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be enumerated lands at Hitchin in Hert- that the Archbishop, moved to
fordshire, given to them by Bernard de passion by their miserable ståte, placed
Ballolio, in the presence of the King of them in several monasteries in the county,
France, and an illustrious assembly, which with orders for their maintenance during
was afterwardsconfirmed by King Stephen. their lives.
The manor of Hampton granted to them Thus fell the Order of the haughty
by Joan, relict of Sir Robert Gray. The Templars, after an existence of nearly two
manor of Sandford in Oxfordshire, grant- centuries: the occasion, according to some
ed by Sir Thomas de Sandford. The writers, was their atrocious crimes ; by
lands and preceptory which they possessed others, it has been ascribed to the almost
at Balsalle in Warwickshire, was the unbounded wealth which they possessed.
grant of Roger de Mowbray.

Until disgrace overwhelmed them, their
They had also lands at Leicester and Buck- company to kings was accounted an-ho-
land, granted to them by Simon de Mont- nour, and their valour was held up as an
fort, Earl of Leicester, and William de example to be followed by those whose
Erlegh. There was at this period in the profession was arms. Fuller says,
realm, scarcely a nobleman or person of is but little doubt, but what they were no-
wealth, but what esteemed it an honour torious transgressors of human laws, yet if
to add to their possessions, but the family a candle had been taken to search into the
to whom they considered themselves under vices of other Orders, as much dust and
the greatest obligations to, was that of dirt would have been found amongst them
Mowbray, to whom they granted the as was found among the Templars ;'
power of liberating any Knight of the and he likewise observes, " that the chief
Order, put to public penance for any cause of their rain was the vastness of
offence that he might have committed. their wealth. They were feared of many,
The Kings of England here enumerated, envied of more, and loved by none, so
viz. Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry III, as Naboth's vineyard was the chief ground
were great benefactors to the Templars, of his blasphemy, so was their wealth the
the last of which exempted the fraternity principal evidence against them, and the
from all tolls and taxes, and granted chief cause of their overthrow." And,
them a right of free warren, with power

we may

believe that Philip of France to hold fairs and markets, in various ma- would never have taken away their lives, nors and towns. Richard the First also if he might have seized their lands without granted to them similar privileges. In putting them to eath ; but the mischief the year 1309, after thecommission before was, that he could not obtain the honey, related was held in France to examine unless he burnt the bees." into the conduct of the Templars, the Pope The Badge of the Order was a patriarsept his Bull into England to order the chal cross, enamelled red, and edged with Archbishop of Canterbury, and the pre- gold, worn at the breast, pendant to a lates of the kingdom to hold the like ribbon.

R. J. inquisition, which commission was accordingly held in the hall of the Bishop of London, October, 1309, before whom CUSTOMS OF VARIOUS the Knights of the Order appeared to COUNTRIES.No. VIII. answer the accusations preferred against them for their impieties ; at the enquiry CUSTOM OF WEARING THE LEEK, ON ST. nothing appeared of magnitude sufficient

DAVID'S DAY. to deserve the abolishing of the Order. Why on St. David's day do Welchmen seek, The commission also sat at York, where To beautify their hats with verdant leek no further proofs were adduced to crimi- of nauseous smell? “ For honour" 'tis they nate them than at London. However,

“ Dulce et decorum est pro patria." shortly after these fruitless examinations had taken place, they were all seized on The leek worn by Welchmen on this throughout England, and incarcerated in day is said to be in memory of a great prison, their possessions being seized into victory obtained by them over the Saxons ; the King's hands. The decree of the they, during the battle, having leeks in council of Vienna issued in 1311, before their hats, to distinguish themselves, by stated, put an end to the Order in Eng- order of St. David. land as well as the other countries of Shakspeare alludes to the custom in Europe, by condemning and perpetually Henry V. Act 5, Scene I, where Gower annulling it, with an inhibition that none in converse with Fluellen the Welch sol: after should take that Order on pain of dier, asks him,“ Why wear you your leek being excommunicated.

to-day? Saint Davy's day is past.' The helpless state of the Templars with- The king, it is said, is so complaisant in the diocese of York, was so extreme, as to bear them company.

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An old distich respecting St. David's placed an horizontal chase, a shelf of day, relating probably to some ancient marble or iron, the size of a sheet of legendary story, says:

paper, moveable before and behind, on " Taffy was born on a moonshiny night,

which is placed the sheet of paper which With his head in a pond and his heels up. is to receive the writing. As each line right."

is printed, the moveable shelf advances a

space equal to the interval which sepaSINGULAR CUSTOM AT SHAFTESBURY.

rates the lines. Above the marble table Water is so scarce in this Town, that it is suspended a kind of round box, moveused to be brought from Motcomb, a vilable from left to right, in which are dislage at some distance, by horses; until posed all round, and in a certain order, the year 1718, when William Benson, characters of tempered steel, in sufficient Esq. one of its representatives, caused at number to express all the parts of the his own expense, engines to be construct- writing. Each of these characters or ed, of power sufficient to raise the water punches answers to a key (like the keys of a well about two miles off, to the height of a harpsicord) which is placed before of above three hundred feet, and convey the box and the moveable table. Upon ed it to a large cistern in the middle of the each key is engraved the character cortown. These engines are no longer used, responding to the punch. All these keys the inhabitants having dug pits at the

are so disposed that they can be played doors of their houses for preserving the rain-water, which not being suficient for each pressure of a key, the correspond

upon without displacing the hand. At a constant supply, the poor get their liv- ing punch

moistens itself with ink, and ing by bringing water in pails, or upon places itself in the centre of the box, by horses, to the town from Motcomb! and the action of a little spring, which sudas an acknowledgment to the Lord of the denly presses it, and as promptly retires Manor of Motcomb, the Mayor and Bur

to make way for the other punches, and gesses of Shaftesbury used to go in procession every year on the Monday before it is stated,

would probably be 603 francs,

so on. The cost of one of these machines, Holy Thursday, with a kind of Garland

or about £25. resembling the May Garlands that used to be carried about by the Milk Maids of London, which consisted of plate borrowed from the neighbouring gentry, and

Anecdotiana. adorned with peacocks' feathers. This Garland, which is here called a prize be

ALEXANDER THE GREAT som, (more commonly the Bizant,) was carried to a green below the hill, whence Whilst on one of his marches, was overthe water is taken, and presented, together taken by a storm of snow, which comwith a raw calf's head, and a pair of pelled him to halt. Being seated near a gloves, to the Lord of the Manor, who fire, he chanced to perceive an aged solreceived the present by his Steward, and dier so benumbed by the cold as to be alat the same time distributed twelve pen

most deprived of animation. At this dis ny loaves, and with beer among the covery, he rushed hastily to the spot people. After the

where the sufferer was, took him up ceremony through, the prize besom is returned to in his arms and brought him to the seat the Mayor, and carried back to the town he had lately occupied and placed him by one of the officers with the same sa. therein, at the same time observing that lemnity as they observed on setting forth. what would have been death by the laws

of Persia (meaning the act of sitting on

the king's throne) should to him be life.” Science and Art.

The vows of the knights of Malta were

three in number, namely, poverty, chasM. Conti has contrived, what be calls tity, and obedience; but it rarely hapa tachygraph and tachytype; the former pened that either of them were punctually enables a person to print with facility, observed. It was therefore customary to almost as quickly as speaking, even say, that these knights made their vow of without the aid of the eye; on paper, wax; poverty, in the church; that of chastity, and soft metals, with all sorts of charac- at table; and that of obedience, in bed: ters and punches, regularly fabricated. The same would apply to the Knights of The tachygraph consists chiefly of a por- the Holy Sepulchre, the Templars, and tablecase, in the midst of which is the Teutonic.

is gone





MARCH is the third month of the year, according to our reckoning, but with the Romans it was the first, and called Martius from Mars, the God of war, because be was the father of their first prince. This month was under the protection of Minerya.

It is only since the edict of Charles IX, issued in 1564, that they have in France reckoned the year from the beginning of January; for before, March was the first month of the year with the French. Astrologers also make it the first, because it is then that the sun enters Aries, by which they begin to reckon the signs of the Zodiac. The calends of this month was anciently very remarkable; they began with the Feast of Shields, or Sacred Bucklers. Ancylionum dies, which continued three days, whereat the Salli carried small bucklers. The festival terminated with grand feasting and merriment, which is the reason of giving the name of Cæna Saliaris to sumptuous entertainments. On the sixth day, which is the day before the nones, solemnities were performed in honor of Vesta : and on the seventh, was celebrated the anniversary of the Dedication of the Temples, consecrated to Ve-Jupiter in the Wood of the Asylum, a wicked Deity to whom the Romans, offered sacrifices to prevent his doing them mischief. The Junonalia was a feast to Juno, held on this day; and on the thirteenth there was horse-racing near the Tiber. On the fifteenth, or the Day of the Ides, was held the feast to the nymph Anna Perenna, which was celebrated by rejoicings, dancing, and feasting, on the banks of the Tiber; the day was also termed Parricidium, from the assassination of Julius Cæsar, by Brutus and the other conspirators. The sixteenth was the feast of the Liberalia, when the children assumed the Virile

and on the same day was made the processions called Argei, to the places that was consecrated by Numa, in commemoration of certain Grecian princes that had been buried there. On the twenty-fifth day was held the feast called Hilaria, instituted in honor of the Mother of the Gods, and of Atys. On the twenty-sixth came on the feast of Washing the Grandmother of the Gods, Lavatio Matris Deúm, which feast was instituted in commemoration of the day wherein she was brought from Asia, and washed in the river Almo.

There were several feasts kept on the thirtieth, viz. :-to Janus, to Concord, to Saluş, apd Pax, and on the last day was held one to the Moon, or Diana, when a bull was sacrificed on the Aventine Hill. March, though generally rough, may be considered as beneficial and valuable as any month of the year, from its stormy winds drying up the superabundant moisture of winter, thus restoring us our paths dry and salutary through the verdant meads. Verstegan says that our Saxon ancestors called the month March, Lenct-monat, or according to our present orthography, Lengthmoneth, because the length of the day excelled the night. This month being so named when our ancestors received Christianity, they called the ancient Christian custom of fasting at this period, the Fast of Lenct, because of the Lenct-monat, whereon usually fell the greater part of the fasting, from which circumstance we derive the word Lent, and from its the Fast of Lent. Among the old proverbs preserved which are explanatory of the blusterous, weather, contained in this month, are the following :

The March sun causeth dust, and the wind blows it about.
March hack ham, comes in like a lion, goes out like a lamb.

March wind and May sún, makes clothes white and maids dun. We cannot do better than conclude our notice of the origin of this month, than by giving the following expressive lines by Thomson :

"Be patient, swains: these cruel seeming winds
Blow not in vain. For hence they keep repress'd
Those deepening clouds on clouds, surcharg:d with rain,
That o'er the vast Atlantic hither borne,
In endless train, would quench the summer-blaze,
And, cheerless, drown the crude unripen'd year."

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Feb. 29 Friday Sun ris 36m af. 6 Feb. 29 This year being Leap Year, the Bissextus, or the - set 24m af. 5

Odd Day, is added to this month that the year may equal the course of the sun. This intercalation was discovered by Julius Cæsar, who having observed that the sun finished its course in 365 days

6 hours, added one whole day in the calendar every MARCA

MARCH fourth year, that the hours might be taken in. 1. Saturday St. David.

1 St. David or Dewid, tutelar Saint of Wales, was Full Moon,

archbishop of Caerleon, now called St. David's, 53m af. 6 even.

in which office he died in 544. During his High Water,

life he founded 12 monasteries, and formed a her43m af. 1 morn.

mitage and chapel in the vale of Lanthony. 6m af. 2 even.

1767. Alexander Balfour, born at Monikie, iu Scot

land, be was author of a volume of poems, the

principal one bears the title “ Contemplation." 2 SUN D 2 Sund, in Lent. - 2 St. Ceada, or Chad, bishop of Lichfield, and founLESSONS for the

der of the bishopric of Lichfield; he was educated DAY.

in the monastery of Lindisfarne, and died in the 27 c. Gen, morn.

great pestilence of 673. 34 c. Gen. even.

1711. Died the eminent French poet, Nicholas BoiSt. Chad.

leau, ÆT 75.; his productions, especially his saSun ris 32mn af. 6

tires, gained him great fame. set 28m af. 5

1788. Died at his native place, Zurich, Solomon

Gessner, author of the Death of Abel, Æt. 58. 1802. Died Francis, Duke of Bedford, the promoter

of Useful Science, and the patron of Agriculture, 3 Monday St. Emeterius and 3 These were Spanish Saints, and famed for quelling, St. Chelidonus,

hail storms. High Water,

1605. Edmund Waller, the poet, born at Coleshill, 3m af. 3 morn.

in Buckinghainshire; some of his poems are ele18m af. 3 even,

gant; he was a member of parliament, and often

delighted the house by his eloquence and wit. 4 Tuesday St. Lucius.

4 St. Lucius I. succeeded Cornelius in the papacy, in Sun ris 29m af. 6

253, and was martyred the year following. - set. 31m af. 5

1583. Died the learned and excellent divine, Ber

nard Gilpin, Æt. 66. 1650. John Lord Somers, born at Worcester, he

was made Lord Chancellor in 1697, and was deprived of the seals in 1700; and impeached of high crimnes and misdemeanors, of which the

lords acquitted him. He died in 1710. 5 Wednes St, Piran.

5 St. Piran, is said to have been born in Ireland, and High Water,

became a hermit there; he afterwards came to 3m af. 4 morn.

England, and settled in Cornwall, where he died. 21m af. 4 even.

St. Piran's day is kept by the tinners as a holiday, from a tradition which remains of his having communicated to them many secrets regarding

the manufacture of tin. 1778. Died, Dr. Arne, the celebrated musical com

poser. The music of his opera of Artaxerxes, for depth of science places him as a composer

beyond the reach of rivalry. 1827. Died the Marquis de la Place, the eminent

French astronomer and mathematician. 6 Thursd St. Baldrede.


St. Baldrede was bishop of Glasgow, he died in Sun ris 25m af. 6

London, A. D. 608. set 35m af. 5

1623. On this day Prince Charles (the son of

James I.) arrived at Madrid with the Duke of Buckingham, to conclude a treaty of marriage between the Prince and the Infanta of Spain, which, though the articles were agreed on, never took place. In 1625, he married Henrietta, the

daughter of Henry the Fourth of France. -7 Friday St. Perpetua.

7 This saint suffered martyrdom at the age of twenty

two, under the persecution of Severus, A. D. 703." 1702. Expired at Kensington Palace, King William

III. ÆT. 52. 1803. Died, the Duke of Bridgewater, the father

of canal navigation. 8 Saturd St. Julian, archbp. 8 On this day was assassinated, the Italian musician, of Toledo, died

David Rizzio, at Holy-rood house, in the presence D. 690.

of Mary, Q. of Scots, his patroness. Sun ris 210 af. 6

J1822. Died Dr. Dl. Clarke, the traveller, Æt. 54. Set 39m af.

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He was

ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF PUPPET wooden figures, for a series of years, go
PLAYS IN ENGLAND. through the action of the whole of that

tragedy, while he himself repeated the
For the following detail we are indebt- dialogue which belonged to each of the
ed to a laughter-moving volume entitled, characters.t
Punch and Judy, which contains an Puppet plays are of very ancient date
elaborate account of all that belongs to in England, and if they were not con-
these mirth creating worthies, the volume temporary with our mysteries, they imme-
although of value in itself, is made still diately succeeded them. There is rea-
richer by the talented embellishments of son to think that they were coeval at
George Cruikshank, who is certainly the
ablest designer of humorous subjects we

+ He was also called the York Trumpeter, have at present.

having been born in that city, and having

“blown a battle blast” at Culloden, " When we mention than no less a

born in 1726, and after the rebellion he retired man than Dr. Johnson was of opinion, to his native place ;, where, for about fifty that puppets were so capable of repre- years, he graced with his instrument the ensenting even the plays of Shakspeare, was a very well known character, and for a that Macbeth might be performed by long time before his death, in 1800, was master them as well as by living actors,* it will of a puppet-show. In 1797, he published his be evident, from such a fact only, that edition of Macbeth, with new notes and va.

At his decease, the folthe inquiry is far from unimportant. In lowing lines were written upon him :connection with this opinion and con- “ When the great angel blows the judgment firmation of it, we may add, that a person of the name of Henry Rowe, shortly He also must give Harry Rowe a thump ;

If not, poor Harry never will awake, before the year 1797, did actually, by But think it is his own trumpet by mistake,

He blew it all his life, with greatest skill,
* See Malone's Shakspeare, by Boswell, si, And but for want of breath had blown it still,”

9-SATURDAY, MARCH 8, 1828.


P. 301,

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