluded to, and also his right cordially than he did. He was also honourable friend, had alluded to ready to approve the measures of the state of our public establishhis administration : but the events ments. Never, he would venture which closed that administration to affirm, were our public establishproved that no abilities, however ments, especially that of the navy, powerful, could command success. more considerable ; never was the . When he recollected these events, navy of France more reduced. what must be his surprise to hear But these gentlemen would not look that the close of that administration to the terms of peace in discussing was a period the most flourishing, its merits ; they confined themselves the most prosperous either for war to the animus manifested by the or peace, that could well be ima- French government. If, he regined, and the best calculated to marked, they never would make tempt any man conscious of ta- peace while the animus they allud. lent or actuated by ambition, to ed to continued, they would never take upon him the guidance of pub. have been at peace either with new lic affairs ; yet, what was the situa- or old France. For if that animus tion of the country at that period ! referred to the plans of ambition Was not all Europe combined and aggrandisement which France against us but the cabinet of Vic has and had always in view, they enna, and that power not able to would find that the three last treasupport us even by words? Did ties with the French government ever such a feeling of dismay per- had ever in contemplation the revade the country, as when the pre- newal of hostilities; and if the anisent administration entered into of. mus be objected to in that sense, we fice ? Was the neutral question then should never be at peace at all. decided ; was it even decided by A doubt had also been expressed of the battle of Copenhagen? After the prosperous state of our comthe issue of that battle, and even

and manufactures. He after the death of the emperor Paul, would now only observe, that, when was it not well known that several the accounts relative to this subject persons who composed the govern- should be laid before the house, ment of Russia still adhered to the they would have the satisfaction to system of the neutral question, see that those important branches and that the decision of it was at- were never so flourishing as at the tended with the greatest difficule present moment. To preserve, ties? As to the expedition against therefore, and maintain that peace Egypt, no one more approved and which the present administration applauded it than he did. Our forces · had concluded, and thereby to give



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opportunities to internal resources did and harmless. Instead of look-
to fructify and accumulate, would ing on it as a tremendous evil that
be their invariable policy: but had crushed palaces and kingdoms,
while they looked to that policy as he had always viewed it in the light
the foundation of their power, they of as innocent a thing as ever came
would be prepared for what events into the world ; leave it alone and
might call for ; always determined it would do no harm. After having
to resist every unjust demand, and conquered Spain, Portugal, Hol.
that in the first instance. While it land ; and added the Italian repub-
was thus their object to make peace, lic, Piedmont, and Parma, to the
they would not lose sight of what territories of France; there was no-
the circumstances of Europe might thing now remaining between us,
demand. They were sensible that according to the honourable gentle.
the influence of the French revolu- man's doctrine, but a peaceful ri-
tion had produced a great convul- valry of commerce. He should be
sion in many of the continental glad to know how it was to go on
states : but while they regretted the in this amicable way. Nothing, he
operation of that influence (which, contended, was to be done, by pure
however, it was to be lamented, rivalry: for the first consul 'had
could not altogether be now re- placed things in such a train, as
pressed), they trusted their conduct could not fail to distress us in the
would satisfy their country; as while most effectual manner. He would
they were eager to preserve the trade with Holland, Russia, Den-
blessings of peace, they would be mark, Sweden ; in short, with all
less watchful to maintain the cha- but us.
racter and dignity of the country, Mr. Windham denied the founda-
and every thing that had been held tion of the principles of Mr. Fox's
sacred by its wisest and most en argument relative to the treaty of
lightened statesmen.

Amiens; for whatever their love of Mr. Windham followed: and said, domination might be as to other that if this country were really in countries, their whole and sole the state depicted by the speeches of wishes, aims, and views, were in. lord Hawkesbury and Mr. Fox, and variably bent on the total destrucit was necessary to pause till such tion of this country, whose trade time as those honourable members and wealth they envied, and both had contended it was, before any de- which they were taught to believe cisivemeasures were adopted relative had been employed to bring upon to the question of war or peace; them all the difficulties and evils if destruction were falling on the they had been forced to encounter. country in the way it seemed to be; It was well known that France, then was it, he feared, lost and gone since the signing of the preliminary for ever. He then took notice of articles, had built eighteen ships of what had been stated by Mr. Fox; the line. There had in that period who seemed, he said, to have lost been shipped from the Baltic for his feelings when he spoke of the France upwards of 10,000 tons of French revolution. At some par. hemp; and what was most to be ticular periods he had described it wondered at was, that all this as an event which astonished the had been shipped in British botworld, but which was at once splen- toms. The expedition that was

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ening the

first sent out to St. Domingo, was fice a dangerous economy to the fitted cut in a less space of time vigorous measures it might be neces. than had ever been known on any sary to adopt for our safety : and former occasion, at a moment when concluded by saying, for the reathe l'rench navy and trade were sons which he had adduced, he did said to be at the very lowest ebb. not think himself at liberty to give But, strange to tell! the provi- a silent vote to the address; to sions that had been sent out to St. which, however, he should propose Domingo, were all sentouton British no amendment. credit, and were even guaranteed Mr. Fox rose in explanation, and by our merchants. What was still said, with considerable warmth, more alarming was, that the next the right honourable gentleman convoy of provisions was to be sent had, throughout his speech, misreout by the Dutch, and conveyed in presented his meaning; and as he American bottoms; thus strength. did not quote his words, he had

power of those two na- not an opportunity of pointing out vies, to the detriment of ours: and, the particular instances of misrehereafter, when we were pleasing presentation. He must believe that ourselves with the idea that credit the right honourable gentleman did begets capital, and capital ensures not wilfully misrepresent him; but, commerce, we should find that as he so often imputed to him senfrom the overgrown

power of timents he did not entertain, and France, when our commerce was opinions he never uttered, it was. most successful, it would b: liable, necessary for him to say a few from her combinations, to kick our words in explanation.

He never credit to the devil. He ridiculed said that the power of France was the idea of the violent disposition not formidable; on the contrary, which, all of a sudden, the irst he id that no man in England consul had shown in favour of a could feel more strongly, or resystem of peace, and of his assum- gretted more, that a grandisement. ing the title of pacificator of Europe. He did feel it; and he charged that He proceeded to caution ministers aggrandisement upon the right hoto weigh well the situation this coun- nourable gentleman and his col. try would be in when war came, leagues, as a calamity for which which he thought could not be far they were gravely responsible to off. The honourable gentleman their country. That right honour(Mr. Fox) had stated his principle able gentleman, he said, and his to be the point of honcur. He colleagues, had contributed more wished his point had been lower, to augment the power of France and his principle higher; for his than any member of the house of part, he put the point of honour Bourbon, or any general of the out of the case, for he deemed the French republic. He did not say national honcur ncither more nor that he was for peace on any terms, less than the national interest. He and purchased by any submission. would not make var for mere con. He reconimended peace as most venience; but there was another consonant to the true honour and little thing, called safety, for which to the true interests of the nation, he would inmediately make war. Mr. Windham replied, that he He adı nislied ministers to sacri- certainly did not intend to misre.,


present the honourable gentleman.. man lamented more than he did He did not quote his words; he the aggrandisement- of France; spoke of the general tenor of his yet it seemed to him very shallow speech, and tendency of his opi. reasoning to say, that the magnions. The house, which heard nitude of her power was in prothe speech and his remarks upon portion to the extent of that agit, would judge of the fairness with grandisement. But supposing the which he stated the honourable right honourable gentleman'salarm gentleman.

of French power to be just, how The chancellor of the exche- did he justify the policy of an imquer observed that though such per- mediate war? He surely then had sons as thought with the honourable not examined the question with sufgentleman, that the conclusion' officient attention, or he could not peace was pregnant with the destruc- have so completely laid out of sight tion of the country, might now agree every consideration of prudence. with him in the lamentable picture Several gentlemen had alluded to he had drawn of our situation and the naval and military establishprospects, yet he could not believe ments, as being excessively and prethat views so discouraging to all maturely reduced. Upon a matspirit of enterprise, so inconsistent ter in which, by proper inquiries, with all public confidence and pri- accurate information might have vate comfort, would meet with the been obtained, it was surprising approbation of impartial men in that they should have so greatly that house, or in the nation. The erred. The fact was, that with rehonourable gentleman spoke as if gard to our military establishment, he thought that ministers in con it was double what it was in the cluding peace would feel that they year 1784, at the same period from had sins to expiate ; while, on the the conclusion of the treaty. No other hand, the honourable gentle. reduction whatever had taken place man opposite (Mr. Fox) expressed in the infantry, except in the disa hope, that ministers did not re- embodying the militia, those whose pent of the part they had acted in period of service was limited, and bringing the war to a termination. those unfit for duty. There had He must state, then, to the house, been a reduction in the cavalry; tirat he did not appear before them but still it was double what it was as an apologist for his conduct in in the year 1784. As to the navy, that affair. If he were a delin. in 1786 we had 115 vessels in com. quent, he was a hardened one: for mission; we had now 207. In he never reflected upon the share 1792, the year preceding the war, he had in that event without in- we had 18,000 seamen; at present ward satisfaction; nay, if any new we had 46,000. So much for the aggression, if any fresh insult upon reduction of our naval and militathe country, were to render a re ry establishments. It was with the newal of the war inevitable, he utmost satisfaction, likewise, that shi und not alter his sentiments or he was able to convert into certainchange that satisfaction into re ty, what was stated as conjecture, pentance, as he could declare with respecting the increase of our comtruth, thit the part he acted was merce, manufactures, and revenue. dictated by a serise of duiy, guided He was the more gratified in being by the best of his judgement. No able to do so, when he recollected


the gloomy presages on this sub- on which ministers concluded peace ject which were held out by those were, that our single efforts could who disapproved of the peace. In be of no avail to repair what was the year ending October 1801, the amiss in the state of the continent; exports of British manufactures and that, therefore, our honour amounted to between 23 and 24 being saved, it was wise to spare millions. In the year ending Oc our resources for occasions when, tober 1802, he had the pleasure of if peace could not be preserved stating, that the exports amounted with safety and dignity, we might to no less than 27,500,0001. During go to war with the co-operation of the last year, also, the amount of allies, or be enabled to assist and the revenue had been unexampled. animate their returning energies. Many thought that he was too san- When Austria retired from the guine last year in taking the sur. contest, all wise and impartial men plus of the consolidated fund at thought that we should likewise 4,500,0001. for the current year; give up the conflict, if terms of but, for two quarters from the 5th peace compatible with our interest of April, the amount of the surplus could be obtained. In such cirhad already been upwards of three cumstances we did put an end to millions. The floating debt of the war, our honour entire, our every kind, which was estimated at constitution preserved, our best inupwards of twenty millions, would, terests secured; and if the renewal in January next, amount to no of the war should, by any aggresmore than fourteen millions ; not- sion or any insult on the part of withstanding the unusual efforts France, be rendered necessary, it which had been made during the would not be renewed on grounds year, and the extensive establish- different from those on which its ment that had been kept up. The discontinuance had been justified. house, he was sure, would be hap- The right honourable gentleman py in being thus relieved from the had insinuated a suspicion that the anxiety respecting our situation and tone which ministers might have prospects, which unfounded con- assumed in any discussions with the jectures had spread, and to see er- government of France had been rors on so important a subject cor- inconsistent with the dignity of the rected from the most authentic do- nation. He hoped that his asser. cuments. The right honourable tion would be received in opposi. gentleman seemed to think that all tion to a mere insinuation. He the dangers which he saw in our asserted then, most positively, that situation arose from a state of peace; in no one instance had the honour but he did not show in what respect and interests of the country been war would remedy the evil. After committed by ministers; and this the experience of the events of the was all that it would be proper for

how could he prove that peace him to say upon such a subject. was more favourable than war to The right honourable gentleman the aggrandisement of France? that said, that the public opinion was a perseverance in the contest, or its recovering: for his own part, he renewal, would tend to give relief was satisfied that the public opior security to those parts of the nion was that the country wished continent in which we were pecu- for peace, but was not afraid of liarly interested? The principles war; that it wished what was best,



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