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They have extraordinary notions of God, of fins, and good actions. Their chief happiness consists in idleness and satisfying their natural lufts and appetites ; these incline them to finging, dancing, and relating of love stories. Their greatest unhappiness or trouble is the want of these amusements : they thun this by all me. thods, even at the hazard of their lives, for they think it more eligible to die than to lead a life that is disagreeable to them ; which opinion frequently leads them to self- murder. This was so common after the conquest, that the Ruffians had great difficulty to put a stop'ro it. They are chiefly employed in providing what is absolutely necessary for the present, and take no care for the future. They have no notion of riches, fame, or honour; therefore covetousness, ambition, and pride, are unknown among them. On the other hand, they are careless, lustful, and cruel : these vices occafion free quent quarrels and wars among them, sometimes with their neighbours, not from a desire of increasing their power, but from some other causes ; such as carrying off their provisions, or rather their girls, which is frequently practised as the most summary method of pro. curing a wife.
Their trade is likewise not so much calculated for the acquisition of riches as for procuring the necessaries and conveniencies of life. They sell the Koreki sables, fox and white dog skins, dried mushrooms, or such trifles; and receive in exchange cloaths made of deer-skins and other hides : among themselves they exchange what they abound with for what they want, as dogs, boats, dishes, troughs, nets, hemp, yarn, and provisions. This kind of barter is carried on under a great shew of friendship; for when one wants any thing that another has, he goes freely to visit him, and without any ceremony makes known his wants, although perhaps he never had any acquaintance with that person before : the landlord is obliged to behave according to the custom of the coun• try, and bringing whatever his guest has occasion for, gives it to him. He afterwards returns the visit, and must be received in the same manner; fo that both parties have their wants supplied.
Their manners are quite rude: they never use any civil expression or falutation ; never take off their caps, or falure one another; and their discourse is ftupid, and betrays the most consummate ignorance ; and yet they are in some degree curious, and inquifitive upon many occasions.
They have filled almost every place in heaven and carth with different spirits, which they both worship and fear more than God: they offer them facrifices upon every occafion, and some carry little idols about them, or have them placed in their dwellings; but, with regard to God, they not only neglect to worship him ; but, in case of troubles and misfortunes, they curse and blaspheme him.
They keep no account of their age, though they can count as far as one hundred; but this is so troublesome to them, that without their fingers they do not tell three. It is very diverting to see them reckon more than ten ; for having reckoned the fingers of both hands they clasp them together, which fignifies ten; they then begin with their toes, and count to twenty; after which they are quite confounded, and cry, Matcha ? that is, Where thall I take more. They reckon ten months in the year, some of which are longer and some shorter ; for they do not divide them by the changes of the moon, but by the order of particular occurrences that happen in those regions, as may be seen by the following table :
ist Purifier of fins; for in this month they have a holiday for the purification of all their fins.-zd. Breaker of harchers, from the great froft.-3d. Beginning of heat. -Ath. Time of the long day. 5th. Preparing month.6th Red fish month.th. White fith month.-8th. Kaiko filh month-gth. Great white fıh month.ioth. Leaf falling month. This last month continues to the month of November, or that of the purification, and it is the length of almost three months ; however, these names of the months are not the same every where, but
are only proper to the inhabitants upon the river Kamt. schatka : the inhabitants of the northern parts give them different names, such as,- ift. The month of the rivers freezing.--2d. Hunting month.-30. Purifier of fins.---4th. Breaker of hatchets, from the great frost. sth. Time of the long day.-6th. Sea beavers' puppying time.--7th. Sea calves? puppying time.-Sth. Time when the tame deer bring forth their young.-9th. When their wild deer bring forth.---10th. Beginning of the fishery.
Their divifion of time is pretty fingular ; they commonly divide our year into two, so that winter is one year, and summer another; the summer year be. gins in May, and the winter in November.
They do not distinguilh the days by any particular appellation, nor form them into weeks or months, nor yet know how many days are in the month or year. They mark their epochs by some remarkable thing or other, such as the arrival of the Russians, the great rebellion, or the first expedition to Kamschatka. They have no writings, nor hieroglyphic figures, to preserve the memory of any thing; lo that all their knowledge depends upon tradition, which soon becomes uncertain and fabulous in regard to what is long paft,
They are ignorant of the causes of eclipses, but when they happen, they carry fire out of their huts, and pray the luminary eclipsed to shine as formerly. They know only three constellations; the Great Bear, the Pleiades, and the three' stars in Orion; and give names only to the principal winds.
Their laws in general tend to give fatisfaction to the injured person. If any one kills another, he is to be killed by the relations of the person sain. They burn the hands of people who have been frequently caught in theft, but for the first offence the thief must restore what he hath stolen, and live alone in folitude, without expecting any allistance from others. They think they can punifh an undiscovered theft by burning the finews of the stone-buck in a public meeting with great cere
monies of conjuration, believing that as these finews are contracted by the fire, so the thief will have all his limbs contracted. They never have any disputes about their land or their huts, every one having land and water more than sufficient for his wants.
Although their manner of living be most nafty, and their actions the most stupid, yet they think themselves the happiest people in the world, and look upon the Ruffians who are settled among them with contempt ; however, this notion begins to change at present; for the old people who are confirmed in their customs, drop off; and the young ones being converted to the Chrif. tian religion, adopt the customs of the Russians, and despise the barbarity and superstition of their ancestors.
In every Oftrog, or large village, by order of his Imperial Majesty, is appointed a chief, who is sole judge in all causes, except of those of life and death; and not only these chiefs, but even the common people, have their chapels for public worship: Schools are allo erected in almost every village, to which the Kamtschadales send their children with great pleasure ; by this means it to be hoped, that their barbarity, will be in a fhort time rooted out.
have already announced. The Haymarket alone therefore now demands our attention. Little has occurred in the course of the present month worthy of notice. Such as it is, the reader will find it here detailed. New pieces and new actors are the subjects which most challenge our regard, but when any excellence appears in established performers, we are desircus of recording it. Some persons are interested in every little article of intelligence which respects the dramatical department. The Inquifitor, a play in five acts, which was exhi.
bited on the 23d of June; is now published. We mentioned that its approbation on the stage was doubtful. Of its intrinsic merits, the Public have it now in their power to judge.
A little piece, entitled, Throw Phyfic to Dogs, was introduced at this Theatre at the beginning of this month; but was damned. Its author is not certainly known; of its merits we say nothing.
July 9th. In the Lock and Key, Mr. D'Arcy made his second appearance in the character of Cheerly It was well sustained, and the audience were gratificd by the exhibition. His voice is peculiarly pleasing, though in our opinion, still capable of amendment.
Friday, July 13th. Miss Griffich, whose debut we announced in our last Number, performed the part of Margaretta, in the comic opera of No Song no Supper, in which she gave freth proofs not only of vocal excellence, but of versatility of talents. The fong known by the name of the plaintive Ditty, was sweetly fung, and met with unbounded approbation. The soul touched by such tender strains dissolves into raptures,
July 14. C. Kemble performed Euftace de St. Pierre, in Colman's Siege of Calais, with confiderable ability.
July 16. Mr. Johnston, from Scotland, performed Sir Edward Mortimer, in the Iron Chest, with great applause. His discrimination of character was just and animated.
July 21. An historical play, called the Cambro-Britons, was performed for the first time at this Theatre.
Mr. C. Kenble
Mr. R. Palmer Wynne
Mr. Suett Dermot (an Irishman) Mr. Johnstone King Edward
Mr. Davies Hereford
Mr. Davenport The Bard