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561 conftitutional with him to do the direct commanded them, forced the King of contrary of what he said or writ; not Prutia to give battle under the walls of from dissimulation, but because he spoke Neitla. The Prussian cavalry was at firit and writ with one kind of enthufiaim, put to the rout by the Austrian; and the and afterwards acted with another. King, who was not accustomed to stand
He departed on the 15th of December, fire, Hed at the first shock as far as Opewith the quartan ague, for the conquest of leim, twelve long leagues from the field Silesia, at the head of thirty thousand of battle. combatants, well disciplined, and well ac Maupertuis, who hoped to make his coutred. As he mounted his horle, he fortune in a hurry, was in the suit of the faid to the Marquis de Beauvau, Maria Monarch this campaign, imagining that Theresa's Minister, “I am going to play the King would at least find him a horse. your game; ihould the trumps fall into But this was not the royal custom. Mauour hands, we will divide the winnings.” pertuis bought an ass for two ducats, on
He has fince that written the history of the day of battle, and Aed with all his that conquest, and he thewed me the might after his Majesty on ass-back. This whole of ir. Here follows one of the steed, however, was presently distanced, curious paragraphs, in the introduction and Maupertuis was taken and stripped by to these annals, which I, in preference, the Austrian huslars. carefully transcribed, as a thing unique in If the Prussian cavalry was bad, the inits kind.
fantry was the best in Europe; it had been " Add to the foregoing considerations, under the discipline of the old Prince “ I had troops entirely prepared to act; of Anhalt for thirty years. Marthal “ this, the fulness of my treasury, and Schwerin, who commanded, was a pupil " the vivacity of my character, were the of Charles the Twelfth. He turned the " reasons why I made war upon Maria- fate of the day as soon as the King was “ Therefa, Queen of Bohemia and Hun- fled. The next day his Majesty came back gary.”
to his army, and the conquering General 1 And a few lines after, he has these very was very near being disgraced. words
I returned to philosophize in my retreat “ Ambition, interest, and a defire to at Cirey, and passed the winter ac Paris, “ make the world speak of me, vanquilh- where I had a multitude of enemies, as I “ ed all, and war was determined on.” had tlie audacity to write on philofophic
It is much to be regretted that I pre- subjects, I was of necessity treated as an vailed on bim to omit theie pallages, when atheist by all those who are called deveI afterwards corrected his works; a con tees, according to ancient usage. fetfion to uncommon, should have pasied I was the first who had dared develop duwn to pofterity, and have served to thew
to my countrymen, in an intelligible style, upon what motives the generality of wars the discoveries of the great Newton. The are founded. We authors, poets, histo- Cartesian prejudices, which had taken tians, and academician declaimers, cele place of the prejudices of the Peripatetics, brate these fine exploits ; but here is a mo were at that time so rooted in the minds of narch who performs and condemns them. the French, that the Chancellor d'Agues
His troops had already over-run Silela, feau regarded any man whatever who when his minifter at Vienna, the Baron de should adopt discoveries made in England, Gotter, made the very impolite proposal as an enemy to reason and the state. He to Maria-Theresa, of ceding, with a good never would grant a privilege that I might grace, to the Elector and King his matter, have my Elements of the Newtonian Philoa three-fourths of that province: for which fopliy printed. his Prullian Majesty would lend her three I was likewise a vast admirer of Locke; millions of crowns, and make her huf- I considered him as the sole reasonable band Emperor.
metaphysician. Above all, I praised that Maria-Theresa, who at that time had moderation so new, so prudent, and at neither troops, money, por credit, was not the same time fo daring, where he says, with standing inflexible; the rather chote we have not sufficient knowledge to deto ritk the loss of all, than crouch to a termine or affirm, by the light of reason, Prince whom the looked upon as the raf- that God could not grant the gifts of fal of her ancestors, and whole life the thought and sensation to a being which we Emperor, her father, had faved. Her call Material. Generals could scarcely mufter twenty The obstinate malignity and intrepidity thoufand men. Marthal New perg, who of ignorance, with which they set upon
me on this article, cannot be conceived. eighty-six years of age, but held the reins The principles of Locke had never occa- of government with a very feeble hand. Sioned any disputes in France before, be The King of Prussia, in the mean time, cause the Doctors read St. Thomas A. having matured his courage, and gained quinas, and the rest of the world read several victories, concluded a peace with romances. As soon as I had praised this the Austrians. Maria, to her infinite reauthor, they began to cry out against both gret, gave him up the county of Glatz him and me. The poor creatures, who with Silesia. were hottest in this dispute, certainly . This prince was then at the height of knew very little of either matter or spirit. his power, having one hundred and thirty The fact is, we none of us know what or thousand men under his command used to how we are, except that we are convinced victory, and the cavalry of which he himwe have motion, life, sensation, and felf had formed. He drew twice as much thought, but without having the least from Silesia as it produced to the house of conception of how we came by them. Austria, faw himfelt firmly seated in his The very elements of matter are as much new conquest, and was happy, while all the hidden from us as the rest. We are blind other contending powers were fuffering the creatures, that walk on, groping and miseries of depredation. Princes in thefe reasoning in the dark; and Locke was ex- times ruin themselves by warmhe enriched cecdingly right when he asserted, it was himself. He now turned his attention to the not for us to determine what the Almighty embellishment of the city of Berlin, where could or could not do.
he built one of the finest opera-houses in All this added to the success of my Europe, and whither he invited artists of productions, drew a whole library of all denominations. He wilhed to acquire pamphlets down upon me.
glory of every kind, and to acquire it in While the rufuse of literature were thus the cheapest manner possible. making war upon me, France was doing His father had refided at Potzdam in a the same upon the Queen of Hungary ; vile old house ; he turned it into a palace. and it must be owned this war was equally Potzdain became a pleasant town ; Berlin! unjuft; for after having folemnly ftipulat- grew daily more extensive; and the Pruro ed, guaranteed, and swore to the Pragmatic dans began to taste the comforts of life, Sanction of the Emperor Charles VÌ. and which the late king had entirely neglected. the succession of Maria-Theresa to the in- The scene changed as it were by magic; heritance of her father, and after having re- Lacedæmon becomes Athens; and deserts ceived Lorraine as the purchase of these were peopled ; and one hundred and three promises, it does not appear very consistent villages were formed from marshes cleared with the rights of nations to break an en and drained. Nor did he neglect to make gagement so sacred.
The Cardinal de verses and write music: I therefore was not Fleury was perfuaded out of his pacific fo exceedingly wrong in calling him, the measures; he could not say, like the King Solomon of the North. I gave him this of Prussia, it was the vivacity of his tem- nick name in my letters, and he continued per which occafioned him to take arms. long to bear it. This fortunate prelate reigned when he was
Thoughts on the praćticability of a Parliamentary Reform. "HE great object of a parliamentary such a Parliament? And secondly, What a Parliament totally independent on the For the first, innumerable have been the the Crown and its Ministers ; in which no schemes prelented to the public by real and Member shall be intimidated by power, pretended patriots, that is, by those who seduced by hopes, or corrupted by interest: have more honelty than feníc, and those this seems at present to be the chief pui fuit who have more sense than honesty. Some of all our political doctors ; the grand fpe- have been for fortening the duration of cific which alone can cure all our national Parliaments to three, fome to one year : disorders, and restore our broken constiru- fome have recommended voting by ballot, tion to its original rigour.
as the most eff. Etual method to pne an end On this important subject two questions to bribery; others have difapproved it, as offer themfeliis for oui confideration ; first, inconfiftent with that open avowal whch What are the most likely means to obtain ought to accompany every act of a British
freeman : some have proposed to annihilate settlement, and counsel learned in the law all the small and corrupt boroughs, and to be heard on both sides : if the latter, add the same number of representatives crowds so numerous, and so unknown to which they now send to the several coun the candidates, and all whom they could ties : fome to add to the counties, and not to employ to poll them, would preis into disfranchise the boroughs; others to abolish every place, where money and liquor flowthe boroughs without any addition to the ed in the greatest abundance, that the chief counties : fome to enlarge, and some to part of them might vote in ten different diminish the qualifications of the electors; places, or ten times in the same place unand others to require no qualifications at discovered ; and if these elections were anall, but to allow every man a vote, who is nual, one could not be finilhed before the not disqualified by nature, for want of rea- other began. fon, or by law, for the cominiffion of some Another reason, which perfuades me crime': but as very few have agreed in any that this scheme is impracticable, is, that one of these propositions, and no one has I cannot forelee any class of men whole been able to form any satisfactory plan out interest or inclination would not induce of them all, I Mall not here enter into any them to oppose it: the landed gentlemen discussion of their merits, or make any would not much approve, that every paucomparison between them; but shall only per, sypfy, vagrant, and least of all every fay, that of all these plans, that of giving poacher, ihould enjoy as great a share in a right of voting universally, together with the legislature as himself; the city of Lonannual elections, appears to be the most don will never content that every drayman, uniform, confiftent, and effectual : it has hackney-coachman, and chimney-fiveeper, indeed one capital defect, which is, that it hould be vested with as good a vote as the is absolutely and utterly impracticable; Jord mayor and aldermen, nor the livery be but I do not mention this as an objection, desirous of admitted fo numerous an additito far from it, that I think it is its chief on to their respectable fraternity: the corexcellence, and is what induces me to pre- porations throughout the kingdom, will nefer it to all the rest.
ver submit to have their consequence anniTo be convinced of the impracticability bilated by a participation of their privileges 1 of this scheme, let us but figure to ourselves with fo innumerable a multitude; nor do multitudes of all descriptions and denomi. I think that very multitude, or the people nations called out to exercise their right of at large, would be extremely zealous to voring, inflamed by contest anal intoxicated support it : at first, indeed, when they are by liquor ; laborers and manufacturers of told, that they thail all be legislators, cvery kind, above and under ground; obliged to obey no laws but of their own wcavers from their looms, and miners making, or paying taxes but of their own from their tinneries and coal-pits ; Sailors imposing, and that every one of them shall from their thips, and soldiers from their have as good a vote for a parliament man quarters ;--to whom we must add, thou as the fquire or the parson, and recollect sands of thieves, smugglers, rogues, va that this vote has ever been as good as reagabonds, and vagrants : I say, let us dy money; they will perhaps be a little figure to ourselves all these respectable elated and delighted with their new acquelectors, ler loose in one day throughout fition; but when they are better informed, every part of the kingdom, and such a and understand, that the intent of this scene of confusion, of drunkenness and scheme is to prevent all bribery and corrior, of rapine, murder, and conflagration, ruption, and will preclude them from rewill present itself, as must shock us with ceiving one filling or one dram of gin horror, even in imagination.
for their votes, they will rejcct this useless Nor would it be possible to carry on, or donation with contempt; and there will ever to conclude elections in which the not be a tinker, who will not choose rather poters are so innumerable, and consequence to mend a kettle for fix-pence, than the ly so unknown. They must be polled in constitution for nothing, nor a labourer, one of these two ways; they must either who will not make faggots rather than be admitted only to vote in the parishes to laws, nor a pickpocket, who will not pres which they belong, or permitted to be fer the exercise of his profession at an elecpolled in whatever place they happened, tion to giving his vote. or chose to be at the time of the election : But was this scheme of universal repre1hould the first of these methods be adopt- scntation, or any other of the proposed ed, the acceptance or rejection of every plans of reformation practicable, and purVote might be attended with the trial of a sued, certain I am, that they would not in
the least contribute to the great end, which is
the formation of an independent Parlia- ther, and it is of little signification by wri ment, because reason does not persuade me, means they come there : the majority of that electors the moft ignorant and profli- any legislative assembly, consisting of five gate, the most necefsitous and venal, would hundred and fifty members, in the same return members more incorrupt than the circumstances and situation, will infallibly present; nor does experience teach me, act in the same manner; if their lituations that ten or twenty constituents would chufe differ, their proceedings will differ with representatives less able or lefs honest than them. In the weakness of infant ftates, ten or twenty thousand. I am firmly con and in perilous times, they will be more vinced, both by reason and long experi- intent on the fasety of the community, ence, that no alteration in the mode of because their own is immediately includelection, or in the electors themselves, ed in it; but when the danger is removed, would produce a change in the elected; they will be more infuenced by the views in them lies the source of the evil, which of interest and ambition, they will split no external application can approach : into factions and parties, and lift under whether they are chosen by a greater or a contending leaders, and sometiines prefer less number, by counties or boroughs, by their intereft or their own to that of their the rich or by the poor, by ballot or by au country.
Their corruption will always dible voices, the Parliament, when asem- encrease in proportion to their power, bled, will be just the same; different because they have more to sell and are modes of election may make some differ more necessary to be bought. Those who ence in the trouble and expence of the can cannot make thift with such a Parliament, didates, and may differently affect the mo must have none, because it is impossible for sals of the people, and the peace of the any mode of election, or species of eleccountry, but will make no difference in the tors, to chuse a better, unleís they could representative body when brought toge- make men, as well as members.
Description of the City of Berne in Swifferland.
(Illustrated with an elegant View.) HE city of Berne is fingular for its objects would in any view prefent a moft
. ftreet is broad and long : the houses are greatly heightened when seen from the moftly uniform, built of a greyifh ftone midit of a large town. upon arcades, which are admirably well All the public buildings are in a moft paved. Through the middle of the street noble fimplicity of style, and announce runs a lively stream of the clearest water, the riches and grandeur of the republic. in a channel constructed for its reception: The arsenal contains arms for fixty thoubut besides this stream, it abounds with fand men, besides a confiderable quantity fountains not less ornamental to the place of cannon, which were cast here. The than beneficial to the inhabitants. The granary is an excellent jostitution, fimilar river Aar flows close by the town, and in to that of Zuric; but it differs from that deed almost furrounds it, winding its fer- of Geneva, as the expence does not fall pentine course over a rocky botiom much chiefly upon the poor ; for, the bakers are below the level of the streets; and for a not compelled by government to purchase considerable way forming by its banks, their corn from the public magazine. This which are very steep and craggy, a kind of reservoir always contains a large provision natural rampart. The cathedral church is of that commodity ; which is supplied, in a noble piece of Gothic architecture ; it consequence of particular agreements for ftands upon a platforin that has been raised that purpose, by France, Sardinia, and at a great expence from the bed of the Holland; and out of which they partly river.
furnish Geneva, Neuchatel, and Bafil
. The country around is richly cultivated, The hospitals, which are large, airy, and and agreeably diversified with hills, lawns, well built, are excellently regulated, both wood, and water; the river flows rapidly with respect to the care and attention paid below, and an abrupt chain of high and to the sick, and to the cleanliness of the rugged Alps appear at fome distance, the fereral wards. The town is kept neat by tops whereof are covered with eternal a number of felons, who are tentenced to snow. Such an anemblage of beautiful this drudgery during a certain time, ac