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ILLUSTRATIONS OF HISTORY. Wolsey's,) and of Baulie or New Hall,

in Suffolk, received about £12 per annum. PROTECTION TO M. p's.

The gardener of Greenwich, £20 a year, The privilege of protection to the Mem and the gardener of Windsor and Wand bers of Parliament, bears the stamp of stead, £4 per annum. antiquity, for we find so early as the Saxon Government, that security was provided to all the members of ths Wittenagenote (or Council of the Wise Men), The wife of the celebrated Lord Clain the going to, or returning from, their rendon, the author of the History of the meetings, except they were notorious Rebellion, was a Welsh pot giri, who, tl.ieves and robbers."

being extremely poor in her own country, journeyed to London to better her fortune, and became servant to a brewer.

While she was in this humble capacity, EDWARD IV. (son of Richard, Duke of the wife of her master died, and he hapYork,) granted the Charter of Incorpora- pening to fix his affections on her, she tion to Barber-Surgeons; the barber and became his wife ; himself dying soon surgeon being performed by the same after, leaving her heir to his property, operators in this branch of arts for three which is said to have amounted to between centuries and upwards.

twenty and thirty thousand pounds. The first introduction of surgery to the Among those who frequented the tap at shaving community, is said to have been the brewhouse, was a Mr. Hyde, then a by the priesthood of the darker ages, who poor barrister, who conceived the project were then the only practitioners, but find- of forming a matrimonial alliance with her. ing the expertness of barbers in the use

He succeeded, and soon led the Brewer's

Mr. Hyde being of their edge tools in removing the hair widow to the altar. that protruded forward on the parts they command of a large fortune, quickly rose

endowed with great talent, and at the wished bare, initiated them in making in his profession, becoming head of the salves, the dressing of wounds, bleeding, and tooth-drawing. Such was the origin Chancery Bench, and was afterwards the of barber-chirurgery.

In the fourteenth celebrated Hyde Earl of Clarendon. The century however the barbers gained ground eldest daughter the offspring of this union, so fast in the practice of surgery, that in

won the heart of James, Duke of York, France, the Legislature interfered, but

and was married to him. His Majesty their old friends, the priests, putting in a (Charles II.), sent immediately for his good word for them, they were admitted brother, and having first plied him with into a newly formed surgical establishment

some very sharp raillery on the subject, under the title of Barber-Surgeons, so that

finished by saying,

" James as you have the co-partnership between shaving and brewn, so you must drink ;” and forthsurgery has exi-tel in France and England be legally ratified and promulgated,

with commanded that the marriage should until near the present time, 1827.

Upon the death of Charles, James mounted the throne, but a premature death frustrated this enviable consummation in the

person of his amiable Duchess. Her In the year 1539, the wages of hus- daughters however, were Queen Mary the bandmen and labourers, were 8d. a day, wife of William, and Queen Anne, both each. In the reign of Henry VIII. the grandchildren of the ci-devant pot girl wages of a filconer were generally a groat from Wales, and wearing in succession the a day, with ld. per day for the food of crown of England. each hawk under his care. A huntsman received 35s. 5d. a quar'er, and as well as mrs. of the other servants, he had 4d. a day for his board wages.

The allow- CUSTOMS OF VARIOUS COUNance for the board of boys of the

TRIES.-(No. I.) stable, 26d. each per week : and of the king's riding boys, 2s. a week each. The kreper of the Barbary horse was allowed is. and 8d. per week, for his board, his In Rome, on the evening of the EpiNages being £4. a year; the hen taker phany, a feast is held, particularly dear wa , however, better paid, as he received to children. Not that they draw King 453. 7d. a quarter.

The regular wages and Queen, as in England, or have their of the king's waterman were 10s. a quar- Fête des Rois, as observed at Commercy ter. The fool's wages were 15s. a quarter. in France. But cakes, sweetmeats, fruit, The gardener of York place, (Cardinal and an assemblage of othe good things are








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sold and given away upon this occasion.

Salvedge;" “ safe edge."?: The Piazza della Rotonda is distinguished “Swithin,” from“Swithealm," meaning by the tasteful appearance of the cake very high.-"Botolph," from "Botall. and fruit stalls, loaded with conserves and Cyprian,” from “ Cypria ;" a name the choicest of Pomona's gifts, splendidly of Venus.- “ Dunstan,” from two words decorated with flowers, and irradiated by “ Dun and Stan;" denoting a high hill or ornamental paper lanterns, the whole mountain.- “Garret," from is Gerard appearance having a very pleasing effect. and Gerald.”_"Guy,” from “Guido or

Persons dressed up to resemble the Guidi ;” i. e. a guide or director.grotesque appearances of Mother Bunch Borough, Burgh, and Brough,” from and Mother Goose, under the appellation “ Burgus,” meaning a fortified place. of Beffana, are led about the streets to the " Acre," from " Ager.”-“ Bach or gratification of their pleased spectators, Beck,” a river or streamlet.-" Combe,” who never fail to display a fund of popular a valley.--"Thorp," a village.--"Kirk” wit at their expense. But these visible from “ Kuirace;" i. e. a church. Beffanas are nothing in importance to the invisible. When the children retire to bed, it is usual to hang at their head a stocking, when if the child has behaved itself to the satisfaction of its friends, the

Anecdotiana. stocking is filled with sweetmeats, &c. before morning, but if otherwise, the offended Beffana places within it stones and dirt, so that many smiles and tears are occasioned by the dispensation of the dote which rests only on tradition in the

The principal features of this Anecgifts of the Beffana.

families of the name of Bruce, according to The carnival commences at Rome on Twelfth day, (see our Chronology, when work for the juvenile classes, the Tales of

Sir W. Scott, in his recently published every species of entertainment and spectacle are resorted to, though not carried to found its way, into collections of miscel

a Grandfather, has for a period of time the excess of by-gone days. The great lanea, but as there is a novel difference support of the carnival is occasioned by, in the account, as related by Sir W. in the attendance of vast_multitudes of the above work to that so often printed, foreigners, who crowd to Rome to be wit

we are induced to give it a place within nesses of a spectacle, to which they are the principal contributors. The pleasing last unpleasant intelligence from Scot.

our columns. “ Bruce after receiving the variety of the scene has an attraction for them, which is wanting to the Italians. land, was lying one morning on his To the visitants of other countries, the himself whether he had better resign all

wretched bed, and deliberating with carnival and festivals now owe their thoughts of again attempting to make splendour.

good his right to the Scottish crown, and

dismissing his followers, transport himDERIVATION OF NAMES AND self, and his brothers to the Holy Land, PHRASES.

and spend the rest of his life in fighting

against the Saracens ; by which he “ Saint Mary Overy,.

,? " Saint Mary thought perhaps to deserve the forgiveness over Rhe ; i. e. over the River.”—“Wal- of Heaven, for the great sin of stabbing tham

;"«Wealdnam."-" Billingsgate” Comyn in the Church at Dumfries. But to have been " Belings or Bellings gate” then, on the other hand, he thought it

-" Charter House, corrupted from would be both criminal and cowardly to “ Chartreux,” and that from “ Carthu- give up his attempts to restore freedom to sian;" the name of an order of Friars.- Scotland, while there yet remained the “ Worcester," from “ Wireceaster.”- least chance of his being successful in an " Farnham,” from “ Fernham;" a bed of undertaking, which, rightly considered Férn." Surrey,” from “ Suthrhe, or was much more his duty, than to drive Suthiey;" the south side of the River. the infidels out of Palestine, though the

.“ Wolverhampton,” from “ Vulpene's superstition of his age might think otherHampton;" who built a monastery, &c. wise. While he was divided betwixt these

“Rosamond," from “Rosa Mundi." reflections, and doubtful of what he “ Rosemary,” from “ Ros Mary." should do. Bruce was looking upward “ Seymour," from “ Sain Maur." to the of the cabin in which he lay, “Gibraltar," from “ Ghibal Tairiff.” and his eye was attracted by a spider, To “ Cabbage,” should be “ Kabage;"> which, hanging at the end of a long a northern word for steal.—“Selvedge,” thread of his own spinning, was endea

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vouring, as is the fashion of that crea- PRANCIS THE FIRST AND THE MONK. ture, to swing himself from one beam in Guyon, a French historian, relates that a the roof to another, for the purpose of monk, playing at tennis with Francis I. fixing the line on which he meant to against several noblemen, struck a blow stretch his web. The insect made the which decided the match in favour of the attempt again and again without success; king. Francis surprised at his skill, said and at length Bruce counted that it had “that was a fine stroke for a monk.” tried to carry its point six times, and been “ Sire,” replied the monk, it shall be the as often unable to do so. It came into his stroke of an abbe whenever you think head that he had himself fought just six fit.” The king highly pleased at his battles against the English and their allies, reply, gave him an abbe, which fell and that the poor persevering spider was vacant three days afterwards. exactly in the same situation with himself, having made as many trials, and been as often disappointed at what it aimed at.

It is told of this great man, that in a Now," thought Bruce, " as I have no certain debate in the assembly of the means of knowing what is best to be done; Senate, that he was making a long I will be guided by the luck which shall speech, merely for the purpose of proattend this spider, if the insect shall make tracting the business, and preventing the another effort to fix its thread, and shall adoption of a measure which he disapprobe successful ; I will venture a seventh ved. His intention being evident, Julius time to try my fortune in Scotland ; but Cæsar (then Consul, and friendly to the if the spider shall fail, I will go to the measure in question,) determined to put wars in Palestine, and never return to my an end to his obnoxious harrangue ; and native country again.

" While Bruce was with that view, arbitrarily ordered an forming this resolution, the spider made officer to take him into custody, and conanother exertion, with all the force it could duct him to prison. But no sooner was muster, and fairly succeeding in fastening the order issued, than the entire assembly the thread on its beam, which it had so at once rose from their seats, to accompany often attempted to reach. Bruce seeing him, and partake of his imprisonment ; the success of the spider, resolved to try so great was the respect which his counhis own fortune, and has he never before trymen bore towards him. The effect gained a victory, so he never afterwards this voluntary movement had upon

Caesar sustained any considerable check or defeat induced him by a sense of shame, to Sir W. adds that he has known many revoke his imperious mandate. people of the name Bruce, so firm in their belief of the truth of this story, that they would on no account kill a spider, because

Of all the vices that men are addicted it was an insect, which had shewn the to, perhaps there is none more pernicious, example of perseverance, and given the signal of good luck, to their great name

or more baneful in its effects than gaming,

for your gamester never has any scruples sake.

as to the stakes, he hazards, however disEPIGRAM ON THE GOUT

graceful the act he is about to commit

may be to his character and honour. This (From the Greek.

perhaps may be exemplified by a disGoddess who shunn'st the cottage gate, graceful transaction related of Henry the Companion of the rich and great ; To feet of strangers you confide,

Eighth, who was much addicted to deep Your arms a crutch on either side,

play, it being told of him, that nce playWhilst tottering round the gilded room, ing high with a Sir Miles Partridge, and You fling the costly rich perfume;

having a rnn of ill luck, and being at a To you the tables' sumptuous fare, And rose encircled wreath are dear,

loss for another venture, he staked Jesus For you the mantling bowl shall flow!

bells, as they were termed, (the stake (Joys which the poor can never know) consisting of four bells hanging in one În whose sad path, with thorns o'erspread, of the towers of Old St. Paul's church,) Your pamper'd form shall never tread; But to the purple couch shall go,

which were lost by the dice cast, turning Where lies in state the great inan's toe. up in favour of his lucky adversary. An

old author makes the following remark on

Sir Miles's winning the bells, that though Being importuned to allow the prose- by such unworthy means, he did cause cution of a person who had written at he bells to ring in his pocket, yet he libel on him, magnanimously replied, “I could not prevent the ropes twisting about cannot in conscience do any harm to a his neck: for he was afterwards hanged, man who tells truth, although it may be for malpractices in the reign of Edward unpalatable.



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rise from the chair ; and the domestics

could not presume to enter the apartment, The underwritten lines are the effusion because it was against the ETIQUETTE. of two of the greatest spirits of the time in

At length, the Marquis de Potat which they lived, the personages being appeared, and the king ordered him to Queen Elizabeth of immortal memory, damp. the fires; but he excused himself ; and the ill-starred Sir Walter Raleigh. alleging that he was forbidden by the The first line was written on a window

ETIQUETTE to perform such a function, of one of the palaces of Queen Elizabeth. for which the Duke d’Usseda ought to be by Sir Walter Raleigh, and runs thus :

called upon, as it was his business. The

Duke was gone out ; the fire burned « Fain would I climb, but that I fear to fall,” fiercer; and the king endured it, rather Which being perceived by the Queen, than derogate from his DIGNITY. But his and perhaps knowing the style of the blood was heated to such a degree that an Knight's hand, she wrote underneath :- erysipelas broke out in his head the next “ If thy heart fail thee, do not climb at all."

day; which being succeeded by a violent fever, carried him off in 1621, and in the twenty-fourth year of his age.






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FREDERICK THE GREAT AND ZIMMERMAN. Sir William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, th Lord Treasurer of England, under Queen sician of celebrity, known in England by

Dr. Zimmerman, the author and phyElizabeth, enjoyed a large portion of her his works on Solitude, and National Pride, favour, for we find according to the witty went from Hanover to attend Frederick Fuller, that her Majesty," counted him the Great, in his last illness. One day, for his wisdom, not only her Treasurer, the king said to him, “ You have, I prebut her principal treasure. And although she had an aversion to her Nobles sitting another world ?" This was rather a bitter

sume, sir, helped many a in her presence, yet she would permit her favourite Lord Treasurer to enjoy the hon- pill for the doctor; but the dose he gave our of being seated when before her at

the king in return, was a judicious mix

ture of truth and flattery.--" Not so Court, as he was occasionally troubled with the gout, not forgetting at the same

many as your majesty, nor with so much

honour to myself.” time to tell him. “ My Lord, we make much of you not for your bad legs, but

THE REV. JOHN WESLEY, AND GENERAL for your good head.”


During the voyage of Mr. Wesley to In Sir Walter Raleigh's preface to his the cabin of General Oglethorpe, (the Go

America, he hearing an unusual noise in History of the World, he gives the following as the exclamation of the deranged stepped in to enquire the cause of it, of

vernor of Georgia, with whom he sailed, regicide Ravaillac, while perpetrating the which the General immediately addressed assassination of Henry the Fourth, of

“ Mr. Wesley, you must excuse France.

me, I have met with a provocation too Thus the smallest things,

great for man to bear. You know the Can stop the breath of Kings.

only wine I drink is Cyprus wine, as it SPANISH ETIQUETTE.

agrees with me the best of any. I there

fore provided myself with several dozens The Etiquette observed in the Royal of it, and this villain Grimaldi,” (his Palaces of Spain, for keeping order at foreigu servant who was present, and Court, being still carried to

as great almost dead with fear,) “has drank up excess in the present day as formerly, in- the whole of it. But I will be revenged duces us to give the following anecdote, of him. I have ordered him to be tied which plainly shews however fatal the hand and foot, and to be carried to the consequences may be, that a Spaniard man of war that sails with us. The rascal would sooner fall a martyr to his pride, should have taken care how he used me, than give way to the rules of Etiquette, for I never forgive." " Then, I hope, and lessen his grandeur.

Sir,” said John Wesley, looking calmly at Philip the Third being gravely seated— him, “ you never sin.The general was as Spaniards generally are-by a chimney quite confounded at the reproof, and putwhere the fire-maker of the court had ting his hand into his pocket, took out a kindled so great a quantity of wood that bunch of keys, which he threw at Grithe monarch was nearly suffocated with maldi, saying, “ There villian, take my heat, his grandeur would not suffer him to keys, and behave better for the future

him ;

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RECEIPT FOR MAKING FRIENDSHIP. Asia that was suspended on the wall, mea

în Pliny's Natural History we find a suring the scale of it with a pair of comvery curious receipt for making Roman passes that he found on the table, and friendship, the principal ingredients of then applying them to a large tiger, which which were union of hearts, a flower that the artist had introduced to embellish it. grew in several parts of the empire-sin- as one of the aniinals of that country. cerity, frankness, disinterestedness, pity, By heavens, Cobb,” exclaimed Dick, and tenderness, of each an equal quantity. " I should never have believed it! SureThese were all made up together, with ly, it must be a mistake. Observe nowtwo rich oils, which they called perpetual here," pointing to the tiger, “ here is a kind wishes, and serenity of temper, and tiger that measures iwo and i wenty leagues the whole was strongly perfumed with By G-,it is scarcely credible !"-Clubs the desire of pleasing, which gave it a of London most grateful smell, and was a sure restorative against vapours of all sorts. The cordial, thus prepared, was of so durable In Caldcleugh's Travels in South Amea nature, that no length of time could rica, we find the following opinion of the waste it; but what is more remarkable, Brazilians, as to the cause and origin of says our author, it increased in its weight the blackness of the skins of the Negroes, and value the Jonger you kept it.

at least as far as tradition goes. The

lower orders of Brazilians consider the EPIGRAM.

Negroes to be the most inferior in the Philemon Holland, Doctor of Physic, scale of human beings, and their belief as who died in his 85th year, February 9th, to their original formation, is not a little 1636; wrote the following epigram on singular. his having written a large folio with a At the time say they, of the creation of single pen.

Adam, Satan looked on, and formed a With one sole pen I writ this book,

man of clay, but becoming disgusted at Made of a grey goose quill ;

the blackness of every thing he touched, A pen it was when it I took,

he determined to wash the being of his And a pen I leave it still,

creation white in the river Jordan; on his On which Dr. Fuller observes, that, “he nearing the river, its waters retired, leavmust have leaned very lightly on the ing barely time to push the black man on nib thereof, though weighTY enough in the wet sand, which touching the soles of another sense.

his feet, and the palms of his hands, The practice of using only one pen, accounts for the whiteness of these parts. was followed by two other celebrated volu- The devil in a state of irritation struck his minous writers, viz. John Bunyan, and creation on the nose, by which the flatMatthew Henry.

ness of that organ was accomplished.

The Negro then begged for mercy, and The literary feats of Philemon were humbly represented that no blame could only exceeded by Andrew Toraqueau, who be attached to him, upon which his satanis Isaid to have produced a book and a nic Majesty, somewhat pacified, patted child every year,

till there were twenty him on the head, and by the heat of his of each, or, as some say, thirty. This, hands, curled his hair in the way it is with the circumstance of his being a water seen in the present day. Such is the fandrinker, was the occasion of the following ciful idea of the Brazilians, respecting the humorous epitaph :

origin of the Black race.
Here lies a man, who drinking only water,
Wrote twenty books, with each had son or

Had he but used the juice of gen'rous vats,
The world would scarce have held his books

The anecdote related is of an ancient and brats.

patriarch of the Cherokees, who through extreme old age, had become blind, and

wishing not to become a burthen to his MR. RICHARD Wilson, an eminent countrymen, addressed them at their counlawyer, and member of the Beef Steak cil as follows :: -" You yet love me Club, one day called at the Secretary's what can I do now to merit your regard ? office in the India House upon Cobb, nothing. I am good for nothing ; I canauthor of the Siege of Belgrade, and not see to shoot the buck, or hunt up the many other dramatic pieces, who hap- sturdy bear ; I know I am but a burthen pened for a few minutes to be absent ; to you; I have lived long enough; now but, on returning, whom should he see let my spirit go ; I want to see the warbut Dick, earnestly exploring a map of riors of my youth in the land of spirits,



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