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camels ; oxen laden with various articles ; of the Volga. This opportutunity foon a number of tents already prepared, and occurred. For a war having arisen beothers in the different states of advance- tween the Turks and the Russians, he ment; the manner of catching the hortes knew that the assistance of his nation with a long; and, lastly, a covered cart would by of great importance on either for the removal of iduis and the flags of side ; and offered his friendlhip to the their fupcistition.

Empreis of Ruifia. An agreement took The following Account of a Circaffian place between them : it was stipulated,

Princess, ine Wicum of Dandee Amuo, that the Caimucks should retnrn to the Chan of the ( aimsick lurrurs, prom neighbourhood of Afracan ; that Donduc Mr. Richardjon's Anecdotes of the Ruf. Ambolhould be their acknowledged fian Empire, will further them the fovereign; and that he should allint the Manners ani Genius of that Prople.

Rullians with forty or fifty thousand men. The Calmuck Tartars inhabit, or

The Empreis ratified the league by pre.. rather frequent, that country which lies lents sent to the Caimuck Khan. A.' bet veen the Caspian and Euxine Seas, mong these were two beautiful brass canbounded on the fouih by Circallia, on the non, of tivo or three pounders, and a icy. norih by the dominions of Rullia, on the

meter gilt with gold, ftudded with precicatt by the Caspian Sea and the Volga,

ous stones. He seized an early opportu. and on the went by the river 'Don and the nity of putting his scymneter to the proof; Sea of Aloph. Thev have no fixed habic for the Cuban Tartars, who had treated tation, but live chiefly in tents; and him with little friendship, during his 10fublilt by depredation or by the pasturage journ among them, having pursued him of cattle. They pretend they are an in

with hoftile intentions at his departure, he

fell dependent nayon; yet if they are

upon them with great fury, and cut utf ablosutely governed, their coupsels are

the Power of their army. much influenced by the authority of the

Not long after, about the time peace Rullans.

was concluded between the Turks and la the reign of the Empress Anna I. the Ruftans, Donduc Ambo died. On vanowne, the court of Rullia, by endea. his deceale, the Ruisian Ministry resumed vouring to prevail with the Calmucks to

their favourite design of abridging the berake themtelves to agriculture, and live independence of the Calmuck nation. For in fixed habitations, wanted to reduce that purpose, they again attempted to inthem to still greater subjection. In this yeft Donduc Dashee, whom Anna attempt, Donduc Ambo, the Chan of the Ivanowna had maintained in a princely Tartars, gave them great opposition. manner in the city of Casan, with the The Russian ministry, therefore, resolved fovereign authoriiy. But they met with to deprive him of his forereigury, and unexpected resistance in the widow of substitute Donduc Dafbee, who, they Donduc Ambo, the former Chan. conceived, would give them less oppofi

This Princess was a Circalfian of illuftri. tion, in his place. But the wisdom and ous lineage ; and not more diftinguished valour of the reignine prince rendered for her beauty, which was eminent even their plan abortive. He was, neverthe- in Circailia, than for her virtues. She less, fo sensible of his danger, and 10

was the mother of five children ; and justly apprehensive of the future machin. though they were yet in their infancy, ations of the Rutan Court, that he the determined to affert their right to prevailed with his nanon to leave the the fovervignty enjoyed by their father. regions they had fonnerlv occupied, and Therefore, finding herself in danger from migrate into' Buban-Tartarv. This the ambirion of Donduc Dalhee, and the country is situated on the fonih lide of contrivances of the Ruflians, the summonthe Palus Mæoris or Sea of Atoph, is cd the Calmuck chiefs to her tent. She separated it from by the Straits of Taman, represented to then the attempt made on ard its inhabitants, the Cuban Tartars, their independence ; the unworthy conare dependants on the Ottoman Porte.

due of Donduc Dashee, who would The reception, however, which Don- sacrifice the inte; eft of his people to his duc Ambo inet with from the Turks, ambition ; the magnanimous virtues of and the Tartars of Cuban, not having

their fortncr Chan bis, attachment ansivered his expectations, he determined to the digniry of the Calmuk nati10 embrace the first opportunity of re

on; the helple's state of his fainily ! uniting himself, on honourable terms,

and the contidence inc repored in the with Russia, and of returning to the banks Carc they would have of her children.

Her

Her beauty, heightened by her distress, her in her march, he was advancing boldadded force to her eloquence. The ly to the Tartar camp. Here he was met Tartar leaders entered warmly into her by fome Calmuck chiefs, who informed interests : and declared, that none but him, that the Princess insisted on his adthe progeny of Donduc Ambo should be vancing no farther ; but that the was their Sovereigns. Thus the Princess, willing to converse with any commissioner finding herfelt at the head of at least forty whom he should appoint to treat of the thousand men, who had fought the battles interefts of the Calmuck nation. He acof her husband, and were now devoted to cordingly fent one of his friends, acher family, having encainped for some quainting her that the Empress expected time nigh the banks of the Volga, re the would resign her authority to him ; tired, during the winter to the borders of and that the and her children might deCircatfia,

pend on having such provision made Meantime the Russians in the southern for them, as suited their high rank and provinces becaine apprehensive of a visit condition. The Princess, who was only from Kouli-chan, the tyrant of Persia, desirous of gaining time, and obtaining no tels famous for his conquests, than ab. information concerning the force he had borred for his cruelty. Contcious too, of brought against her, antivered, that it was their having irritated the Calmuck Prin- then late, and that next morning “ they cess, they were afraid, that in case of an should adjust their differences.” In the invasion, the Tartars would co-operate night the consulted with her chieftians ; with the Persians. It was determined, the found them refolute ; and next morntherefore, that every enginc should be ing, by sun-rife, the appeared on horseemployed to deprive her of her authority; back at the head of her army. She fell and Donduc Dashee, with those Tartars upon Donduc Dalhee. His five thoufand who adhered to him; entertained the most men made a gallant defence ; but, overfunguoie expétations of compatling their powered by numbers, the greatest part of designs. For though the Empreis Anna them were put to the sword. Intelligence was now dead, her fucceffor, Elizabeth, of this fatal conflict was brought to Åstraentered in this particular into her viwes. can by a Tartar attached to Donduc DaBut the vigilant Circassian was aware of shee. He was a person of fome distinctiher danger. She was apprehensive left on : had with him neither bow nor fcy. the Coffacks on the river D uniting meter, nor any other weapon than a with fome Circallians who had becn battle-axe. He shed a torrent of tears brought over to the interclis of her oppo- and said, his friends, and the Calmuck nents, would either betray her into the prince were slain. hands of the Russians, or oblige her to Vallce Nikitits Tatishoff was at that relinquish her authority. She therefore time governor of Astracan. He was a withdrew, very carly in the spring, to confummate politician ; and had difthe eastern fide of the Volga. Here the tinguished himself at the accession of the was in less danger of being furrounded by Empress Anna, by baffling the designs of her adversaries, and in case of their per- the Russian noblemen, who wanted to im lifting in their oppretlion, she would be pole fome terms on their Sovereign, and take herself for protection to the great na- restrict her power. He was indeed well tjon of Black Calmucks, who frequent suited to promote the views of an absolute the valt continent between the Calpian Sea prince. "Totally unprincipled, he laughand the Wall of China. She Hartered ed at every facred tie; and being addi&herself with meeting with a more friend- ed to study, he could support his immoral ly reception from them, as they were or irreligious maxims, by the reasonings probably of the same origin with the of those writers who gave countenance to western Calmucks, and of similar man- his opinions. He poslessed at the fame ners, particularly as to religious opinions, time, all the penetration, craft and dexte. than ner husband had experienced annong rity necessary for the services to which he the Tartars of Cuban.

was called. In the mean time Donduc Dalhee hav. After the discomfiture of Donduc ing received many assurances that the Dashee the Calmuck Princess returned Calmuck princess was afraid of him, and to the country usually frequented by her would, on the first appearance of force, nation, between the Don and the Volga ; give up the conteft. left Cafan with an and there was reason to believe, that the army of five thoufand men, and pursued intended, in case of any future allault, her into the defert. Having overtaken to put herself and her children under the

pro

protection of the Perfian Monarch. It A magnificent entertainment was powas necessary, therefore, that Tatishoff vided for her in the great hall in the castle should lose no cime in executing the de- She was seated at the head of the table; ligns of his Sovereign. He was fully and while Tariihoff lat at the foot, her fatisfied, since the defeat of Donduc forty Calmucks took places on cach lidc Cathee, that open violence was not to be of her. Every thing was conducted with attempted ; and had recourse to such the utmott Splendour. Tarikhoff measures as were better suited to his overjoyed; and the unsuspecting Prince's character. Trusting to his address in was too toon informed that his joy arose discerning, and adapting himself to the from a very diffentent cause than what the weakness of the female conftitution, he apprehended. For, after dinner, on present her magnificent presents ; he said tence of some business, he requered her they were from the Rulian Empress ; he to go alide with him into an adjoining affected to disapprove of her rival; and, gallery. She went along with him unatfinally, he allured her, that his Sovereign, tended. The gallery liad three doors : from the high opinion the entertained of one at each end, and one from the hall. her mcrits, had appointed her governor She had no joover entered than the doors of Afracan. He informed her, that he were thur: two grenadiers, with screwed was ready to obey her commands ; and bayonets had been placed by every one of that her powyer in that country would be them on the intide; and the was informed inferior only to that of Elizabeth Petro- in their presence, of Tatilhoff's perfidious wna. In order fill farther to impote on purpose. He told her not to be alarmed, her credulity, he forged letters as from for that no harm was intended against her the Empreis; and fent some officers of life, or that of her children, but that distinction to afiure her, that the great pa- the must be prevailed with to resign her lace in the citadel, and the palace built authority to Donduc Dalhee; and that in the neighbourhood of the city by Peter if her atiending Calmucks made any rethe Great, were ready for her reception. fiftance, it would prove fatal both to her He told her, that all respect should be and to them. The aftonishment, the shown her as if the were 'Severeign of the resuntment, and the anguish of the Princountry; and her new subjects were im- ceis, were no doubt exceflive. Yet these patient to see her invested with the badges emotions did not deprive her of recollecof her authority,

tion nor of tbe leofe of her own dignity, The Princess, in evil hour, was seduc- Her conduct in this critical fituation was ed. She quitted her retreat, and arrived luch, as did not alter the circumstances in the neighbourhood of Aftracan. of her fare, but very much leslened, if Tatishoff waited upon her in her tent, it did not entirely defroy, the triumpha He threw himself on his knees before of her betrayer. She upbraided him with ber, and seemed to ratify, by the ardour bis creachery; but absolved the Empress of his protestations, the fincerity of his from any share in his guilt; the reasoned profeffions... Accordingly a day was fixed concerning the propriety of his political for her public entry into the city. Four conduct ; the represented to him that thousand men

were drawn up in the her. hilaren were not actually in his ftreet, forming a lane from the gate to power; that the had given general inthe citadel. Cannons were fired, drums itructions to the Calinucks who had beat, bells rung, and the whole city feem- them in charge, never, cren at her requeft, ed to be filled with joy and coungratu- in whatsoever circunfance the might be, lation. The Princels walked on foot, to give then out of their hands; and attended by forty Calmucks, the chief that any violence dope to them would men of her nation. Tatilhoff and his for ever alienate the Calinuck nation officers appeared in her ruinue. The from the interefis of Russia. She told him dignity of his person, and the beauty of moreover, that the acquicfced in her face ; her countenance, excited the admiration the faw it was in vain to contend; but of the afleinbled muiritude. The con- that if the were allowed to confer with sciousness of her own integricy, and the her army, she would be able to dispole belief that her fpirited exertions, in behalf them to such an accommodation as was of her family, had procured her this dit. equally consistent with their honour, and tinction as the reward of her virtues, gave

the interests of the Russian empire. She additional dignity to her appearance. added more prevailing enticements She little know that the had fallen into a her tears flowed in abundance, and with treacherous snare.

cffectual posver, Afympathetic emosion

seized

to at

leized the heart of Tatilhoff ; he was from this merited affli&tion. The young unprincipled; but not insensible : and in Princes were indeed under the prctection that susceptible moment he yielded to her of a numerous body of Calmucks, who entreaty. The Princess's attendants re were determined to defend them. But ceived' no information concerning this they were no longer defended by the wifunexpeeted businesstill they returned with dom, the vigilance and affection of their her to the Calmuck camp—Tatilhoff mother. They fell at length into the in the mean tiine, was not so entirely hands of their enemy; and were fent, aovercome by his feelings as not long with the Princess under a strong tend to somnc prudential considerations ; guard, to Moscow. They were treated and he sent along with the Princess a there with the utmost respect. The Emguard of above five hundred men. They press gave them ample pofTefsions : the were commanded by his fon ; and armed visited the Princess ; and did every thing in the completeft manner. It would ap- in her power to render her situation agrecpear, that the Tartar forces, on this oc able. Virtuous, amiable, and respected cafion, were not very numerous, else the Calinuck Princess enjoyed as much they would have rescued the Princess felicity as was consistent with the remenfrom the hands of the Russians. But this brance of her former condition. Some upon the present occasion, they were vo circumstances of her story resemble that of able to execute.

Zenobia, the famous Queen of Palmyra ; The Princess on returning to her en- and those particulars, in which there is campment, loft no time in accomplishing anv disterence, do honour to the fair the fight of her children : the herself Circaflian. was taking measures for her own efcape ; le does not appear that Donduc Dathee was mounting her horse at midnight ; ivas was able, or perhaps entirely willing, to discovered ; and kept afterwards in clo- accomplish the change fo much defired by fer confinement. In this situation, how. the Rullians, in the manners of the Calever, exulting inwardly in the supposed muck nation. Nor is it probable, that safety of her children, she appeared rather Tatishoff had much reason to rejoice in with the dignified filence of fallen ma bis impious maxims. Successful in one jesty, than with the pla:ntive forrow of perfidious enterprize, he attempted oamicted weakness. By the dignity of her thers : and while he supported, as he apdeportment the awed the forwardnels of prehended, the interests of the empire, young Tatiloff, who was fufpected of he was not inattentive to his own prihaving offered her insult; and compelled vate emolumnents. He became solicitous him, by her indigeant referve, to behave of amaiting wealth. Sellish and unprinwith humiliating distance.

cipled, he proceeded from injustice io vie Meantime the Governor of Afracan olence and inhumanity. Among other repented him of his fenfibility. The enormities, he plundered and put to death generality of mankind who futcr fell an Armenian merchant. The affair was condemnatiou, are afflicted on account of represented at St. Petersburgh. Enquiry their errors ; but Tarilhoff suffered self was made ; and his guilt appeared fo macondemnation for having given indulg- nifeft, that he was divested of his comence to somewhat of a generous emotion. mand, and confined to a village in the He argued, he intreated, he folicited his neighbourhood of Moscow. He endeacaptive (for, though in the Tartar camp voured to get an audience of his fove. the was still his captive), to learn from reign; and did not doubt but that his in. her what she had done with her children. finuations and address would procure him He fent troops in pursuit of them; he forgivenness. But those who were intefcoured the defart with his Coffacks; but rested in his fall opposed the means of bis in vain. She finiled at his distrets : the restoration. Once, in the disguise of a told him he might do with her what he foldier, he had alrcady reached the palace ; pleafed ; but the children of Ambo were but was deteéted, dragged away, and no longer in his power. His chagrin fent back to his place of confinement. He preyed on his conftitution ; and his ap- did not die a violent death; but, possespetite left him; he durft not, for fear of sed of keen sensibility, he suffered pangs making the whole Calmuck nation revolt, more excruciating than the pain perhaps ufe the Princets with inhumanity ; yet he of such a death. Devoured with chagrin vas decply mortilied and covered with he blafphemed heaven, fpoke treason Thame for his disappointment.

against his Sovereign, calumniared all men Neverthelefs he was too foon rclicved pined in difcontent, and died of vexation.

ance.

voven

corton.

as

From Colonel Capper's Observations on a Patage to India, I hos legebenaria Putin anpieber and

in the skins of animals, India abounds in mongit the learned, both ancient and vast forests and extensive fertile plains, modern, that the Egyptians were acquaint- where animals of all kinds both favage and ed with the arts and sciences, when all tame, must have bred infinitely falter than the other people were in a state of ignor- in the barren delerts of upper Egypt ; but

We are told they discovered in a hot country the natives would nageometry in making the divisions of land, turally prefer' garments made of after the annual overflowing of the Nile;

Now the cotton shrub is very that the clearners of their atmosphere enabl rare in Egypt, even at this time, and it ed them to make altronomical obfervations is well known to have grown in India, sooner than other people ; and that there and to have been fabricated into cloth fertility of their country gave rise to trade, ever since we have had any acquaintance by enabling them to supply all their with that country. From thele premises, neighbours, with core and other necef- therefore it is natural to suppole, that the faries of life. These arguments are how- Indians in the early ages were much more cver more specious than true for if we owe likely to supply the Egyptians with the nethe discovery of geometry to the overflow.. cefTaries and comforts of life, than to ing of the Nile; of astronomy to the clear- be jupplied by them; that the Indians ness of the atmosphere, and of trade to would at Icait have as much occasion the fertility of the foil, in that part of for geometry

the Egyptians ; Hindoftan which is within the tropic, there and that they had at least equal if are still larger rivers which overflow

not greater advantages for pursuing the annually, a clearer sky, and a more fertile ftudy of astronomy. Thus far however foil. The Nile only once a year affords a all is but conjecture; for we

have no supply of water to the countries on its tradition or history of those times when banks, and the small quantity of rain either the Egyptians or the Indians were that falls there at other times; does not in an uncivilized state ; but if we pursue furnish moisture enough to keep up the the fubject we shall find very evident finallest degree of vegetation. Whereas proofs that when an intercourse did take the rivers in Hindoftan particularly those place between them, that the Egyptians on the coast of Coromandel, are regular- received from Hindoftan all those articles ly filled with water twice a year, first of luxury, which the Greeks and Romans from the rains which fall in June, July purchatch again from them. and August, in the Balagať mountains, It was formerly suppoted that most of where the sources of those rivers lie ; and these articles came from Arabia Felix, but afterward from the N. E. monfoon or this error has long since been exploded. rainy seafon, which continues on the It is now well known they were nonc Coromandel coaft during the months of of them the produce of Arabia, but Oktober, November and December. With were brought thither by vessels from Inrespect to the goodness of the climate, or dia, and from thence were carried up that the clearness of the atmosphere for the Red Sea with other productions of the purpose of astronomy, there can

be no country. comparison between Egypt and Hindoftan ; I am well aware that the advocates for for at night during the greater part of the Egypt will call upon me to produce any year in Hindoftav there is searcely a cloud remains of antiquity in India fo ancient to be seen in thc sky, and the air especially as the Pyramids. To thele gentlemen I in the southern countries is never dir hall oppose one impoffibility to another, agreeably cold, fo that an astronomer by asking them to trace back the building would have every opportunity and induce- of Gour, which seven håndred and thirty ment to pursue his studies in the open air, years before Christ was the capital of Bengal whereas in Egypt the sky is often cloudy, or of the better known Paliborhra of the and the air to cold as to make it un ancients, which was the capital of India pleafant to be out of doors after fun-fet. long before Alexander's time. As a The Indians had also very evidenciy

the further proof that the natives of Hindoftan advantage of the Egyptians with respect to were in an advanced state of civilization cloathing, which is one of the necessaries, near two thousand years ago, I shall also or at lealt one of the comforts of life ; for beg leave to observe that a plate of copper if we suppose men first cloached themselves was lately dug up at Mongheer, engraved Vol. VI. April 1984

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