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months, in composing, revising, and correcting his celebrated Philippic against Governor Haftings; in which he was assisted chiefly, in matters of business, by Mr.

s- is also the reputed author of the letters signed Hampden, addressed to the Duke of Portland, and for. merly published in the Morning Chronicle ; which pa· per is occasionally honoured at the present period, with the productions of the fame able and elegant pen.



The goodly apparatus
That rides round the glowing axle-tree of heaven.

O .

It treats of the works of nature in their most ftu. pendous extent. It has a reference to the perfections of deity. By his power, wisdom, and goodness, all things were formed.

The Sun, an immense body of fire and light, is fixed in the centre of the system, whilst the planets revolve around him. He is upwards of 1,000,000 times as large as our earth, and intended to give light, heat, and vegetation to seven primary, and at leait fifteen secondary worlds. By spots on his disk, he is discovered to turn on his axis in about twenty-five of our days.

1. MERCURY, the first in the system, at the dis, tance of 36,000,000 of miles from the Sun, completes his revolution in 88 days.

2. VENUS, at the distance of 68,000,000 of miles froin the Sun, revolves around him in 224 days.

These are the inferior planets, because their station is between the Sun and the EARTH.

3. EARTH which'we inhabit at the distance from the $un of 95,000,000 of miles, performs its period in 365


days. EARTH has one Moon or Satellite at the distance of about 240,000 miles from it, which revolves around the EARTH in 27 days, 7 hours, and 43 minutes.

We proceed to the fuperior planets.

4. MARS, at the distance of 145,000,000 of miles, revolves in little less than two of our years.

5. JUPITER, at the distance of 490,000,000 miles, accomplishes his journey in 12 years. He has 4 Moons or Attendants.

6. SATURN, at the distance of 900,000,000 of miles, completes his revolution in 30 years. Saturn has 7 Moons, and a stupendous Ring surrounding his body, the nature of which astronomers have not yet ascertained.

7. GEORGIUM Sidus, at-the immense distance of 1800,000,000 miles, creeps around his orbit in 82 years and a half. It has three Moons, or Attendants.

8. COMETS, are bodies which, in various and vastly eccentric orbits, revolve about the Sun in different fituations, and periods of time.

9. The FIXED STARS, known by their never varying in their fituations in the heavens, also by their twinkling, are supposed by Astronomers to be Suns to other systems, with planets revolving around them like our Sun. Some of them are blue, others red, and others all colours. However we know nothing concerning their distance, only that it is extremely great.

The SOLAR SYSTEM is thus beautifully described by a British poetess, distinguished for the elegance of her compofitions:

Seiz'd in thought,
On fancy's wild and roving wing I fail,
From the green borders of the peopled Earth,
And the pale Moon, her duteous fair attendant ;
From solitary Mars; from the vast orb
Of Jupiter, whose huge gigantic bulk,
Dances in ether like the lightest leaf,
To the dim verge, the suburbs of the system,
Where cheerless Saturn, 'midst his watr'y nioons,


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Girt with a lucid zone, majestic fits
In gloomy grandeur like an exiled queen,
Amongst her weeping handmaids: fearless thence
I launch into the trackless deeps of space,
Where burning round, ten thousand suns appear

Of elder beam; which afk no leave to thine
Of our terrestial star, nor borrow light
From the proud regent of our scanty day.
Sons of the morning! first born of creation !
And only less than him who marks their track,
And guides their fiery wheels. Here must I stop,
Or is there aught beyond? What hand unseen
Impels me onward thro' the glowing urbs
Of habitable nature; far remote,
To the drcad confines of eternal night;
To solitudes of valt unpeopled space,
The defarts of creation, wide, and wild;
Where embryo systems, and unkindled suns
Sleep in the womb of chaos? Fancy droops
And thought aftonish'd stops her bold career.


J. B.

HOW is of

AN ESSAY ON HISTORY. " As it is the office of an orator to persuade, it is that of an “ historian to record truth for the instruction of mankind.


particularly admire those who, in ancient times, acted with such virtue and fortitude against all the attacks of vice as to have immortalized their names. By reading an account of such characters in several fine authors we are presented with an ample field for instruction. How thankful ought we be to those illuftrious persons who have handed down to pofterity the narrative of ancient and modern history? For without the aid of history we thould know very little more than our first parents of things that have happened before us. So


great is the knowledge of history, that a man ignorant of it, may be denominated a second Adam, and indeed is to be censured, having in his power the means of knowledge.

There are many who admire the valour and military qualities of an Alexander, or a Julius Cæfar, without once considering how much blood they have shed, for no other cause than merely to satisfy their cursed love of diftin&tion! Well may the Bishop of London say in these his expressive words :

6 One murder makes a villain, millions an hero.” The advantages arising from the study of history are rarious. It ought to precede all other parts of learning, as it serves not only for instruction, but also for entertainment. It is the first study among young people that excites curiosity. Youth, however, should not boast of their knowledge of history. They may have burdened their memories with events, dates, and names only to make a display of their knowledge, and astonith their friends. But the true purport of history does not confist in the remembrance of events and actions. This kind of knowledge merits no applause. For knowledge confifts in examining things to the bottom, and in finding out their true value. The principal end or history then, is to teach youth to speak little, but reflect much.

Many in general are partial to the Greeks and Ro. mans, and wish to imitate their brilliant actions. They perceive the inhabitants of their own country in general aspiring to wealth and grandeur, and crowds courting their friendship and esteem. For that reason they are led to admire what they see other people admire. But by looking narrowly into past ages they rectify this miltake, and see that not the richest and greatest, but the best man was in the end rewarded. We should like. wise form a judgment of what is deserving of praise. For history presents us with some men who, in their time, made a mighty noise in the world, but whose me


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mory is now covered with infamy and disgrace. In the mean time, others in a private and retired life, enjoy ease and pleasure, which is a far better reward than the at. tempting to secure pleasure and ease at the expence of the blood and peace of their fellow-creatures,

We see in the reading of history that by the Greeks and Romans, slavery was greatly abhorred. Without mercy, however, they tyrannized over their sļaves, unfortunate people! reduced by them to flavery. They excessively disliked Navery, and yet 'when these unfortunate people attempted to recover their liberty, how cruelly were they used even by thuse very masters who have given instances that they would rather die than submit to slavery. Was that done like freemen, to govern with an iron rod an helpless and undefended people ? But the barbarity of the times partly excuses them.

The reading of history 'is of so great a benefit to mankind, as it lays open to us the vicissitudes of empires, kingdoms, and republics. By reading of these revolutions we trace the origin, first, of our own country, and then that of the world itself. By this useful ftudy of history we become acquainted with the transactions of past ages from the very beginning of time. History is nearly connected with geography and chronology. The latter informs you of the exact time when the action was performed, the former, of the size and situation of the place where it was performed. So great is the utility of chronology, that without it we should sink into an abyss of ignorance, not knowing whether it was at the beginning or end of the creation, except by the defcription of its manners and customs, which would be a very indifferent help Without geography also, we should be in a bad dilemma, not knowing the extent and situation of the place of which we read, which is necessary to comprehend their wars and expeditions.

Thus we see the connection and the great use of chronology and geography for properly understanding


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