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The contents of ille duplicate mentioned extreme ditsatisfaction at his having gone out no it were there.

of his way to chale whilft carrying diipatches. Bartier, off Antigua, Ang. 4, 1781. But my realons for takiog any notice of thele “SIR,

· two letters are (in the firit place) the proof o the command of his Majesty's feet in which they contain of S./ George Rodory and “thetc feas, haring devolved upon me by Sir Samvel Hood having known fo biule of “ Admiral Sir G:orge Rodney's departure for the force and measures of the Count de “ England, with the King's leave, I have Gratie, that they dremed the ren ships of the «the honour to acknowledge the letters, and line then with Sir Samuel, and the iwo more “intelligence, you fint him on the 2d of which mighe join him from St. Lucia, quiie “ July by Lieutenant Delanoe, in the detine sutticient for the service of North America;

brig, whicle joined me yesterday muraing and that the latter in particular indged in this “ of St. Chrifiopher's: l'immediaiely lent manner is still more manifest from his letter “ ber ivlo Nevis Road, to complete her water of the same day (the 25th of August) to the “ with all pollible dispatch, and then to join General, where, after mentioning (as he had

me of St. John's Road, Antigua ; where I done to the Admiral, his Commander in “ expect to pick upiwo thips of the line, Chiel)," ibe number and force of bis Majely's " which I have ordered to mett me from St. “ (quadron urder his command," he very coutsi Lucia, for the purpose of going to America dently adds " and, I cruft, you will ibink ie “ with me, in order to counteract, in con equal, fully to defeat any designs of obe enemy, “ junction with the naval force under your let De Grafli bring or send what ships be " command, any delign of the Count de

may, aid to Ibufe undor De Barras*;" “ Gralle; having two days ago received both of these our naval Commanders in Wer6 pietiy authentic intelligence of tbe arrival iern India holding an opinion exaétly con“ of a number of American pilots at the formable to the incelligence of the Admiralry, “ Care, for the ule of the French Iquadron, enclosed in their dispatch of the 5th of April. “ which I thould have dispatched a vettel 10 belorementioned: although I cannot fuprole « have informed you of this dav, and of my (along with the fufpicious world) that this a intentions of proceeding directly to Ameri. was owing to an implicit reliance upon that o ca with ten sail of the line, had I not re- intelligence, without uting the best means is ceived your letters and intelligence by within their power for procuring better upon “ Lieutenant Delanoe, who shall proceed on the spot; or in any deficiency in their look, « his return to you the moment he joins me, out, the capture and care of St. Eustatius, irsi « and I expect to see him every hour. plunder and pillage, having so totally absorb.

“ My intentions were to make the Capes ed their minds as to leave no room for any “ of the Chesapeak, then those of the Dela. other ideas; either of the public weal or “ ware, and afterwards tteer for New York, aught else. In the next place, I infert these as unless I should have received orders, and letters because they prove the arrival of Mr. • intelligence, in consequence of Sir George Graves's advices by the Active long before our " Rodory's letter by the Swallow floop. I fleets departure from Antigua; and, lattly, « Thall till persevere in that plan; therefore because i hey also thew that Sir Samuel him “ Hatter myself you will deiach frigates to self had doubted, fo early as the 4th of Au. “ look out for me at the different Capes; and gust, whether the Attive, with his return to « as Sir George Rodney was unable to leave thote advices, would get to New York before o the signals he appointed to be used for his him. “ Majeity's thips of the two squadrins know No information or instructions from Eun “ ing each other, through the negligence of rope, concerning the French or the intera « bis fecretary in not taking a copy of them, tions of our own government, had come to «« or if he did not knowing where to find the Rear Admiral. None of his cruizers, a!o them, I herewith enclole you the private though many were oue, had brought any in “ lignals he established, in case the sitive selligence from the Capes of Virginia or the " "hould get to New York before me.

Chelapeak either of the enemy's, or of our " I have the honour to br, Sir,

squadron, from the Leeward 1!lands. It is " Your molt obedient humble servant, indeed now known, that Sir Simuel arrived

** S A M. HOOD. at Sandy Hook the same day that Monheur 1o Riar Almiral Grases, &c. &c."

de Graffe got off Cape Henry. The former The Alive was taken upon her return and othcer, with fourtren rail of the line, came carried into Philadelphia, so that the fore under a frelh of wind, his frigates following, going letter by Lieutenant Delanoe never and was so close upon the heels of his exprels, reached the Admiral; and Captain Wells of that he repaired also to Denyzes, where in the Swaliow, the bearer of the duplicate, who person he let the Admiral know that“ kr bad found means to make his way from Long .“ bad fifi made tbe land somewbere about ! be Itiand to New York (about the 18th of Au. 511), did not come to Mr. Graves, owing (as the young gentleman says) to ill health, wiril after the arrival of the Leeward Illand * See Sir Hemoy Clinton'í narrative (ApperIquadron, when the Admiral expressed to him dix) page 55.

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« inlct of Curriruck, from whence be bad writ lainly fince be bas p.?Ned down, as was be

ben, but that afierwards be bad pushed on " lieved, 10 Cape Francois; and ibat be bimo a ai fi as he could, and bad made no other jelf had ben seventeen days from Antigua, land until be saw the Neverfunk, und ibat baving failed from St. John's road obe 1186 be was come as soon as bis keller, wberefore of Auguft early in the mormint." This ac" it w.is of very little consequence what it con count, luch as it was, thus brought by Cap" sained*.He said he did not belicve ibe tain Ford, and Sir Samurl Hood, was the French would come will more rban fow teen first wbich the Admiral had of the Fiench fun of obe line; it was posible berever th- West Indian fleet being tailed for and pro

mybi boing eig bleen, but be did nos beneve bably gotten to some part of the coait if “ sbey wouid come cviib moe iban fourteen; North America. He directly asked Sir Sasbat be knew nothing of De Grade with cere

myel the condition of his ships, who anla wered“ obey bad a montbi good service," and

repeated itbut made no regular report, nor * The letter talhes to precijily wirbibe affer. delivered or sent any weekly account of the lion of obe part of Derbigb us to look like obe 1tate of each, until the Admiial was over the foundation of ir; and, if h, must have been bar : and, at their first meeting, thcle two jbeen to bus tordilip for ibe purpose, and pro- tag otficers remained togrther but forne fewe! bably by a person wbo knew that ibe naval Ba- hours to confult with the general, who did ronei bud carried into execution none of the in not think it neceffary to embarque any trompe, tentions wbich be bad jo specificatly bolden out provifions, or ammunition for the relief of barb to the skilviral and General. Tbe noble Lord Cornwallis. Poer, boviner, wibot considering :ba: obe ure Tise following day (the 2gih) a letter from tions of loe leuli parading men feldom quite corne Commodore Attleck came to Mr. Graves uplo ibii, words (and i bose of tbe majandoquent from New York, running thus. “ Sir S. Hood and vain-glorious neverj ventured upon juch, or " and I bave expeiled you impatien!ły this fill flgbar, aubberity, publicly in Parliament morning; as ibir cinnot be, I mujt acquaing 19 impute sbe greateji ojutancy and negdet, at

you ibal we bave intelligence to be rehed on ibe moft in posant period, 10 a military como from Philadelphia obut lin jail of the line mander abroad, wbó bad brough the course of « French avere lien tindurys ago off the Capes of bis life been dislinguished by exemplary dirigenac; Virginia, and sharibry parted company auiib attention, and circumspection, and by doing obis the reli of the feet from l'ape Fear.cois, who before a crowded audience upon a debate in obe " were gone on for Europe, about ten dy's beHouse of Lords, in presence of and unconirudicted

fore Ibey made this coali." by ibe Fill Lord of the Admiralty, bis lordshup 'The Admiral, concluding that a fortnight gave rise to fub calumny a: airfiebe Rear 4d.

must bring matters to a decision, was determiv al in every company, coifecobous, and news. mined in leek the enemy, and to fail with the paper, as lo ublige me, reulantly, under mary firit wind for the chance of falling in with dijadvantages and the mujt guarded filence oj oja one of their squadrons before joined by the fiće, to collect all ibe circumfiances wiibin my Five of his own thips of the line and knowledge wbicó any way bended to wise off so one of fifty guns were ( as i before observed) foul an ajperfion. At length 1 procured abjolute quite ready; and there were but two thips of prcof of ibe fulfily of every part of the abiertoon, iwo decks befides at New York, the Pridir? by ibe following transcrip: from the Ing. bout of and Robufe, the former of which was rarely one of Sir Samuel's line of balile kipi.

dilmantled, and otf the coreening place, and “ Saturday, 25th of Hugiati, 1781. Part the latter had no malls; and neither could be of Carolina, dutant 4 lragues.

equipped within ten days. It would hare Sunday 2616. Bearings and distanses ar bern a great satisfaction to him to have been nocn) Cape Henry S. W. * W.22 lingues.' able to take these men or war, not only for

(By wbicb bull bearing ir is plain ibey bad their rare, but because they were commanded gone past sbe Chesapeak to ibe N.' E. of it, or by the Captains Burnett and Corby, who hard touards New York, twenty-two leagues by fo recently diftinguithed their valour, under non.)

Mr. Arbuthnot, in the viry same feas. But “ Monday, 271b Auguft. Neverjunk N. 20 not a moment was to be lost'; the fate of A.

merira might depend upon a ttroke bring " Tuesday 281b. Difant Sardy Hook W. ftruck in time. A line of battle was there « N.IV. 5 leagues."

fore delivered on the zorh, and the wind fervUpon which day she whole Aret anchored off' ing the next day the Admiral proceeded over ibe bar sbere. The courte between Cape Henry the bar with his five Ships of the line and a and tbe Never funk (which is a bighs land at ibe tifty, and without anchoring pushed with the entrance of Hudson's river) is nearesi S. W. and united Aeet direaly for the Chesapeak. N. E.; and by ibe hip's reckoning at noon on On the morning of the 5th of September, the 26th of August (Cape Henry S. W. 22 between nine and ten o'clock, as the mouth leagues) Ibey were all that lengeb beyond the of the bay began to open, the frigate a head palage into the Chefspeak upon their way to- descried the enemy within it at anchor. They wards New York; and after ibat they saw no were seen from our large thips brtween ten lund uuril they goe fighe of ebe Neverfunk. and eleven within Cape Heory in Lyonbaver:


o! her.



At noon,


Bay, and were guessed to amount unto fifteen kept his thip higber to the wind than fo as to sail of the line or thereabout.

bring it upon the beam: which will account whilft we were running in, they were dile for our van and centre getting down and encerned to be getting on their way.

gaging extremely pear, whild the rear, by About a quarter after one o'clock the signal keeping teir wind, kept out of gunthor, alwas made for our leading thip (which was of though their relative puhition to the enemy aSir Samuel Hood's divifion) to lead more to bout av hour before (when the Admiral wore wards them, and our feui continued to ad his feet) was so much the reverse. Some vance as faft as possible in a line a head, un few minvies after this, the signal for closing til the thoal of the Middle Ground made it with the French was repeated; and at eleven necessary to alter that course. The wind was minutes after four che Admiral, whose conupon the ttarboard quarter; and the feet was Aant attention was to presting the enemy now formed into an east and weft line, and in hard, hauled down the signal for the line as that manner continucd to press forward until head that nothing mighi interfere with and our van was advanced beyond that of the prevent obedience to the fignal for close acFrench, who were at this time standing out tion, which had been flying for some time; of the bay, forming their line of battle upon and about a quarter after four the van and the larboard rack. This mancuvre confined centre entered into action. The thips howour thips to the steering upon a courle the ever of the van appearing not to keep themclosest that was practicable to the Moal of the felves futficiently extended, the Admiral at Middle Ground, and consequently made it ap. (wenty-iwo minutes past four hoitted anew proach the enemy in the most direct manner the fignal for the line a-head in order to push possible, at the same time that it secured the forward the ships a-head of him, some of weather-gage, and was likewise the propereft them being upon the off beam, but within line for battle when the fleet should approach five minutes he took it in, and never made it near enough to be formed upon the same tack again during the battle. The goal too fue with the enemy and enter into action with clole action was immediately repeated, the them; for, the wind being at N. N. E. it Admiral faying to his signal officer (Captain gave an east, or E. B. S. course for forming Morrice,) who had frequently drawo his at. the line of battle when upon the same tack

tention to

rear, if this will not induce with the enemy. The Prench vanguard, as obem to go into action, now ibat ibe hignal for they came without the loal of the Middle "ibe line of battle is taken doron, I know ne Ground, hauled up east, or E. B. S., which “ wbat will, and I should be forry to send a was the course thai brought their van close up. frigate to an officer wbo knows his duty ja to ours, and so near as to pass within point “ well." About a quarter after five the Giga blank of our centre. About two o'clock their nal for close action was again repeated*. NeAect disclosed itself fully to our view, and

vertheless, thewed twenty-four heavy ships of the line, which made it be believed universally that De Graffe had been joined by De Barras. A. * To prevent any misiepresentation of mine, bout a quarter after two our feet was wore, brougb cant of seamanship, I shall bere give a the pilots judging our vao guard to be in very transcript of tbe proceedings aboard sbe London, Thoal water, and (as I have fince been well as minuted down at ibe time by ibe Admiral's assured) the Alfred (our leading thip) was ac Secrelary, who sent me a copy; alıbougb is tually in no more than four fathoms. By will be intelligibic, I am afraid, to none buss wearing, the vanguard fell to Rear Admiral Sailors. Drake, and the Rear to Sir Samuel Hood, the division of which latter was at this mo

“ An account of the proceedings of the feet, ment full two miles nearer than the centre

under the command of Rear Admiral division to the enemy, who were to leeward,

Graves, in an action with the French fleet as the shoal was close to windward of us.

off Cape Henry, on the 5th of September, The Admiral continued to press his thips as

1781. much as he could down towards the enemy, “ Half past 9, A. M. the wind at N. N.E. by frequent reparitions of the signal for the the Solebay made the signal for a fleet in S.W. van to lead more towards them. About three Ar 10 Cape Henry bore W. fix leagues. Half quarters after three o'clock he flong out the path to made the ligna) to prepare for action. Signal for forming at a cable's length, one fhip Sigoal to call in all cruizers. At na discos from the other, in order to compact bis fleet. covered a fleet ar ancbor near Cape Henry, Soon after, the van of our line appearing to supposed to be the enemy. Made ihe Gignal be well formed, and many of their rear clofe for a line of battle a-bead at two cables length. in with Cape Henry, so that we could act a. At noon the King's fhips getting into their gainst their vanguard with an advantage of frations. Cape Henry W. S. four or five leathree to two, it seemed to be the favourable gues. Mnderate and fair weather. Half past momeat for attack, and the fignal was accord 12 discovered the enemy's thips getting under ingly made for each ship to bear down anden. fail. Three quarters pati 12 made the signal sage her opponent close; the Admiral indeed for the line a-head a cable's length. At i bore away more himself, for he had never haulcú down the signal for the line a-head,


vertheless, the seven scar or Bernmost of our bring up his whole-fleet, for the wind did not fhips, from some cause of which I am igno. hift materially during the fight. The firing rant, did not come at all into the engage cealed with the day. mens; and by the returo they appear to bare Had our whole line (which is by the enehad no meu killed or wounded, nor to have my allowed to have been a fine one and well received any the leaf damage: the centre and formed) pulhed into battle at once, according rear of the enemy were therefore able to ad to the Admiral's intentions and the be& adapt Yance in support of their beaten van which ¢d lignals, clearly and diftin&tly made, for had twice borne away : indeed both the van Ibe purpose ; and had cach thip closely on, and centre of the French bad continually gaged her opponent, something decisive muk edged away from us whenever we could come have bappened; and, as the French van was fairly to engage and repew.our tire, for they brohen, it must have been cut off, probably would not luffer us to remain any rime clofce caken ; and their other ships prevenied froin with them; and the Ville de Paris in particu. coming up to its affillance, and many of them lar avoided as much as follible the closing perhaps forced athore: so that their feet (psor with the London, and bore away twice for the digiously superior as it was) might upon the purpose, which mitt unquestionably have beca whole have been so far deteated, as to have done by De Grallc. 19 protract the time and been obliged gi last to ty that coaft, and muft



and made the fgnal to form an E. and W. this to be the moment of attack, made the Tine at a cable's leath. At 8 minutes pait ! lignal for the thips to bçar down and engage made the fignal for the rear divifion (Admiral cheir opponents ; filled the main topfail, and Drake) to make more sail Thự wearner in bore down to the enemy. 3 minutes after clinable to be squally, took a reef in the top. words repeated it. Ai i minutes past 4 fails. At 20 minutes paft i made the lignal hauled down the signal for the line a-head, for the leading ship to lead more to Harboard. that it might be interfere with the signal to 25 minuscs rast i re, eated the lignal for the engage cluse. As a quarter past 4ihe van and rear of ihe fleet to make more fail. Half poft center of our feet commenced the action. I the Centaur's fignal to keep her latinn. 35 22 minutes paft four hoitted the signal ao minutes patt I the tignal for sbe leading thip gain for the line ahead, the thips not being to lead more large or towards the enemy. 39 juticiently extended, 27 minutes part 4 haul. minutes paft i made the Resolution, America, ed down the signal for the line ahcadand and Bedford's signals to get into their it ar ions. made the signal for close action, 49 minutes At 2 found the enemy's free to confilt of 24 part 4 the Royai Oak's lignal to keep her itaShips of the line and two frigates, their van tion. 11 minutes past s the Montagu's fignal bearing S. three miles, ftanding in the east Lo get into her Itation. 20 minutes paft ward, with their larboard tacks on board, in a peared the signal for close action. Half past line ahead. 4 minutes salt 2, finding our van 5 ibe fear division bore down (Sir Samuel approaching ino near a thoal («alled the Mid- Houd). 35 minutes palt 5 made the Solebay dle Ground) made the preparative signal to and Fortunei's' linals to come within bail.

15 si minutes afterwards made the fignal minutes past 6 the Admiral fere the Solebay and wore together; brought to in order to let to the ships in the rear, and the Fortunée io the certer of the enemy's abips come abreast those in the van, wirb orders for the thips to

20 minutes pait 2 made the Bedford's keep in a parallel line with the enemy, and signal to get into her tation. Half part 2 well abreast of them, during the night. 23 made the signal for the leading thip to lead minutes part 6 the signal for the line a-head more to farboard (in order to approach the e at a cable's length, and hauled down the fig. nemy). 40 minuies paft 2 made the Sala- nal for clofe action. Half past 6 the fire cealmander's signal to prime, 52 minutes palt 2 ed on both fides. A quarter past 7 made the made the Royal Oak's fignal to keep the line. night signal for a line a-head at iwo cables 55 minutes paft 2 made the Terrible's fignal length alunder. At 9 the Montagu hailed, to get into her station. 56 minutes pait 2 and said she could not keep the line, being so made the Princella's Signal also, and ai 3 the much damaged. At so the Fortunée informed Alerde's fignal likewitë. At 16 minutes patt the Admiral that the Sbrewsbury had the 3 repeated the signal for the van thips to keep Caprain and many men wounded, and firft more to Itarboard (or towards the enemy.) lieutenant killed, both her topíail yards shoc At 27 minates paft 3 made the fignal for the away, and was then employed in getting one rear of the fleet to fill. Half paft 3 made the up. The Intrepid was much disabled in every figual for the thips aftern to make more fail. respect. The Princesla's main topmast was fa 34 minutes paft 3 made the fignal for the thips much wounded us to expect it every moment jo the van to keep more to starboard (or to to fall. Ar 7 Cape Henry N. W. 3 leagues, wards the enemy). 46 minutes past made " Fouad our main and foremast dangerous the signal for a line ahead at a cable's length. ly wounded, tanding and running rigging The enemy's ships advancing very flow, and moch cur, inner gammoning of the bowspris evening approaching, the Admiral, judging or througli, fails much damaged, three guns


of us.

for certain have been disabled from ever re

or extricated any of us; and then we must guning or entering the Chesapeak *. Indeed

have cut our cables, left our anchors, unless one of these two events could have been

and sud.'enly and disgracefully fied amain. compassed, nothing could be effected of any u

Our feet had neither troops nor army tility; for, had our feet engaged that of the supplies of any kind on board; and that French on different tacks, and endeavoured

part of it which had come from the Weft lato pass them and get up the bay, no good pur

dies was already very thort of provifions of pole could have been answered by it. Our both kinds: thus conditioned we could fero nineteen thips of the line would not have been

nuh nothing to Lord Cornwallis, and should futħicieve to block up the rivers James and

have added so many more mouths to be fed

from the same tender stock: the two ferYork, lying some leagues afunder, against 29 fail of superior force, which too by the arria

vices could only have mutually increased and val of the squadron from Rhode Inand would

become witneties of each other's diftreffes. foon have been augmented to thirty-six, whilst

Therefore every thought or attempt of pushon the contrary, fo numerous an enemy might

ing past the enemy and taking their anchore casily and effettually bave blocked up our ing ground, or of anchoring within them,

would in such circumftances have been worie Thips in either river, whence nothing but a bard N. W. wind could have brought away

than tritting or rath, for it would have been

Wounded. I Il
Guns difon.

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ritmounted, one of which was thrown over.

I have likewije feen sbe journals of two of ibs board, four m'n killed, and eighteen wound- officers of the Londır, Jens ra tbe Admiralty, ed. The wind from N. N. E. to N. E."

wbicb confirm ibe truths of this minute.
L I N E of B A T T L E.
The Alfred to lead with the ftarboard, the Shrewbury with

the larboard racks on board.

Divifior. 3d Alfred

Capt. Bayne

64 500

Saxton Santa Monica

Sir Samuel Hood to repeat sig- 2d Barfleur

Capt. Alex. Hood

98 768
3d Monarch


74 650

Samuel Thompson
Resolution Lord Robert Manners 74 600 3


Thomas Graves 74 600 8 14 La Nymphe to

S Rear Admiral Graves od London


4 I Capt. David Graves repeat lignals

3 3d Royal Oak Ardefoif

74 600 4



64 500 9 18

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98 800

Bart. Rear Admi

ral of the Blue. Fran. S. Drake, Tho. Graves, Erq; Sir Samuel Hood,

Rear Admiral of the Red, Com

mander in Chicf. Esq; Rear Ad. miral of the Blue


74 600 5


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* Tbe hgnal was in truth made for the two ritime fer vice bad no established signals for going frigntes, for the purpose of sending orders so the into a tiion but tbofe zbut were general, obat is, rear lo pu, h into action, and for i be van to cone one for the whole flect to engage, and another for Sinue to press ibe enemiy bard: but this cannot be it is engage close ; tbere being noe for directing done on ibe fra wieh ibe promptitude thai an aid a particuiar divilian to bear down and allack. de camp by land gallops from one part of the However, the Admiral afterwards formed a line of

an army to arciber; and it was three special signal for this purpose and delivered it quarters of an bour before the frigates came up out in orders, in addition to the jlanding code of to the London, about sunset, and 10 lute to ai. figrali. town any ibing new. Bid'at:bis oise ike me

absurd ;

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